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No.1032 February 2023

Article
Maritime Regime under the Ottoman Empire and Venice: As Viewed through the Articles of “Piracy” in Ahdnâmes and nişan-ı hümâyûnSUEMORI Haruka(1)
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Summary

Maritime Regime under the Ottoman Empire and Venice:As Viewed through the Articles of “Piracy” in Ahdnâmes and nişan-ı hümâyûn

SUEMORI Haruka

The maintenance of a maritime regime suppressing piracy was the one of the main diplomatic topics between the Ottoman empire and the European countries for a long period. The details of this regime were regulated by ahdnâmes, diplomatic documents issued by the Ottomans to the Europeans. Among the European states, Venice occupied a leading position in diplomatic relations with the Ottoman empire. With this view, this paper focuses on the case of the maritime regime as it was negotiated between the Ottomans and Venice. In recent works, the formation of this regime up until end of the sixteenth century has been well discussed, but research on the regime in the seventeenth century is still inadequate. This is despite the increase of “piracy,” particularly that of Magribian corsairs during this century. This problem became so severe that it led to a break-down in diplomatic relations between the two states in the 1630’s, as represented by the Avlonya Incident. This paper examines the articles of “piracy” in ahdnâmes and nişan-ı hümâyûn, another document issued to Venice after the Avlonya Incident, to make clear the formation process of the maritime regime mainly directed against Magribian corsairs during the seventeenth century. In this revised framework, Magribian corsairs were positioned in the traditional framework of the maritime regime, which emphasized the role of Ottoman local officials in anti-“piracy” practices.

No.1031 January 2023

Special Issue: Social History of Book Collections (III)
Articles
Knowledge Formation and Collection Culture in Early Modem JapanKUDO Kohei(1)
“Local Libraries as Repositories of "Knowledge" in the Meiji Era:
The Case of the Hachinohe Book Library
SUZUKI Yoshitoki(12)
Articles
The Funeral Rites of the Emperor and Nyoin in the Early Modern Periods and the Monzeki Temples:
Focusing on the Movemenst within Monzeki Temples of Tendai Jimon Sect Related to "Hogan-goyo"
SATO Kazuki(25)
Notes and Suggestions
Korean Women's Movement and Japanese Military Sexual Slavery after the Colonial Liberation:
A Perspective on the Japanese Military "Comfort Women" Issue from the Historical Study of the Korean Women's Movement
RI Ryongsil(43)
Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (1)
Considerations on the Significance of the Activities of Academic OrganisationsHARADA Keiichi(55)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
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Information Warfare on a ‘pledge' Not to Expand NATO into the EastYOSHITOME Kota(62)
Recent Publications(64)
Announcement
Notice of Amendments to the Regulations on Journal SubmissionsThe Committee(67)

Summary

Knowledge Formation and Collection Culture in Early Modern Japan

KUDO Kohei

This paper evaluates the libraries as an organization of information and knowledge that has been intentionally selected and systematized by the builder of the collection in response to the specific awareness of issues and interests of individuals, families (ie) and groups. Thereafter, through an analysis of library catalogs, which represent the owners' perception of the collection, this paper elucidates the actual situation of the formation, accumulation, and inheritance of knowledge in early modern Japanese society. A major feature of the collections is that a variety of information and knowledge (documents, compilations, books, objects), such as practical and customary aspects, region-specific aspects, aspects relating to political economy that transcends regions and hierarchies, and academic and universal aspects are managed in an integrated manner, and multifaceted knowledge has been constructed through mutually complementary relationships between the varying aspects. In addition, the overemphasis on individual collection composition due to awareness of issues and specialization has realized the construction of comprehensive knowledge through mutual complementation in local communities. Although the composition of this way of knowledge varied according to each individual's position, it can be confirmed beyond social status, occupation, and gender differences, and can be said to be a characteristic intellectual activity since the early modern period (collection culture).

Local Libraries as Repositories of "Knowledge" in the Meiji Era: The Case of the Hachinohe Book Library

SUZUKI Yoshitoki

The libraries in the Meiji period were said to be formed on the premise of the early modern use of books, and to have become the prototype of the modern public library. However, there is no study that details the formation process and social significance of the collection based on regional and historical characteristics. In particular, since many parts of local libraries remain unclear, I took up the Hachinohe Book Library (the predecessor of the Hachinohe City Library) as an example and examined it in detail. I summarized that the collection in the Library was imprinted with the persistence of "knowledge" unique to the Hachinohe Domain, the influence of the educational policies of the 1870s, and the changes in the trends of thought in the Hachinohe Town area. In addition, I clarified that the Library had inherited and expanded the collection of the early modern book lending organization and played a role in spreading the "knowledge" unique to the Hachinohe domain area, and concluded that there was a social significance similar to that of the private libraries of the “kyushizoku" after the 1890s. Furthermore, I pointed that the Library was used to promote "national essence" (kokusui) and, like other "kyushizoku" educational institutions, supported the military expansion of Imperial Japan.

The Funeral Rites of the Emperor and Nyoin in the Early Modern Periods and the Monzeki Temples: Focusing on the Movemenst within Monzeki Temples of Tendai Jimon Sect Related to "Hogan-goyo"

SATO Kazuki

This paper examines Monzeki門跡 temples of Tendai Jimon Sect天台宗寺門派 from the viewpoint of the issue of "Hogan-goyo"宝龕御用 in imperial funeral rites.

Senior officials of the Onjoji Temple園城寺長吏 were entitled to manage "Hogan-goyo" in the Genna元和 period. In the latter half of the seventeenth century, a system in which Jissoin実相院 differentially managed it became firmly established. In the Genroku元禄, Hoei宝永, Horeki宝暦 period, although disputes arose between Jissoin and Onjoji, the imperial court authorized Jissoin to manage "Hogan-goyo". However, the imperial court decided to return to the principles of the Genna period in 1795, which granted Onjoji the authority to manage "Hogan-goyo". This decision was approved by Jissoin through the compromise between Shogoin聖護院 and Jissoin in 1813.

Monzeki temples of Tendai Jimon Sect in the late early modern period were forced to maintain and assert their own functions due to the fact that Buddhist memorial services for the imperial family at court were limited to those led by Tendai Sanmon Sect天台宗山門派, and Monzeki temples of Tendai Jimon Sect were becoming Sekke-monzeki摂家門跡 and lacked abbots. Following the change in the Kansei-Bunka寛政~文化 periods, “Hogan-goyo" was reinterpreted as a ritual which should be maintained by the entirety of Tendai Jimon Sect, in response to the fear that "Hogan-goyo" would be ordered to other sect.

Korean Women's Movement and Japanese Military Sexual Slavery after the Colonial Liberation: A Perspective on the Japanese Military "Comfort Women" Issue from the Historical Study of the Korean Women's Movement

RI Ryongsil

Understanding the relationship between the "regulated prostitution system" and the Japanese military "comfort women" system has long been a major point of contention in the study of the Japanese military "comfort women" system.

This paper aims to clarify the perspective of the women's movement on this topic by focusing on the development process of the Korean women's movement that pursued "women's liberation."

This article confirms the following perceptions from the standpoint of the women's movement: First, Japanese imperialism was responsible for the structure of sexual exploitation and sexual violence during colonial rule, from the "regulated prostitution system" to the Japanese military "comfort women" system. Second, this structure emerged as an issue that had to be addressed in the process of building an independent nation. Important "testimonies" of the victims of Japanese military sexual slavery emerged during the process of developing the women's movement based on this understanding.