No.1043 December 2023
|Special Issue: Regional History Reconsidered from the Perspective of "Multiple Voices”（II）|
|Local Cosmology as a Key to Understand Rural China: Thinking of the Belief in the Great King in Yu-County, Shanxi.||ISHII Yumi||(1)|
|Sikh Communities in Britain and the Continuation of the Caste System: A Case Study of Sikh Temples (Gurdwaras) in Multi-Ethnic Leicester||SATO Kiyotaka||(14)|
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (10)|
|The Historical Science Society's "Position from the Perspective of World History."||OZAWA Hiroaki||(27)|
|Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)|
|INOUE Masami, The Transformation of Ancient Japanese Emperors: The Formation Process into the Medieval Emperor||KUROHA Ryota||(31)|
|Critical Reviews on the Papers Presented at the 2021 Annual Meeting of the Society|
|Plenary Session||KAKINUMA Yohei,|
|Medieval History Section||KAWAI Yasushi,|
|Early Modern History Section||KOSEKI Yuichiro||(40)|
|Modern History Section||NOMURA Mari||(43)|
|Contemporary History Section||NUMAJIRI Akinobu,|
|Joint Section||TOGAWA Masahiro,|
|Special Section||SAKIYAMA Naoki,|
|Ethical Code of The Historical Science Society of Japan||(58)|
|Nos.1031–1043 (January–December 2023)||(59)|
Local Cosmology as a Key to Understand Rural China: Thinking of the Belief in the Great King in Yu-County, Shanxi.
This paper is an attempt to examine the cosmology that envelops the rural areas of Yu County, Shanxi Province, China, in order to discuss how the region has been shaped by it. In Yu-County, people worshiped Zhao Wu, as a deity of rain, who is the main character of “Orphan of Zhao” , an ancient story recounting events in the history of this area. Each village in this region takes a small statue of Zhao Wu, which has curved more than 100 and each of them has been shared in some villages, back to their own village to pray for rain. This movement of the statue between villages has historically created a network based on rainmaking. Although rain-making activities were politically banned after the establishment of the PRC due to the Anti-superstition Movement and the Cultural Revolution, it was revitalized in various parts of Yu-County in the 1980s. The author conducted oral history research to reveal how the rain-making activities survived and revived after the end of the collectivization of socialist China and the modernization that accompanied it, thereby drawing out the variable and elastic nature of the region. The patterns of thought and behavior of the people which make up the nature of these rain-making communities originate from the tale of “Orphan of Zhao”, and it can be argued that the story has become woven into people's perceptions over a long period of time and that it has been deeply involved in community building through rainmaking.
Sikh Communities in Britain and the Continuation of the Caste System: A Case Study of Sikh Temples (Gurdwaras) in Multi-Ethnic Leicester
According to the 2001 Census, there are around 336,000 Sikhs in Britain, living mainly in the Greater London area and the Midlands. After the Second World War, significant numbers of Sikhs migrated to Britain from the Punjab region in India and via East Africa (mainly Kenya and Uganda). As the Sikh population has increased, distinct Sikh communities have constructed temples, or ‘Gurdwaras’, around which social and religious life revolves. The purpose of the current article is to explore the varied historical processes involved in the development of Sikh communities in Britain through the history of the four Sikh temples in Leicester, a city in the English Midlands often held up as an exemplum of multiracial tolerance.
As a Japanese Historian, I have approached this topic by interviewing members of the Sikh communities described, and I have focussed in particular on the ways in which caste issues have generated divisions between the Sikh communities studied. I also demonstrate how Sikh communities are grouped and classified in complex ways, and observe that their history cannot be fully understood without the reference to the continued existence of the caste system.
No.1042 November 2023
|Special Issue: Regional History Reconsidered from the Perspective of "Multiple Voices" (I)|
|Preface||the Editorial Board||(1)|
|Codified Nature and Villages: Reed in the Lake Biwa Region||HASHIMOTO Michinori||(2)|
|The Regionality of Fishermen's Knowledge and Life Experiences Focusing on the Transition from the Early-Modern to the Modern Period||NAKAMURA Shingo||(14)|
|History as a Means of Survival: Memories of Former Domain Society in Modern Japan||MIYAMA Junichi||(24)|
|"Local Public" Management and the "Proletarian" Political Camp in Cities at the Start of Universal Manhood Suffrage: The Case of Hachioji City, Tokyo Prefecture||NAKAMURA Moto||(35)|
|Views and Reviews|
|Responsibility for War and Colonialism in War Memories: Rethinking Japan-Guam Relations||NAGASHIMA Reo||(46)|
|Gentrification Destroys Archives of the Past/Future: For a Fair "Doing History" Pitted Against Neo-liberalism||HOJO Katsutaka||(54)|
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (9)|
|Prewar and Postwar: the "Scientific Nature" of Rekiken||SHIMOMURA Shutaro||(66)|
|The "Rekiken Style" and the Future of Rekiken and Historical Research||KITAMURA Akeo||(70)|
|Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)|
|HIGUCHI Yuichi, Korean Peasants under Colonial Rule: The Case of Gangwon Province||JANG Yoongoal||(74)|
Codified Nature and Villages: Reed in the Lake Biwa Region
I propose "regional environmental history" as a framework for historically understanding the totality of relations between nature and human beings, attempting to concretize this notion based on the four hypotheses of village theory, livelihood theory, consumption theory, and view-on-nature theory. This paper focuses on reed in the Lake Biwa region in an attempt at joining perspectives on nature theory with livelihood and consumption theory.
Firstly, focusing on the production of brand rice in Suwara (Yasu City), a small "village" in the Lake Biwa region, I point out that other "villages" like Maruyama (Omihachiman City) also produced specialty products in the 17th century.
Next, I look at the "code" of reed, inferring that the "code" initially indicated something crude but later shifted to symbolizing affluence in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Finally, examining the conflicts over reed in Hyozu Town (Yasu City), including Suwara, in the 15th and 16th centuries, I clarify that reed was cultivated and reaped in a cycle entirely different from today's reed production cycle, but that it was overcome through the combined management of the "villages."
The Regionality of Fishermen's Knowledge and Life Experiences Focusing on the Transition from Far the Early-Modern to the Modern Period
In this paper, I discuss the nature of fishermen's knowledge mainly during the transition from early-modern to modern Japan as well as the stance of the people investigating it (researchers), doing so from the perspective of "the regionality of knowledge." An important premise for the discussion here is the life experiences of people in the region. Fishing knowledge is understood to be a form of knowledge that stems from regional life experiences. As such, I further the discussion with following key points based on a number of regional cases. Firstly, there is the basic structure of fishing knowledge. Fishing knowledge can be broadly divided into knowledge about the natural environment and knowledge about the social environment and institutions, also reflecting social hierarchies. Secondly, there are the dynamisms and individual specificity of fishing knowledge. I describe the gentle transformation of fishing knowledge as a customary order during the transition from the early-modern to the modern period. Moreover, I point out that it possesses individual specificity owing to being knowledge stemming from life experiences. Thirdly, there are the difficulties and possibilities of framing empirical knowledge, such as regional common sense, which is difficult for "strangers" (outsiders) to recognize and understand as they come from other temporal or spatial contexts.
History as a Means of Survival: Memories of Former Domain Society in Modern Japan
This paper is an attempt to consider the role of "the history of a region" by examining memories of the former domain (han) society in the formation of modern Japan. Recently, progress has been made in research on the bonds maintained between the former daimyo, his retainers and their former subjects, in other words domanial social structure, after the abolition of the domains in 1871. This research has made it clear that in order to "modernize" society in former domains, the social "legacy" of the old domain played an integral role in this process. In particular, it is well-known that in areas where support from the new governmental administration was inadequate, local communities approached the household of the former daimyo to request financial support. This kind of relationship had no formal institutional basis. In modern Japan, former domain society was a fictional community created by people who had lost their social foundations. In order to maintain this community, memories were needed to support its identity. This paper examines the meaning of these regional memories from the perspective of the local communities that were the bearers of these memories, using cases from the former Ogaki and Matsushiro domains. I conclude that the memory of the former domain society was a form of practical “history” needed to support that survival of people in these communities.
“Local Public” Management and the “Proletarian" Political Camp in Cities at the Start of Universal Manhood Suffrage: The Case of Hachioji City, Tokyo Prefecture
In this paper, taking the example of Hachioji City, Tokyo Prefecture, I examine the debate on "local public" management in the cities during the period immediately after the start of universal manhood suffrage. This study examines the voices of the political camp that came to be seen as "proletarian" after achieving political participation following the abolition of tax payment requirements (hereinafter, the "proletarian" political camp); I also discuss the significance of that debate. Through this examination, I point out that the "proletarian" political camp, now participating in "local public" municipal management, played a role of expanding the scope of social policies implemented there, improving their contents. Moreover, I take clues from their debate to focus on what may be termed "others" in municipal government, barred from political participation under universal manhood suffrage, pointing out how the "proletarian" political camp "spoke for" the "others" in municipal government and the need to note its political nature.
Responsibility for War and Colonialism in War Memories: Rethinking Japan-Guam Relations
This paper analyzed articles in Japan's leading national newspapers (the Asahi Shimbun, the Mainichi Shimbun, and the Yomiuri Shimbun) from the 1960s to the 1980s dealing with Guam. During this period, many articles related to Guam were published due to the discovery of former Japanese Army soldiers who had refused to surrender, and the rapid increase in Japanese tourists. The analysis shows that in the articles that dealt with the Asia-Pacific War, there was almost no mention of the hardships of Guam residents under Japanese occupation or after the end of the war. In Japan's collective memory of the occupation of Guam, the aspect of atrocities, including massacres, was deleted, and the aspect of damage that many Japanese soldiers died was emphasized. This meant that there was almost no awareness of war and/or colonial responsibility towards Guam in Japanese society at that time. This has resulted in Japanese society's indifference to recent developments in the Guam war claims issue. However, it should be noted that against the background of deepening critical awareness of the Cold War regime, there was a movement in the 1980s to seek solidarity or coalitions in social movements between Guam and Japan on issues such as war reparation for Guam.
Gentrification Destroys Archives of the Past/Future: For a Fair "Doing History" Pitted Against Neo-liberalism
The destruction of Tokyo's central wholesale market, Tsukiji Market, in 2018 by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government goes against recent trends in cultural property administration, including the "Basic Concept for History and Culture" and the "Regional Plan for the Protection and Utilization of Cultural Properties," which together emphasize the conservation and utilization of cultural properties, including those not yet designated.
Since then, redevelopment projects promoted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in various areas have destroyed the historical information encapsulated in these locations, which can be called the "memory of place." In this memory is imbedded historical information which links the past and future, and which is both the product of and a future possibility of interactions between a multitude of actors, both animate and inanimate. This loss creates an environment conducive to spreading historical revisionism. For example, in the redevelopment of the Meiji Shrine Outer Garden (Meiji Jingu Gaien), the Tokyo Metropolitan Government I pushing through gentrification based on "Celebration Capitalism," but the historical and cultural landscape of this park retains conspicuous marginal features nurtured in the suburbs of the early modern city of Edo ― an enormous amount of information accumulated that can be considered the basis of the public nature of this area ― is on the verge of being erased without any forethought.
We must fully engage the mass media and civil society cooperate in proposing a new framework to involve all interested parties in properly-informed consensus building. Such a framework would need to include provisions to strengthen legal penalties for violations of laws regulating the preservation and utilization of cultural properties.
No.1041 Extra Edition October 2023
The Annual Meeting of the Society in May 2023
Pasts which Bind to the Present / Pasts not Bound to the Present
|Pasts which Bind to the Present / Pasts not Bound to the Present||TAKATANI Chika|
|Medieval History Section|
|Governance System and Order in Medieval Japan||HORIKAWA Yasufumi|
|Early Modern History Section|
|Social Change in the Late Modern Period: From Awareness of and Responses to "Crisis"||SATO Daisuke|
|Modern History Section|
|Social Change and People||KUROKI Hidemitsu|
|Contemporary History Section|
|Social Movements, Environment, and Democracy: In Search of a Popular Image in the Neoliberal Era||ANDO Takemasa|
|Urban Space from the Perspective of Objects||SAKATA Michio|
|Connecting History and Society: From Workshops to Crowdfunding||ISHII Hitonari|
No.1040 October 2023
|Special Issue: New Trends in the Study of the History of Temple Societies|
|Preface||the Editorial Board||(1)|
|Summary and Prospects of the Mini-Symposium "New Trends in the Study of the History of Temple Societies”||SOMA Kazumasa||(2)|
|Issues in and Prospects for the Social History of the Medieval Temple Community: Focusing on the General Assembly (soji) of Todaiji Temple||MIWA Shinji||(8)|
|Warrior Priests and Non-Killing||OTANI Yuka||(18)|
|Political Status of Daigoji Sanpoin Temple as seen in Toji Temple in the Muromachi Period||HAYASHI Haruka||(30)|
|The Background to the Development of American Studies in Japan: Focusing on Perceptions of America in Business and Academia after the Russo-Japanese War and on the Content of the Research of Takagi Yasaka||WATAI Seiichiro||(40)|
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (8)|
|What is the role of Rekiken?||NITO Satoko||(56)|
|Invitation to the Buddhist Service: Medieval Temple Service as Decoded from “Shomyojishogyo, kanazawabunkomonjo”: Kanagawa Prefectural Kanazawa-Bunko Museum||SOMA Kazumasa||(59)|
Issues in and Prospects for the Social History of the Medieval Temple Community: Focusing on the General Assembly (soji) of Todaiji Temple
This study presents a perspective on the temple community by examining studies on Todaiji Temple, followed by a summary of the current status of literature on the General Assembly of Monks (soji) and related issues, which have been a major theme of studies on Todaiji Temple. Further, this study discusses the characteristics of the authority of the General Assembly by examining the practice of nyujichi.
The paradigms for research on the temple community that have been presented in the vast amount of literature on medieval Todaiji Temple include studies on the temple’s structure and organization, archives, and services and rituals. The General Assembly, the central organization of the medieval Todaiji Temple, has been studied primarily for its structure and organization. Previous studies on the assembly have brought to light three key issues: (1) the stages involving the establishment of the assembly, (2) the state of organization in temple management, and (3) the characteristics of the authority of the General Assembly.
This study examines nyujichi, a theme related to the third issue mentioned above. Nyujichi is a practice in which the General Assembly impounded offerings made to scholar monks for performing rituals as surety that the monks would abide by the temple’s decisions. This practice reflected a division among monks. It is one of the characteristics of the authority of medieval temples.
Warrior Priests and Non-Killing
Warrior priests, Buddhist priests who took up arms to fight, have long been depicted as villains who had forgotten what it meant to be a priest. However, this study points out that they may have been recognized in the temple community as practitioners of the Bodhisattva Precepts taught in Buddhist scriptures.
Buddhism in East Asia, including in Japan, held that Mahayana Buddhism was the true intention of Buddha and held up living as a Bodhisattva as an ideal. Mahayana Buddhist texts such as the Nirvana Sutra and the Yogacarabhumi-sastra teach that practitioners of the Bodhisattva Precepts should intentionally break Buddhist discipline and take up arms to defend Buddhist doctrines and save people. In addition, regarding the prohibition on the possession of weapons taught in the Brahmajala Sutta, many commentaries provide an interpretation based on the above teaching that the possession of weapons does not constitute breaking the precepts if it is to defend Buddhist doctrines or save people. Thus, according to these teachings, the existence of warrior priests was not a violation of Buddhist Precepts. They were likely applauded for practicing the Bodhisattva Precepts and intentionally “committing sins” to preserve the temple and its teaching.
Political Status of Daigoji Sanpoin Temple as seen in Toji Temple in the Muromachi Period
This study elucidates the political status of Daigoji Sanpoin Temple by examining its relationship with Toji Temple during the Muromachi period.
Sanpoin served as an intermediary when Toji Temple brought lawsuits to the shogunate. It also transmitted orders from the shogunate to Toji Temple. These activities of Sanpoin were based firstly on its status as a monzeki of the Shingon sect, to which Toji Temple belonged (monzeki were temples whose abbot was either a member of the Imperial Family or a high-ranking aristocrat). Secondly, abbots of Sanpoin Temple held the status of personal chaplains of the shogun, and through this office maintained regular interactions with the shugo (military governors). The activities of Sanpoin Temple can be dated from the beginning of the 15th century until after the Onin War in the 1480s. These activities were carried out regardless of whoever assumed the position of jimu (chief manager) at Toji Temple. Therefore, the role played by Sanpoin was based on informal relationships.
In the Muromachi period, Daigoji Sanpoin Temple also served as an unofficial intermediary in prayers for the shogun and in negotiations between the imperial court and the shogunate. Daigoji Sanpoin Temple’s interaction with Toji Temple was a part of these unofficial activities under the Muromachi shogunate.
The Background to the Development of American Studies in Japan: Focusing on Perceptions of America in Business and Academia after the Russo-Japanese War and on the Content of the Research of Takagi Yasaka
This paper examines the background the rise of American studies in Japan.
Prior to World War I, the business world mainly viewed the U.S. in terms of its economic power, and had a favorable and realistic perception of the country. The academic world, in contrast, was skeptical and critical of the U.S., partly due to the influence of Europe. On the other hand, Nitobe Inazo insisted that when studying the U.S. one should try to stand in the other side's shoes and understand its good points.
Takagi Yasaka began his studies of America with Nitobe’s recommendation in mind. Takagi had absorbed the principles of American Progressivist opinions through his previous study of economics. He recognized that American democracy had come to emphasize the common interests of society. In addition, when he touched upon the issue of Japanese Immigrant Exclusion, he took the situation in the United States into consideration.
From the above, I conclude that the development of specialized American studies in Japan was not only due to changes in political and social conditions after World War I, but also by earlier understandings of the U.S. and the academic experiences of the researchers.
No.1039 September 2023
|Views and Reviews|
|Reflections on the New Translation of Carr's What is History? |
(Iwanami Shoten Publishers, 2022)
|Series: Writing History (2)|
|History, Literary Texts and Representation: Pathways to Emotional History||HASEGAWA Mayuho||(8)|
|The Joy of Telling Stories about History||TSUKIYAMA Kei||(17)|
|[Interview] Between Historical Novel and Historiography||SATO Kenichi||(24)|
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (7)|
|Looking Back from the Late 80's||TAKAZAWA Norie||(37)|
|Committee Activities as a Place for Researchers to Grow||KOJIMA Shigetoshi||(41)|
|Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)|
|KAYABA Masahito, Forests and Local Communities in Early Modern and Modern Eras||TAKIMOTO Hisafumi||(45)|
|MASE Kumiko, Early Modern Imperial Court Authority and the Relationship between Temples, Shrines, and the People||INOUE Tomokatsu||(48)|
|OHSAWA Hiroaki, Japan and the Sino-Japanese War in the Meiji Era: The Development of the East Asian Order Concept||SASAKI Yuichi||(51)|
|AGA Yujiro, The Power of the King and the Surrounding World in Early Modern France: Between Kingdom and Empire||MISE Haruka||(55)|
|The Society's Report|
|Report on the 2023 General Assembly||The Committee||(59)|
No.1038 August 2023
|Conscription Rituals and Taiwanese Physical Memories of War in Postwar Taiwan||CHEN Chihkang||(1)|
|Lloyd George’s Strategy for ‘Social Reform’: the Political Idea behind the National Health Insurance 1911||UMEDA Kento||(15)|
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (6)|
|How to Strengthen the Ties between Organizations related to Historiography: My Experiences in the Japanese Historical Council||ASADA Shinji||(32)|
|Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)|
|NISHIMOTO Masahiro, Political Changes and Succession to the Throne in the Early Heian Period||KAMIYA Masayoshi||(36)|
|FUKAI Masaumi, A Study of the Structure and Rituals of the Edo Castle Palace: Authority and Order Displayed in Space||FUKUTOME Maki||(39)|
|MIYAKE Tsugunobu, Political Processes during the Meiji Restoration||KISHIMOTO Satoru||(41)|
|YOSHIZAWA Seiichiro, Patriotism and Boycotts: Regional Contexts of Modern China and Relations with Japan||IDE Takumi||(45)|
|UEDA Akira, Cotton Cultivation and Nomads in Modern Central Asia: A GIS-based Economic History of Fergana||SHIOYA Akifumi||(48)|
|Gaya―The History of Co-Existence in Ancient East Asia of The National Museum of Japanese History||HATANAKA Ayako||(52)|
|Statement on the Japanese Government’s Response to the Issue of the Forced Mobilization of Koreans (“Drafted Workers” Issue)||(60)|
|We Support the Statement of the Science Council of Japan “Dialogue, not Explanation” and “Open Discussion, not Inappropriate Reform of Law” (April 18, 2023) and Oppose the Poor revision of the Act on the Science Council of Japan.||(61)|
Conscription Rituals and Taiwanese Physical Memories of War in Postwar Taiwan
Post war conscription ceremony in Taiwan was an arena of struggle where the wartime memories of the Taiwanese people and the memories of mainland era of the Republic of China (ROC) government intersected, penetrated, affected, and confronted. Immediately after retreating to Taiwan, the ROC government attempted to integrate Taiwanese people through national rituals based on the experience of the Nanjing period. However, for the Taiwanese of the wartime generation, the ceremony was g more reminiscent of their military experience during the Asia-Pacific War. Based on their view of military service during wartime, the Taiwanese reenacted Japanese-style behavioral patterns through their physical actions at the enlistment ceremony. Moreover, such conduct was in fact highly political or even resistant in character. The Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) observed this behavior of the Taiwanese people, and based on their memories of the war against Japan and Chinese civil war, gave it diversified evaluations, both positive and negative. Therefore, wartime memories held in postwar Taiwan were not only secretly inherited, but also had public and political characteristics, mediated through the body. Moreover, Taiwan in the 1950s was not simply an era of oppression, but also an era of upheaval in which multiple memories, namely the wartime memories of the Taiwanese people and the memories of the national revolution of the ROC government, both competed with and became intertwined with each other.
Lloyd George’s Strategy for ‘Social Reform’: the Political Idea behind the National Health Insurance 1911
After the introduction of the framework of the mixed economy of welfare, many studies have emphasised the continuity before and after the Liberal welfare reforms in the UK in the early 20th century. However, if one analyses the concept of the National Health Insurance at the core of the reform, based on the discourse of its principal designer, David Lloyd George, one sees that such continuity was not its initial aim. Additionally, a new aspect of this insurance has been revealed as a reform of the policy-making process.
As a result of an analysis with this problem as the starting point, the following is shown in this paper. The concept of the national health insurance policy aimed to maintain and develop national production activities by relieving the hardships faced by active workers through private organisations. At the same time, it was a policy-making process reform concept that facilitated social welfare reform by converting the ‘interests’ of various organisations in the area of social welfare into a ‘top-down’ presentation.
Seen from this dual policy conception of national health insurance, social welfare reform in the early 20th century was aimed at overcoming, rather than continuing, the 19th-century mixed economy of welfare.
No.1037 July 2023
The Russian-Ukraine War and the Study of Russian History
After the collapse of the Soviet Union historians have not devoted sufficient energy to discuss the issue of whether contemporary Russia was the subject of historical studies. Scholars of Russian history have continued to relegate Russia under Yeltsin and, to a lesser extent, Putin, to the periphery of their focus. However, a regime arose in Russia––with Putin as its central figure––that consciously restrengthen the relationship between history and the self. Facing with the regime that has posed the question of “what is Russian history,” historians have still avoided to analyze it. As a result, they were caught off guard by the sudden outbreak of the Russia-Ukraine war, caused by Putin’s Russia with considerable historical motivations.
The Russia-Ukraine war has disrupted the boundaries of the study of professional history on two fronts. First, by causing enormous destruction and increasing public interest in the opinions of scholars, the war has forced historians to make public value judgments. Second, this war has encouraged historians to discuss the present rather than the past, because the war is being waged by a regime that has a strong historical orientation. This paper will discuss how historians can address these two points.
What is “Ukrainian History”?: The Construction of National History and Memory Clash
Immanuel Wallerstein included a short essay with the facetious title of “Does India Exist?” into his Unthinking Social Science: The Limits of Nineteenth-Century Paradigms (1991). The points of his argument are 1) India was invented by the modern world system, 2) the pre-modern history of India was constructed in the modern era, 3) we cannot foresee whether India will exit two hundred years later. This distinguished formula may well be applicable to the case of Ukrainian history.
In this essay, the author attempts, even though in a rough way, to trace the creation of Ukrainian national history in the era of its national awakening, Ukrainian history in the Soviet historiography, the formation of Ukrainian émigré history in the North America and its intrusion into post-Soviet historiography in Ukraine, and memory politics and memory clash in contemporary independent Ukraine. In conclusion, primordialist temptation and narratives are exceedingly dominant in the national history and memory politics of Ukraine due to the preferences of political elites and historians who are inclined to subjugate themselves to the elites. Probably all national histories have the similar problems in spite of historians’ long struggle to overcome primordialism and the mythicization of history.
Burying WWII into the Past: Critical Reflection about the Expulsion of the German Population among Czech Dissidents, and the End of the Cold War
Russia's invasion of Ukraine has created a serious crisis for the European international order, which was established as a result of the apocalyptic catastrophe of World War II. It has raised deep concerns for many people, as if history, once closed, had been reopened.
After the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, Czechoslovak dissident intellectuals who gathered around Charter 77 began to critically question the “victory” of World War II, focusing on the issue of the expulsion of the German population from Czechoslovakia. For them, active acceptance of the post-World War II order or "status quo" under the Cold war was inextricably linked to a historical critique of the injustices and inhumane acts committed during World War II by both victorious and defeated nations. Their discussions ultimately aimed to bury World War II into the past and overcome the "status quo" under the Cold War, and the "Prague Declaration" of 1985 even raised the question of German unification. The "memory culture" surrounding World War II in Central Europe in the 1990s inherited such historical arguments developed among dissident intellectuals.
The Russo-Ukrainian War and the Tasks of Contemporary Historiography: ‘Empire’, ‘Sovereignty’ and ‘Nationalism’
From the perspective of Eastern European historical research, in the year or so since the outbreak of the Russo-Ukrainian War, contemporary historiography has been forced abruptly to rethink and deepen its ‘historical perceptions’, ‘methods’ and ‘tasks’. This has already begun to manifest itself in the following three facets of domestic and international historical research. (i) The confluence of the reiteration of parallels between the post-World War I period and the post-Cold War period, the surfacing of the 'imperial legacy' inherited in those post-war periods, and the critical transmission of 'imperial theory'. (ii) The revitalisation of both the theory of the restructuring of sovereignty and the theory of ‘shatterzone’ since the early modern period and the modern period due to the shifting reconfigurations of the international order, and the bridging of these two theories. Finally, as an extension and enactment of (i) and (ii), (iii) the transformation of the methodology of analysing nationalism. In this paper, the premise is to grasp the dynamic changes in ‘perceptions’, ‘methods’ and ‘issues’ in domestic and foreign historiography in (i) and (ii), while finally discussing the 'future' of the study of nationalism in (iii).
East Slavic “Tripartite” Nationalism and the Russo-Ukrainian War
In order to justify the war on Ukraine he was going to start, Russian President V. Putin criticized V. I. Lenin for artificially dividing the single East Slavic people into three nationalities, and giving the Ukrainian SSR a territory much larger than the historical and Ukrainophone Ukraine. Reconfirming that historical injustice cannot legitimize unilateral territorial changes, let alone a war, it is difficult to negate that the understanding of a tripartite single East Slavic nation, termed “the Russians” then, was dominant among the academic and official circles and the press in the Russian Empire until the 1917 Revolution. This article highlighted two recent publications dedicated to the tripartite understandings of the East Slavs: Fedor Gaida’s book on the conceptual history of Malorus and the Ukrainians, as well as the Fedevyches Sr. and Jr’s study on the Black Hundreds and Russian Orthodox clerics in Right-Bank Ukraine in the late tsarist period. According to Gaida, the concept of Malorus has its origin in the Greeks’ (Byzantines’) perception of Ukraine as Rus’s core area and, as a toponym closely associated with the Orthodox faith, it had become widespread in the Rusians’ struggle against Catholicism in the seventeenth century. According to the Fedevyches, among the three elements of Russian nationalism, the Orthodox faith was most important for ROC clerics. This is why they proposed using the local language (Ukrainian) at their parish schools and massively shifted to the Ukrainian autocephalous movement after the autocracy fell.
Transformation of and the Current State of Finnish Perceptions of War Against the Soviet Union during World War II: In Relation to the Invasion of Ukraine
This study examines Finnish perceptions of the two wars Finns fought against the Soviet Union during World War II, namely the Winter War and the Continuation War, based on discussions in the historical academia, descriptions in current high school history textbooks, and reports in newspaper web editions. How to interpret the Continuation War, fought after the Winter War, was debated for many years in postwar Finland. The results of that research are reflected in current high school history textbooks, which fully explain the "negative aspects" of the war, such as Finland’s intent to expand its territory, Finnish military cooperation with Nazi Germany, and the Finnish maltreatment of Russians in the occupied territories. On the other hand, the Winter War is described as a war in of self-defense which united “all Finns”. However, Finnish socialists have been excluded from the self-perception of "all Finns." Finnish newspapers have repeatedly reported on the current Russian invasion of Ukraine in a way that superimposes it on the Winter War. This superimposition has served to reinforce the "memory" of the Winter War as a war of self-defense. Furthermore, it blurs the boundaries between the Winter War and the Continuation War, helping to strengthen the "memory" of Finland as a victim of Soviet aggression. It has also helped to evoke a sense of crisis for Finland's security while encouraging sympathy for Ukraine.
The War in Ukraine as Seen from Japanese History: Similarities to the Sino-Japanese War
There are five similarities that that can be identified from a comparison of the war in Ukraine to the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). 1) The party that was maintaining international order became its destroyer. 2) Both Japan and Russia began their respective wars with the aim of reproducing one of their own “success stories.” 3) The leadership of both countries maintained the false conviction that the war would be concluded in a short period of time. 4) To some extent the invaded country prepared its defense beforehand on its own but also received military support from other countries, the result of which was the prolongation of hostilities. 5) The war was not accurately reported within the country that began the war. The Sino-Japanese War expanded into World War II through the intermediary of the Tripartite Pact between Japan, Germany, and Italy. The war in Ukraine has three similar risks. 1) The world may split into two major camps, which may lead to an intense arms race between the two camps. 2) As the war persists over the long term, the most destructive weapons - including nuclear weapons - may be utilized. 3) It will be difficult to find a way to restore peace through mediation in the context of the major powers’ might.
No.1036 June 2023
|Special Issue: The Ukraine Crisis in Historical Perspective (Ⅰ)|
|Preface||the Editorial Board||(1)|
|The War in Ukraine and Its Impact on the Transformation of the World System||YUI Daizaburo||(2)|
|The United Nations and the 2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine: a Historical Perspective||HANZAWA Asahiko||(8)|
|The Sino-Soviet Relationship Between Alliance and Power-Sharing: the Cold-War Structure in East Asia||MATSUMURA Fuminori||(14)|
|Interventionist America? : The War in Ukraine and Limits of American Power||MIMAKI Seiko||(21)|
|Perestroika and Ukraine: For a historical understanding of the Russian-Ukrainian War||SHIOKAWA Nobuaki||(28)|
|Austrian Parliamentary Elections of 1907 in Eastern Galicia||OTSURU Atsushi||(35)|
|Thoughts Facing War: Perspectives of Tolerance and Nationalism of Liberalists||UEDA Miwa||(46)|
|The Genealogy of War Theory after Clausewitz and the Construction of War Perspective||NAKAJIMA Hiroki||(53)|
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (4)|
|Move forward without Fear!||KURITA Yoshiko||(61)|
|Invited by Everyone: Rekiken, the Japanese Ancient History Section, and the Committee||MIYATAKI Koji||(65)|
|Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)|
|OTA Izuru, Guan Yu and the Spiritual Legends: The Eurasian World and Imperial Territory of the Qing Dynasty||ISHINO Kazuharu||(69)|
|Samurai: History and Legend at Cambridge University Library||SATO Yuki||(73)|
|Statement on the Issue of "Non-Exercise of Moral Rights of Authors" in the Compilation Project of Setagaya Ward History||(83)|
The War in Ukraine and Its Impact on the Transformation of the World System
NATO’s eastward expansion after the end of the Cold War, is one of the causes of the War in Ukraine. Therefore, it is necessary to review the process of ending the Cold War. The process is characterized by many more elements than the establishment of a unipolar hegemony by the United States due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The process was a result of combinations of multiple factors, such as the regional wars in the Gulf Region and former Yugoslavia, regional integration as represented by the formation of the European Union, and globalization as represented by the formation of the World Trade Organization. Amongst these various factors, this paper focuses on the process whereby the US unipolar hegemony fell into a decline in the 20 years after the end of the Cold War, and became embroiled in a struggle for hegemony with China. Moreover, we need to search for ways to prevent the Ukrainian War from escalating into War of the Great Powers with the risk of nuclear war. To achieve this end, this paper points to the need to further develop relevant international organizations and international law, and to downgrade the overwhelming importance of hegemony by pursuing regional integration.
The United Nations and the 2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine: a Historical Perspective
The United Nations (UN) has in fact been playing a more important role than may be generally assumed in the Ukrainian crisis that stared with the Russian invasion in February 2022. This article provides a historical overview to support this contention. The near 80-year history of the UN can be divided into three periods: 1945-1960 (the first phase), 1960-1990 (the second phase) and 1990 – present (the third phase). The UN was a creation of great power politics after the Second World War and it is inevitable that the organization is heavily affected by the real politics of the times. It does not possess sizable military and economic means but is able to become a moral and political focus of international opinion. This conspicuously occurred the impressive historical events such as the Suez Crisis of 1956, the adoption of the Resolution 1514 in 1960, and the Gulf War of 1991. Through the present Ukrainian crisis, in addition to the related agencies’ comprehensive effort to abate the resulting humanitarian crisis, the Security Council has been asked to be more accountable than before to the General Assembly, whose status is clearly on the rise.
The Sino-Soviet Relationship Between Alliance and Power-Sharing: the Cold-War Structure in East Asia
After the end of the Cold War, the “liberal democratic” order has expanded globally, lately prompting serious challenges mounted by Russia. It resembles “the twenty years’ crisis (1919-1939)” in which the Anglo-American order provoked the defeated powers’ vengeance. For now, some observers render two major authoritarian powers (i.e., Russia and China) similarly as adversaries against the “liberal democratic” order by associating the war in Ukraine with the crisis across the Taiwan strait. Though both powers resemble each other in their foreign policy, they lie in contrasting international structures. In East Asia the “status-quo”, the legacy of the Cold War (i.e., the US-led alliances as well as division lines across the Taiwan strait and on the Korean peninsula), has remained, lacking the Western regimes’ expansions that took place on the European front. This paper aims to show the origins of such an international structure in East Asia by focusing on the Sino-Soviet relationship. In stark contrast to the US-led alliances, the Sino-Soviet alliance lacked strong collective defense arrangements and expected Beijing to play a major role in encouraging revolutionary movements in East Asia. Thus, the “Sino-US” rivalry was centered in the regional Cold-War structure, in the absence of the any Soviet great interventions.
Interventionist America? : The War in Ukraine and Limits of American Power
This paper considers the question of to what extent the war in Ukraine has transformed US foreign policy. Sworn in as the 45th president of the United States in 2017, Donald Trump asserted that U.S. foreign policy should put the interests and security of American people first, and that the United States should reduce its overseas commitments. Trump’s “America first” foreign policy doctrine reflected American citizens’ deep concerns about the effects of spending taxpayer dollars on overseas operations that could be better spent at home. Incumbent US President Joe Biden has also advocated “a foreign policy for the middle class,” which bears a close resemblance to Trump's “America First.” The Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, however, has drastically changed the course of U.S. foreign policy. A strong majority of Americans has supported sending arms and economic aid to Ukraine, which amounted to $60 billion in 2022 alone. However, with no end in sight to war, Americans are becoming divided over whether the United States should support Ukraine as long as it takes or if it should urge Kyiv to settle for peace as soon as possible. Some Republican lawmakers are openly questioning the amount of U.S. aid to Ukraine, citing the looming recession and domestic problems. The paper questions whether the invasion of Ukraine will result in a real paradigm shift of U.S. foreign policy.
Perestroika and Ukraine: For a historical understanding of the Russian-Ukrainian War
When the historical background of the Russian-Ukrainian War (the war of aggression by Russia and the defensive war by Ukraine) is discussed, many tend to focus primarily on the periods of the Russian Empire and Stalin, and neglect the magnitude of the change in the late Soviet period (perestroika period). Trends in the perestroika period in Ukraine can be subdivided as follows: (1) Until 1988, (2) 1989, (3) the first half of 1990, (4) fall 1990 to mid-91, and (5) August–December 1991. It is important to note that none of the Central leadership of the USSR, Ukraine, and Russia were a single entity, but diverse currents existed within each entity, and their interrelationships were highly fluid and varied over time. Thirty years have passed since then, and the current situation cannot be considered a direct extension of the past, but the diversity of the actors and the mobility of the interrelationships are important when trying to understand the current situation.
Austrian Parliamentary Elections of 1907 in Eastern Galicia
This study deals with the Austrian parliamentary elections of 1907 in Galicia. They were conducted under universal male suffrage for the first time. Electoral districts represented ethnically homogenous units as much as possible. Each ethnicity was allotted an electoral districts in proportion to its population. However, each Eastern Galician election district was allocated two seats. So numerous heterogeneous election district elected their majority candidates with more than 50% of votes while the minority candidates with as low as 25%. Election campaigns were often prolonged and occasionally turned into violence.
The majority was comprised of Poles in Western Galicia and Ruthenians in Eastern Galicia. As Jews were not officially categorized as an ethnicity, they were not allotted any election districts. However, they could cast the decisive votes in the elections.
In the Polish camp Conservatives monopolized political power and they were content with the existing Dual Monarchy system. The leadership cadre of the Polish People’s Party was composed of village honorable persons, while National Democrats were not indigenous and thus more independent-minded. Ruthenians had two dominant political currents, Old Ruthenians and Young Ruthenians. The old Ruthenians originated from strong Russophile convictions of Greek-Catholic priests, while the Young Ruthenians’ concern was to promote their own national culture. Galicia became the focus of a Zionism-oriented Jewish national movement. Poles, Ruthenians, and Jews had their own version of Social Democrats.
During the prolonged election campaign of 1907 all political parties both fought and cooperated with each other to order to secure seats in the parliament. The Austrian parliamentary elections of 1907 offered each of the Galician political parties an opportunity to express their own claims.
Thoughts Facing War: Perspectives of Tolerance and Nationalism of Liberalists
This paper aims to examine how Japanese and Chinese liberalists engaged the reality of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-45) in order to seek for suggestion to understand the Ukrainian War today, and to look for any possibility to stop the war. The Japanese liberalists, ISHIBASHI Tanzan (1884-1973) and KIYOSAWA Kiyoshi (1890-1945) had different opinions on war. Ishibashi thought that liberalism did not always deny war because he distinguished liberalism from pacifism. On the other hand, Kiyosawa emphasized his anti-war attitude. After the creation of Manchukuo, both of them eventually came to accept Manchukuo as the status quo, and underestimated Chinese resistance though they had previously understood Chinese nationalism from their viewpoint of the protection of self-determination. However, the Chinese liberalist HU Shih (1891-1962) thought that Manchukuo was a symbol of Japanese aggression and the root of hatred of Japan. In the end, Japanese and Chinese liberalists came into conflict over their views on tolerance and nationalism. There were three possibilities to stop war which subsisted in liberalism: a renunciation of war, nationalism, and individualism. The first originated from a desire to preserve lives, and the second from a sense of duty to save their nation, and the third from giving precedence of individuals over the nation.
Genealogy of War Theory after Clausewitz and Construction of War Perspective
This article provides an overview of the genealogy of war theory and examines its continuity and discontinuity with the current view of war. The basis for this is the Theory of War (1832) by Carl von Clausewitz, a Prussian soldier. An overview of the characteristics of his "Theory of War" will be presented. The article discusses the essential characteristics of the Theory of War that have gained attention, and the circumstances that have made it the touchstone of the theory of war. Next, it refers to the situation in which the escalation of war since the 20th century has changed the way we view war and the very foundations of war theory itself. Lastly, it points out that while our viewpoint on contemporary war is still influenced by the standards presented by Clausewitz, it tends to be influenced by contemporary information, such as changes in technology, and has a strong constructivist hue. What historical studies should do is discuss war from a perspective that emphasizes its relationship with human existence, which is different from the "view of war" that emphasizes mass media and technology.
|HIGO Kazuo’s History and War Cooperation: Focusing on the Greater East Asian Culture Construction Theory||NAKAMURA Norihiro||（1）|
|The Support Base of the Liberal Members of the House of Representatives under KONOE’s "New Order" in 1941: The Case of KAWASAKI Katsu and the Iga Area of Mie Prefecture||TAKASHIMA Sho||(17)|
|On the Issue of Abolishing the Survey on Rural Communities||MATSUZAWA Yusaku||(32)|
|Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)|
|HARADA Masahiro, The Republic of Political Violence: Street Fights and Barroom Brawls in the Weimar Period||NAGATA Hiroaki||(38)|
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (3)|
|The "So-Called Rekiken Faction" and Its Perimeters||KISHIMOTO Mio||(41)|
|A Modest Proposal for the Future Activities of Rekien||MINAGAWA Masaki||(44)|
|Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan in May 2023||(48)|
|Request for Continuation of the Survey on Rural Communities||(60)|
|We Request the Expansion of the Knowledge Information Base by Improving the Copyright Handling of the Digital Collections of the National Diet Library||(61)|
|The 2023 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan||(63)|
HIGO Kazuo’s History and War Cooperation: Focusing on the Greater East Asian Culture Construction Theory
This paper uses a case study of HIGO Kazuo’s (1899-1981) theory on Constructing a Greater East Asian Culture to examine why historians cooperated in Japan’s Pacific War, and the meaning of their collaboration.
Higo’s Greater East Asian Culture Construction Theory envisions a concentric world centered on the emperor as a cultural authority, assuming that the ancient spirit remaining in Japanese farming villages could be applied to embrace the Greater East Asian region.
The background of Higo’s cooperation in the war effort lay in the decline of rural traditional culture as a result of the economic revitalization movement and other modernizing efforts in rural areas. Higo hoped that by relocating the significance of traditional culture and ancient mentalities in the movement to build a Greater East Asian culture would lead to a revival of rural culture, and was thereby drawn into wartime cooperation.
This study of Higo’s discourse demonstrated that there was a close affinity between rural sensibilities and nationalistic discourse, providing a popularist basis for nationalistic historical discourses.
The Support Base of the Liberal Members of the House of Representatives under Konoe’s "New Order" in 1941: The Case of KAWASAKI Katsu and the Iga Area of Mie Prefecture
The purpose of this article is to clarify the development of the "New Order" at the local level by analyzing the relationship between the liberal members of the House of Representatives and their support base.
Ueno City in Mie Prefecture（三重県上野市） was the base of support for KAWASAKI Katsu（川崎克）, a member of the liberal faction of the House of Representatives. Within the Ueno city council, pro- and anti- Kawasaki factions confronted each other over the establishment of an “Imperial Rule Assistance (Yokusan) City Council” under the aegis of the “New Order” (a political movement led by KONOE Fumimaro and modelled on the German National Socialist Movement). This factional conflict was finally resolved through the adoption of the “Yokusan City Council” by unanimous vote.
In other cities during the same period, there were many attempts to construct the “New Order” through electoral means. Whether the " New Order" was brought about by elections or by the direct management of the city government, localities took on a diverse range of approaches to the adoption of the "New Order." Ultimately, in Ueno City, politicians undermined the “New Order” as a political system by incorporating it into the preexisting local political structure.
No. 1034 April 2023
|Special Issue: XXIII International Congress of Historial Studies- Poznań 2022|
|International Congress of Historical Studies in Poznań, Poland: An Overview||OZAWA Hiroaki|
|(MT01) Intertwined Pathways: Animals and Human Histories|
– Animal’s Agency – Animals in Human Records
|(ST09, RT07) The Current Research Status of Gender History and Women's History||MATSUMOTO Yuko||(12)|
|(ST20. RT17) Debates on Digital History||MORITA Naoko||(17)|
|(JS10) Revolutionary Nationalism in a Global Perspective||YAMAZAKI Koichi||(23)|
|(JS11) Sources of Historiographical Methodology in East Asia and Europe||OKAMOTO Michihiro||(28)|
|(RT01) Borders and Borderlands: the Slavdom over the Centuries |
― Culture and Society―
|(RT18) Rescuing and Preserving Historical Documents and Materials during and after Natural Disasters||OKUMURA Hiroshi||(37)|
|The International Affiliated Organizations (International Community of Historical Studies)|
|From CHIR to CISH/ICHS||WATANABE Hirotaka||(50)|
|How will the Museum Change?: Meaning of the "Amendment" of the Museum Act||IWASAKI Naoko||(57)|
|Current Topics：The Ukraine Crisis|
|Russia's Invasion of Ukraine and the International Order||GOTO-SHIBATA Harumi||(65)|
|The 2023 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan||(67)|
No. 1033 March 2023
|Special Issue: A Gaze Directed at Recreation Areas|
|Preface||the Editorial Board||(1)|
|Tang and Song Dynasties: People’s Use Night Markets||SHIO Takugo||(2)|
|Regulations on Meyhane and Alcohol Distribution in Istanbul at the End of the Reign of Süleyman I||SAWAI Kazuaki||(12)|
|Political Dinners and an ‘Intoxicated Public Sphere’ in Early Nineteenth-Century Britain||MASAKI Keisuke||(23)|
|The Rise and Fall of the American Workingman’s Saloon at the Turn of the 20th Century||OKAMOTO Masaru||(33)|
|The Intellectual Resistance in the period of the Dark Valley: Ara Masahito||WATANUKI Yuri||(45)|
|Current Topics：The Ukraine Crisis|
|Ukraine and Russia: A Conflict among "Heirs of Common Ancestry "||FUKUSHIMA Chiho||(61)|
|We Support the Position Expressed by the Science Council of Japan in Response to the Government's Policy||The Committee||(66)|
|Symposium of Rekishigaku Kenkyukai “Let's Talk about Academism and Gender!”||(67)|
Tang and Song Dynasties: People’s Use Night Markets
In contrast to Chang’an during the Tang Dynasty, which was placed under state control under the Fangshi system, commerce and economy flourished greatly in the two capitals of Kaifeng and Lin’an during the Song Dynasty; the standard of living of the common people improved, and the entertainment district flourished.
The “night market in the Tang era” was saloon-oriented. It was a place of entertainment for the upper classes, such as bureaucrats, nobles, and wealthy merchants. In particular, it was often used by bureaucrats for entertainment and to interact with other people. On the other hand, the “night market in the Song era” was used by people from a wide range of social classes, from bureaucrats to common people. It was not only saloon-oriented, but tearooms and restaurants also flourished in the market. The users of bars were mostly bureaucrats and intellectuals, and their main purpose was to interact with people. Teahouses and restaurants were often used by various classes for dining.
The temporary lifting of the prohibition of night business due to the Lantern Festival served as a springboard for the establishment of the night market. With the gradual collapse of the state under the Fangshi in the late Tang era, the prohibition of night business was relaxed. In the latter half of the Northern Song Dynasty, the government relaxed the prohibition of night business in response to the lifestyles of urban residents, and the “night market in the Song era,'' which was open all night, flourished.
Regulations on Meyhane and Alcohol Distribution in Istanbul at the End of the Reign of Süleyman I
Socialization accompanied by drinking alcohol has continued even in regions where the influence of Islam, which prohibits intoxication, is dominant. Even in the Ottoman Empire, often called the last “Islamic Empire,” the existence of the so-called “Prohibition Edicts” (İçki / Müskirat Yasağı), which were promulgated intermittently, is well known, but their contents have never been examined in detail. However, a careful examination of the primary historical materials of the time reveals that the reality of the “Prohibition Edicts’’ were far removed from being dogmatic and absolute bans.
On the basis of recent research results, this paper examines the state of entertainment districts in Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, and discusses the “Prohibition of Alcohol’’ supposedly enforced at the end of Süleyman I's reign. At the same time, focusing on various regulations on taverns (meyhane), this paper aims to empirically reveal the various aspects of these regulations based on historical materials from the same period.
Political Dinners and an ‘Intoxicated Public Sphere’ in Early Nineteenth-Century Britain
Political dinners, held in many parts of Britain in the early nineteenth century, were a significant part of an ‘intoxicated public sphere’. They fostered a sense of unity among the participants through the festive atmosphere created by toasts and music. Political dinners also allowed committee members to utter the political messages that those members wished to share with the public. For the most part, political dinners ended with order and harmony maintained, but this does not necessarily mean that the committee succeeded in promoting unity and indoctrination. Participants interpreted the committee’s intentions from the proceedings in their way and sometimes had negative feelings towards the committee. In addition, the active involvement of attendees occasionally led to partisan disputes at the dinner and, though rarely, to confrontations involving the use of force. An ‘intoxicated public sphere’ embodied at political dinners worked through the complex interplay between the opposing dynamics of unity and conflict and of order-making and active engagement. Political dinners, albeit with notable ups and downs in terms of importance, would presumably continue to play a role in shaping public opinion in the Victorian period and beyond.
The Rise and Fall of the American Workingman’s Saloon at the turn of the 20th Century
In the prohibition movement saloons were generally treated negatively as “a den of vice,” because they were linked to gambling and prostitution as well as “reciprocal treating” for getting drunk. Moreover, they were also thought to be evil because they had become bases for corrupt machine politics.
Until the late in the 19th century, however, most saloons were in fact wholesome. These “poorman’s clubs” were frequented mostly by laborers, many of whom were immigrants from the same ethnic background as the owners of the saloons. Light diversion was not the only reason that customers visited saloons after a long day of hard work.
The newcomers gathered there to seek someone to help find places to stay and jobs, while speaking to other patrons in their own languages. Saloons provided laborers with a “free lunch” at a very low price. They also lent “back rooms” for labor union’s meetings, and other social events like wedding receptions. In this paper I mainly discuss the functions of the neighborhood saloons, revealing the other side of the story, the working-class side.
The Intellectual Resistance in the period of the Dark Valley : Ara Masahito
After the March 15th affair in 1928 and April 16th affair in 1929, there were few anti-establishment movements left exisiting in Japan. However, there were a handful of intellectuals who opposed war through their writing.
Ara Masahito was one of those intellectuals. After the outbreak of the Japanese-Chinese War, the authorities fiercely suppressed free speech, making it extremely dangerous for writers to publish their opinion. Then, why did Ara write? What spurred him to take such risks?
A clue to these concerns lies in his experience of a “Reading Society” in his school days, and in his relationship with a trade union activist.
The aim of this article is to analyze his text, especially his book reviews mainly published in the literary coterie magazine Gendai-bungaku, locating them in the historical context of wartime, revealing his thought of “resistance”.
Gendai-bungaku was issued from December 1939 to January 1944. At that time Ara wrote his articles under the pseudonym of “Akagi Shun”.
No. 1032 February 2023
|Maritime Regime under the Ottoman Empire and Venice: As Viewed through the Articles of “Piracy” in Ahdnâmes and nişan-ı hümâyûn||SUEMORI Haruka||(1)|
|France's "Electoral Revolution", Act II: the Presidential and Legislative Elections of 2017 and 2022 in Historical Perspectives||NAKAYAMA Yohei||(14)|
|Series: Writing History (1)|
|Series: Writing History (1)||the Editorial Board||(25)|
|Writing History Textbooks: The "Now" and its Premises||OGUSHI Junji||(26)|
|Considering the Current State of History Textbooks: Taking a Cue from the Developments in Germany||KONDO Takahiro||(32)|
|“Modern and Contemporary History” as written by students: “Modern and Contemporary History” and Textbooks||YAMAKAWA Shiho||(38)|
|History Textbooks and the Logic of Examination||MITANI Yoshiyuki||(46)|
|Market Peculiarities of Textbooks and Specific Aspects of History Textbook Editing: From the Editorial Experience over the Last Quarter Century||OYA Masashi||(52)|
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (2)|
|The Vitality of the Historical Science Society: From the Experience of Two Extraordinary General Meetings||IKE Susumu||(59)|
|In the Fluctuation of "Postwar Historiography"||KATO Chikako||(62)|
Maritime Regime under the Ottoman Empire and Venice:As Viewed through the Articles of “Piracy” in Ahdnâmes and nişan-ı hümâyûn
The maintenance of a maritime regime suppressing piracy was the one of the main diplomatic topics between the Ottoman empire and the European countries for a long period. The details of this regime were regulated by ahdnâmes, diplomatic documents issued by the Ottomans to the Europeans. Among the European states, Venice occupied a leading position in diplomatic relations with the Ottoman empire. With this view, this paper focuses on the case of the maritime regime as it was negotiated between the Ottomans and Venice. In recent works, the formation of this regime up until end of the sixteenth century has been well discussed, but research on the regime in the seventeenth century is still inadequate. This is despite the increase of “piracy,” particularly that of Magribian corsairs during this century. This problem became so severe that it led to a break-down in diplomatic relations between the two states in the 1630’s, as represented by the Avlonya Incident. This paper examines the articles of “piracy” in ahdnâmes and nişan-ı hümâyûn, another document issued to Venice after the Avlonya Incident, to make clear the formation process of the maritime regime mainly directed against Magribian corsairs during the seventeenth century. In this revised framework, Magribian corsairs were positioned in the traditional framework of the maritime regime, which emphasized the role of Ottoman local officials in anti-“piracy” practices.
No. 1031 January 2023
|Special Issue: Social History of Book Collections (III)|
|Knowledge Formation and Collection Culture in Early Modem Japan||KUDO Kohei||(1)|
|“Local Libraries as Repositories of "Knowledge" in the Meiji Era:|
The Case of the Hachinohe Book Library
|The Funeral Rites of the Emperor and Nyoin in the Early Modern Periods and the Monzeki Temples: |
Focusing on the Movemenst within Monzeki Temples of Tendai Jimon Sect Related to "Hogan-goyo"
|Notes and Suggestions|
|Korean Women's Movement and Japanese Military Sexual Slavery after the Colonial Liberation:|
A Perspective on the Japanese Military "Comfort Women" Issue from the Historical Study of the Korean Women's Movement
|Relay Talks: On the 90th Anniversary of Our Society (1)|
|Considerations on the Significance of the Activities of Academic Organisations||HARADA Keiichi||(55)|
|Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)|
|KONDO Tsuyoshi, History of Japan-Goryeo Relations||AKABAME Masayoshi||(58)|
|Current Topics: Ukraine Crisis|
|Information Warfare on a ‘pledge' Not to Expand NATO into the East||YOSHITOME Kota||(62)|
|Notice of Amendments to the Regulations on Journal Submissions||The Committee||(67)|
Knowledge Formation and Collection Culture in Early Modern Japan
This paper evaluates the libraries as an organization of information and knowledge that has been intentionally selected and systematized by the builder of the collection in response to the specific awareness of issues and interests of individuals, families (ie) and groups. Thereafter, through an analysis of library catalogs, which represent the owners' perception of the collection, this paper elucidates the actual situation of the formation, accumulation, and inheritance of knowledge in early modern Japanese society. A major feature of the collections is that a variety of information and knowledge (documents, compilations, books, objects), such as practical and customary aspects, region-specific aspects, aspects relating to political economy that transcends regions and hierarchies, and academic and universal aspects are managed in an integrated manner, and multifaceted knowledge has been constructed through mutually complementary relationships between the varying aspects. In addition, the overemphasis on individual collection composition due to awareness of issues and specialization has realized the construction of comprehensive knowledge through mutual complementation in local communities. Although the composition of this way of knowledge varied according to each individual's position, it can be confirmed beyond social status, occupation, and gender differences, and can be said to be a characteristic intellectual activity since the early modern period (collection culture).
Local Libraries as Repositories of "Knowledge" in the Meiji Era: The Case of the Hachinohe Book Library
The libraries in the Meiji period were said to be formed on the premise of the early modern use of books, and to have become the prototype of the modern public library. However, there is no study that details the formation process and social significance of the collection based on regional and historical characteristics. In particular, since many parts of local libraries remain unclear, I took up the Hachinohe Book Library (the predecessor of the Hachinohe City Library) as an example and examined it in detail. I summarized that the collection in the Library was imprinted with the persistence of "knowledge" unique to the Hachinohe Domain, the influence of the educational policies of the 1870s, and the changes in the trends of thought in the Hachinohe Town area. In addition, I clarified that the Library had inherited and expanded the collection of the early modern book lending organization and played a role in spreading the "knowledge" unique to the Hachinohe domain area, and concluded that there was a social significance similar to that of the private libraries of the “kyushizoku" after the 1890s. Furthermore, I pointed that the Library was used to promote "national essence" (kokusui) and, like other "kyushizoku" educational institutions, supported the military expansion of Imperial Japan.
The Funeral Rites of the Emperor and Nyoin in the Early Modern Periods and the Monzeki Temples: Focusing on the Movemenst within Monzeki Temples of Tendai Jimon Sect Related to "Hogan-goyo"
This paper examines Monzeki門跡 temples of Tendai Jimon Sect天台宗寺門派 from the viewpoint of the issue of "Hogan-goyo"宝龕御用 in imperial funeral rites.
Senior officials of the Onjoji Temple園城寺長吏 were entitled to manage "Hogan-goyo" in the Genna元和 period. In the latter half of the seventeenth century, a system in which Jissoin実相院 differentially managed it became firmly established. In the Genroku元禄, Hoei宝永, Horeki宝暦 period, although disputes arose between Jissoin and Onjoji, the imperial court authorized Jissoin to manage "Hogan-goyo". However, the imperial court decided to return to the principles of the Genna period in 1795, which granted Onjoji the authority to manage "Hogan-goyo". This decision was approved by Jissoin through the compromise between Shogoin聖護院 and Jissoin in 1813.
Monzeki temples of Tendai Jimon Sect in the late early modern period were forced to maintain and assert their own functions due to the fact that Buddhist memorial services for the imperial family at court were limited to those led by Tendai Sanmon Sect天台宗山門派, and Monzeki temples of Tendai Jimon Sect were becoming Sekke-monzeki摂家門跡 and lacked abbots. Following the change in the Kansei-Bunka寛政～文化 periods, “Hogan-goyo" was reinterpreted as a ritual which should be maintained by the entirety of Tendai Jimon Sect, in response to the fear that "Hogan-goyo" would be ordered to other sect.
Korean Women's Movement and Japanese Military Sexual Slavery after the Colonial Liberation: A Perspective on the Japanese Military "Comfort Women" Issue from the Historical Study of the Korean Women's Movement
Understanding the relationship between the "regulated prostitution system" and the Japanese military "comfort women" system has long been a major point of contention in the study of the Japanese military "comfort women" system.
This paper aims to clarify the perspective of the women's movement on this topic by focusing on the development process of the Korean women's movement that pursued "women's liberation."
This article confirms the following perceptions from the standpoint of the women's movement: First, Japanese imperialism was responsible for the structure of sexual exploitation and sexual violence during colonial rule, from the "regulated prostitution system" to the Japanese military "comfort women" system. Second, this structure emerged as an issue that had to be addressed in the process of building an independent nation. Important "testimonies" of the victims of Japanese military sexual slavery emerged during the process of developing the women's movement based on this understanding.