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No.1027 October 2022

Special Issue: Viewing History through Food
Prefacethe Editorial Board(1)
Articles
Ancient Japanese Political Groups and FeastingYOSHINO Shuji(2)
Banquets and Meat-Eating Taboos in Muromachi Society: The Historical Background to the Cuisine of Ritual Abstinence (Shojin Ryori)YOSHIZAWA Hajime(12)
Venison Consumption and Samurai Culture in the Muromachi and the Sengoku PeriodNAKAZAWA Katsuaki(26)
Diet, Hygiene, and Religion in Beijing during the Late Qing and Early Republican Period: Sino-Muslims’ Qingzhen Consciousness and Their Responses to Halal ProblemsUNNO Noriko(37)
The Two French Revolutions and the Sound of "Communal Meals": From Fraternal Dinners to Political BanquetsHASHIMOTO Chikako(48)
Crrent Topics:Ukraine Crisis
Russia's Invasion of Ukraine and a Medieval HistorianMIYANO Yutaka(58)
Recent Publications(60)
Announcement
The 90th Anniversary Symposium of the Historical Sciences Society of Japan(64)

Summary

Ancient Japanese Political Groups and Feasting

YOSHINO Shuji

Under Japan's Ritsuryo bureaucratic system, the linkage between lower-ranking regions officials was given expression through the chain of command. District governors and local military officers were placed under the command of provincial governors appointed by the emperor, and lower-ranking officers such as the chonai and shijin indirectly served the emperor through the masters they were allotted to. The provincial governors were granted authority over appointments of these subordinates within their jurisdiction, but the arbitrary exercise of authority over subordinates, or conversely, collusion with subordinates to circumvent the proper exercise of duty by provincial governors was strictly controlled, Dispatching the provincial governors to the eastern provinces during the Taika period(645-650) was a pioneering step in the Ritsuryo Provincial and District Governors System, and provided an opportunity to establish a unified standard for paying for feasts(kugo) conducted by the provincial governors from public funds.

From the Heian period, the Ritsuryo bureaucracy underwent a transformation, with the rise of the various ministers and noble families as political groups. In particular, in the imperial guards, the office’s bureaucratic structure and the commanding generals’ household administration were merged, resulting in a blatant confusion of the division between public and private affairs. This is the background to the rise of the shobi kochin feasts in the early Heian period, which were celebratory feasts that subordinates forced their a newly appointed superior to hold to celebrate their appointment or promotion. In 866AD, an edict was issued forbidding these celebratory feasts in general, but the emperor made an exception for the generals of the imperial guard and the ministers of state who were allowed to hold large-scale feasts (daikyo)as a privilege. Aristocrats holding such feasts demonstrated to their subordinates that their master’s position meant he was directly responsible for supporting the emperor. It was in this way that the foundations of a system of rule based on a master-vassal relationship was formed under the Ritsuryo bureaucracy, and was inherited by the medieval system of kenmon (ruling elites) .

Banquets and Meat-Eating Taboos in Muromachi Society: The Historical Background to the Cuisine of Ritual Abstinence (Shojin Ryori)

YOSHIZAWA Hajime

This paper examines the relationship between meat-eating culture and taboos in the Muromachi period and discusses the historical premise of vegetarian cuisine as a form of ritual abstinence.

First, during the recurrent famines of the 15th century, meat in the form of fish, poultry and game, regained their former status as delicacies, and were incorporated into ritual gift exchanges, while stewed tanuki (Nyctereutes procyonoides); “racoon dog”) was served in communal feasting.

However, at the imperial court, co-feasting with the emperor was generally given precedence (albeit with some misgivings) over the wishes of the Muromachi Shogun and court nobles to be allowed to maintain their regimes of ritual abstinence from meat (shojin) conducted for a set period. Muromachi shoguns were generally observed fasting under the influence of the Brahmajala Sutra and tried to balance social obligations and religious devotion through aiming for thrift and vegetarianism. As a result, the day before and the final day of the period of ritual abstinence diet became a standard opportunity for consuming fish and poultry. Medieval temples also tended to observe vegetarianism, but they also held views justifying meat eating, preferring fish and seafood over poultry.

In the 15th century, the eating of animal meat was reinstated under the influence of the food customs of south China, without shaking off the concomitant sense of guilt, of which the burden of the greater part devolved upon the meat vendors rather than the noble classes. Vegetarian dishes served in the shape of birds or animals which came to be a characteristic of the vegetarian “cuisine of ritual abstinence” (shojin ryori) were both a product of the meat taboo and a playful indulgence.

Venison Consumption and Samurai Culture in the Muromachi and the Sengoku Periods

NAKAZAWA Katsuaki

In medieval Japan, court nobles considered deer sacred and avoided consuming venison. Samurai warriors, however, considered deer important as hunting game. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, the third shogun of the Muromachi Shogunate, was deeply devoted to the Buddhist precept against killing deer, and neither hunted nor ate deer. Subsequent Muromachi shoguns continued Yoshimitsu's policy. In the Muromachi period, honzen-ryori established itself as the touchstone of Japanese cuisine, but honzen-ryōri does not include venison. Although the Suwa Shrine in Kyoto taught that killing an animal and eating its flesh was a means of bringing it to Buddhahood, the Muromachi shoguns did not avail themselves of this doctrine to justify hunting and eating deer. However, many warriors besides the Muromachi shogun continued to hunt and eat deer, and also incorporated hunting deer into coming-of-age rituals for boys. Daimyo (feudal lords) often also hunted deer within their domains, but not in Kyoto. Tokugawa Iemitsu conducted large-scale deer hunts on the outskirts of Edo and distributed the venison he hunted to the feudal lords and citizens of Edo. The shoguns of Muromachi and Edo thus greatly differed in their practices of hunting and meat-consumption.

Diet, Hygiene, and Religion in Beijing during the Late Qing and Early Republican Period: Sino-Muslims’ Qingzhen Consciousness and Their Responses to Halal Problems

UNNO Noriko

In early twentieth-century Beijing, Muslims (or the Hui people) struggled to observe their religion-based diet as non-Muslim commoners and several Chinese-language periodicals often derided their pork-free diet. The resulting food-related disputes, or “halal problems,” sometimes led Muslims to clash violently with non-Muslims, whom they frequently called “Han” or “Buddhists.” By investigating the incidents and debates related to halal problems, as well as the concept of qingzhen (lit. pure and true), this study demonstrates that Sino-Muslims’ hygiene consciousness, reflected in their dietary habits, cultivated a strong sense of belonging to a distinct group separate from that of non-Muslims.

The halal problems deepened divisions within Muslim communities as well. The religious leaders who tried to solve these troubles in a moderate way by taking legal measures had difficulties in dissuading their coreligionists from resorting to violence against the offenders. Thus, this article goes beyond the simplistic analysis of these disputes as conflicts between different religious groups. It shows that the Muslim elites who attempted to unify all Muslims in the country were criticized by their coreligionists for their responses to the halal issues and could not even pull their small Beijing community together.

The Two French Revolutions and the Sound of "Communal Meals" From Fraternal Dinners to Political Banquets

HASHIMOTO Chikako

This paper reviews the French Revolution of 1789 and the 1848 February Revolution from the perspective of "communal meals.” In the 18th century, public opinion, nurtured in various public spaces, soon gained physical form, if incidentally, in the concrete setting of the café, through which the revolution was realized. At the first Festival of the Federation, people discovered the joy of uniting in the dream of the coming "true" equality, and the "communal meals" held were expected to be an excellent expression and reinforcement of the very slogan of the revolution. It was not until the restoration of the monarchy that such communal meals began to have a real political effect. The political banquets used by liberal groups as a pretext for rallies were at first moderate and tranquil affairs mainly for the elite, but as the scope of participation expanded and the degree of democratization increased, so did the degree of disturbance. The closer the revolution came to its original goal of equality, the more these banquets became an inconvenient nuisance for authorities, who were finally forced to ban them. The government itself denied the dream of communality which the communal meals represented. This meant that the government had abandoned the very means by which it was supposed to have realized and driven the revolution, and this self-contradiction gave rise to another revolution.

No.1026 September 2022

Articles
The Bering Sea Arbitration of 1893 and Japan’s Expansion into the North PacificTAKAHASHI Ryoichi(1)
Series: Dialogue between Historians and Archivists (11)
Proposals
Current Status and Issues Regarding ArchivesHUKUSHIMA Yukihiro(16)
Between Historian and Archivist: On-the site Reports from Local ArchivesOTSUKI Hideo(25)
Round-Table Discussion
Looking back on the “Series: Dialogue between Historians and Archivists”OGAWA Chiyoko,
KATO Yoko,
SASAKI Makoto,
SHIMOJU Naoki,
SUZUKI Shigeru,
MIYAMA Junichi,
WAKAO Masaki,
SHINOZAKI Yuta (Moderator)
(33)
Recent Publications(55)
Current Topics:Ukraine Crisis
The Historical Meaning of the Ukrainian War: Thoughts from a Scholar of Contemporary Chinese HistoryKUBO Toru(56)
The Society's Report
Report on the 2022 General AssemblyThe Committee(58)
Announcement
The 90th Anniversary Symposium of the Historical Sciences Society of Japan(63)

Summary

The Bering Sea Arbitration of 1893 and Japan’s Expansion into the North Pacific

TAKAHASHI Ryoichi

This paper analyzes how the decision issued by the International Court of Arbitration in 1893 on poaching of sea mammals in the Bering Sea served to shape Japan’s subsequent maritime expansion.

The Japanese government had attempted to use naval patrols to restrict hunting of sea mammals around its possessions in the Bering Sea since the 1870’s. However, patrols were only effective within Japan’s territorial waters. A dispute over hunting rights involving the U.S. and U.K led to this matter being presented in 1893 to the International Court of Arbitration, which ruled to create a protection zone for sea mammals administered by the U.S., U.K. and Russia. The Japanese government applied for participation in this scheme, but was rejected by the U.S. and U.K. on the grounds that Japan had not participated in the original court hearings.

In response, the Japanese government passed a law on hunting sea otters and fur seals in 1895, and a law to promote pelagic fishing in 1897 to provide legal framework to encourage Japanese citizens to participate in the exploitation of the marine resources across the Bering Sea, as a new approach to the “poaching” problem. Furthermore, the government recognized the extent of Japan’s territorial waters to be three nautical miles, and announced its support for the principle of open competition in exploitation of marine resources on the open seas.

The decision by the International Court of Arbitration in 1893 caused not only a reframing of the problem of “poaching” marine resources in Japan’s northern territories, it also resulted in the Japanese government redefining the borders between its territorial waters and the open sea. Subsequently, the Japanese government started to explore new avenues to expand the perimeters of its maritime activities in line with the international framework of protection of sea mammals.

No.1025 August 2022

Articles
Manorial Annual Tribute in the Late Medieval Temple Economy: An Analysis of Financial Management in Horyuji's Ikaruga Manor in Harima Province and the Yuishiki-koshuTAKEUCHI Atsuto(1)
Notes and Suggestions
The Balhae Envoys in 827 and External Traffic of JiedushiYOSHIZAWA Teppei(17)
Views and Reviews
Discussion of reading YOSHIKAWA Shinji (ed.), Kokufu Bunka (Japanese-style Culture): “China” and “Japan” in the Noble Society (Series Opening Ancient History)ENOMOTO Jun-ichi(28)
Current Situation and Issues in the Historical Study of the Communist Party of China: Concerning the Recent Works of ISHIKAWA Yoshihiro and TAKAHASHI NobuoMARUTA Takashi(34)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SAKAI Masayo, Early Modern Japan-Korea Relations and the Tsushima ClanFURUKAWA Yuki(41)
HIGUCHI Mao, The League of Nations and Japanese Diplomacy: The Rediscovery of Collective SecuritySAKAI Tetsuya(44)
TAKAYANAGI Tomohiko, The Economic History of Hot Springs: Resource Control and Regional Economy in Modern JapanNUMAJIRI Akinobu(47)
IIKURA Erii, History of Koreans in the Manchukuo Army before and after Colonial Liberation: Military Experience in Japanese Colonies and Its Continuity to the Korean ArmyKIM Yubi(50)
HORIUCHI Yoshitaka, Green Industrialization: The Historical Origins of Taiwan’s EconomyTSURU Shuntaro(53)
UCHIDA HIdemi, Social and Economic History of Alsace: Dynamics of the PeripheryYASUKATA Kaori(56)
Current Topics: Ukraine Crisis
Religions, States and Nations: Ukraine and the Black Sea Rim as a Border RegionMAEDA Hirotake(60)
Recent Publications(62)

Summary

Manorial Annual Tribute in the Late Medieval Temple Economy: An Analysis of Financial Management in Horyuji's Ikaruga Manor in Harima Province and the Yuishiki-koshu

TAKEUCHI Atsuto

This study examines the function of the manorial annual tribute in the late medieval temple economy using the Ikaruga Manor of Horyuji Temple in Harima Province. The study focuses on the role of Yuishiki-koshu (originally a philosophical study association, hereafter referred to as Association), which played a central role in temple administration within the General Assembly of Monks (sōji)of Horyuji.

First, an analysis of the size of the Ikaruga Manor and the amount of the annual stipulated tribute reveals that the manor was an indispensable pillar of Horyuji finances in the mid-15th century. Furthermore, the paper focuses on the process of determining the expenditure allocations of tribute income, and demonstrates that General Assembly of Monks of the temple gained the leading voice in this process in the mid-14th century, and gained full control of the process by the mid-15th century.

Next, the paper examines the internal workings of the temple’s financial management in this period. The aforementioned Association, which was a group within the General Assembly, reapplied budget allocations flexibly and used loans from rice merchants (kuramoto) to meet current necessary expenditures. The Assocation then diverted funds which were originally designated for performing memorial rituals, to repay loans, a process which was called kanraku (lit. “confiscation”). It is probable that the right of kanraku became established in the 15th century.
This study concludes that manors continued to be an important source of revenue in the late medieval temple economy.

The Balhae Envoys in 827 and External Traffic of Jiedushi

YOSHIZAWA Teppei

This study examines the reasons for the arrival of Balhae envoys in Japan in 827 A.D. from the perspective of traffic between Tang and Balhae, and the characteristics of Jiedushi envoys. It discusses the reasons for the disposition against the Balhae envoys from the perspective of nenkisei (waiting period or interval system).

From the end of the 8th century to the beginning of the 9th century, except for one period, Balhae sent envoys to the Tang Dynasty every year. Traffic between Tang and Balhae was normal, even during the Yi Tongjie Rebellion. The paper states that the aim of Kang Zhimu’s mission, the Ziqing Jiedushi, to Balhae was to request military assistance and that Balhae sent envoys to Japan to report that Kang Zhimu had communicated with Balhae.

The purpose of dispatching the Balhae envoys was trade. A chieftain of a Mohekko tribe was incluced in the 827 A.D, delegation, and this paper focuses on this case to argue that Balhae court needed to include Mohekko tribes under their rule in foreign trade.
The paper argues that Japan took severe disciplinary action against the Balhae envoys in 827 A.D. to show their determination in implementing the nenkisei, and that the punishment was in line with Japan's diplomatic policy at the time.

No.1024 July 2022

Special Issue: 50th Anniversary of the Reversion of Okinawa to Japan: The Present State of Ryukyu and Okinawan History(Ⅱ)
Articles
Ryukyuan Studies and Maritime Asian History: Focusing on MAEHIRA Fusaaki 真栄平房昭, Ryukyu Kaiiki Shiron 琉球海域史論NAKAJIMA Gakusho(1)
The Creation of the Social Space of the "Nanyo Archipelago": The Rise of the Okinawan's Young Generation Educated in Nanyo and the Imperial HierarchyMORI Akiko(14)
The Collection and Compilation of Materials in Postwar Okinawa and Recent Digital Archiving EffortsYAMADA Kosei
ONO Yuriko
(28)
Views and Reviews
The Search for Indigenous History: Historical Exhibits of the National Ainu MuseumSAKATA Minako(40)
Early Modern Britain and Continental Europe viewed through Composite State Theory: IWAI Jun and TAKEZAWA Hiroyuki (eds.), Exploring New Approached to Composite State Theory: A Dialogue between Historiography and History of IdeasMINAGAWA Taku(48)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
TAKAGI Madoka, Early Modern Brothel District (Yoshiwara) and Visitors: Manners and Customs in Yujo hyoban-ki (Prostitute Reputation Books)YOKOYAMA Yuriko(57)
Current Topics: Ukraine Crisis
The War and Naming ProblemsKOMORI Hiromi(61)
Recent Publications(64)

Summary

Ryukyuan Studies and Maritime Asian History: Focusing on MAEHIRA Fusaaki 真栄平房昭, Ryukyu Kaiiki Shiron 琉球海域史論

NAKAJIMA Gakusho

We can divide the development of studies on Ryukyuan maritime history during the last one century into four periods. In the first period (1920-45), discover of Rekidai Hoan 歴代宝案 accelerated progress of studied on foreign relations of Ryukyu Kingdom, and some scholars estimated the Ryukyuan maritime trade at that time as pioneer of Japanese southward expansion into Asian seas. In the second period (1945-80), under the occupation by US forces, in contrast with progress of studies on modern history in the heightening of movement claiming Okinawa's reversion to Japan seeking return to Japanese, studies on Ryukyuan maritime history generally continued to stagnate.

But in the third period (1980-2000) studies of Ryukyuan maritime history rapidly became active in reversal. In this period, native scholars of Okinawa mainly advocated historiographies that regard Ryukyu kingdom before the invasion of the Shimazu 島津 as 'foerign history', rather than a mere local history of Japan. And in the fourth period (after 2000), more broad range of scholars including those who study Asian, as well as Japanese, history, are engaging in Ryukyuan maritime history and published various monographs on it.

Maehira Fusaaki is one of the leading historians who haulages the studies of Ryukyuan history through the third and fourth periods. In 2020, he published Ryukyu Kaiiki Shiron (Studies on Ryukyuan maritime History), that collects his main previous articles. I this essay, I survey the development of studies of Ryukyuan maritime history from the 1920's, then overview the historiography of Ryukyu Kaiiki Shiron, and discuss on the significance of it in the progress of Ryukyuan studies.

The Creation of the Social Space of the "Nanyo Archipelago": The Rise of the Okinawan's Young Generation Educated in Nanyo and the Imperial Hierarchy

MORI Akiko

This paper focuses on the process of growth of Okinawan children who were educated in the South Sea (Nanyo) Islands under Japanese rule and examines how the multilayered social space of the "Nanyo Archipelago" was created. Previous studies and popular books have considered only the older generation who acquired Ryukyuan-Okinawan culture and engaged in manual labor such as cane cultivation and bonito fishing as typical of Okinawans in the Nanyo Archipelago, and have viewed the imperial hierarchy of "Japanese/Okinawan/Korean/Islander" that Peaty pointed out was formed in the 1930s as a social structure. As a result, the tendency has been to view Okinawan society in the South Seas Archipelago
statically.

In contrast, this paper examines how the Okinawans youth who behaved like "Japanese" and attempted to achieve socioeconomic status equal to that of the Japanese emerged through the involvement of Japanese teachers, Okinawan elites, and their parents in 1930s. On top of that, this paper pointed out that the imperial hierarchy described above was a discourse circulated in the 1940s, when the ruling class, including the South Seas Agency and Japanese corporations, wanted to utilize the power of "strong Okinawans," typified by the older generation that had pioneered the Nanyo archipelago, rather than these younger generation, in pioneering the Japanese control of Southeast Asia.

The Collection and Compilation of Materials in Postwar Okinawa and Recent Digital Archiving Efforts

YAMADA Kosei & ONO Yuriko

This study discusses how a wide range of historical materials underpinning the study of Ryukyuan Okinawan history were collected and made accessible in postwar Okinawa. Although the 1945 Battle of Okinawa devastated the island, Government of the Ryukyu Islands began collecting materials as early as the 1950s, and both planned and carried out several large-scale projects to compile these materials such as "The History of Okinawa Prefecture" and "The History of Naha City." Since the 1980s, the compilation of regional histories (municipal histories) has continued throughout the prefecture, culminating in the establishment of the Okinawa Prefectural Archives in 1995. This study introduces the distinctive aspects of the Okinawan approach to collecting and compiling historical materials that have driven the study of postwar Okinawan history.

In recent years, Okinawa has begun to use digital archiving to proactively open its archives to the public, something that has attracted attention throughout Japan. This study also explains what kinds of materials are now publicly available in Okinawa, and introduces specific examples of the browsing environments that have been established for public viewing today. We then both outline the current situation of public access to materials and identify continuing issues.

No.1023 June 2022

Special Issue: 50th Anniversary of the Reversion of Okinawa to Japan: The Present State of Ryukyu and Okinawan History(Ⅰ)
Prefacethe Editorial Board(1)
Articles
Archaeological Perspectives on the Formative Process of the Ryukyu KingdomSETO Tetsuya(2)
The Transitional Period between Early Modern and Modern Periods in Ryukyu and Okinawan History: Research Trends on the Ryukyu Disposition and the Preservation of Old CustomsMAEDA Yuki(14)
Considerations on the Battle of OkinawaTOMIYAMA Ichiro(24)
The Politics of Okinawan Occupation, Food Rationing, and Labor: The Spatial Structures of Kin Bay and Minato VillageJAHANA Naomi(35)
Relocating the Okinawa Reversion in the Close-down Processes of the U.S. Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR)YOSHIMOTO Hideko(47)
The Cold War in East Asia and OkinawaNARITA Chihiro(57)
Views and Reviews
The Ryukyu Empire from the Perspective of the IslandsMURAKI Jiro(68)
Current Topics:Ukraine Crisis
The Invasion of Ukraine and NeoliberalismMINAMIZUKA Shingo(74)
Announcement
We Thoroughly Condemn Russia’s Invasion of UkraineThe Committee(80)

Summary

Archaeological Perspectives on the Formative Process of the Ryukyu Kingdom

SETO Tetsuya

This study divides the Gusuku Period, which covers from the origins of agriculture in the Ryukyu Archipelago to the formation of the Ryukyu Kingdom, into four stages based on archaeological findings of ceramic trade and the development of gusuku. Gusuku are fortifications built in a uniquely Ryukyuan style, and developed from fortified religious sites and settlements into fortified political centers. The first stage spans the 11th to the 12th centuries and the establishment of a Ryukyu cultural domain that shared a common trading system and culture triggered by the onset of agriculture. The second stage covers the 13th to the first half of the 14th centuries, when gusuku developed as key settlements in ports throughout the Ryukyu Islands supporting the “Southern Islands route” for trade between Japan and China. The third stage covers the late 14th to mid-15th centuries, when the establishment of tributary relationship with the Ming Dynasty led to the rapid development of Naha port and the rise to eminence of the elite clique centered on Shuri Gusuku over other regions. The fourth stage covers the late 15th to the late 16th centuries, when local gusuku scattered throughout the archipelago were abandoned and the ruling elite that was concentrated in Shuri and Naha consolidated their control of the archipelago as a centralized society. As described above, the originally loosely stratified island societies of the Ryukyu Archipelago were “non-mobile societies” and the tributary relationship with the Ming Dynasty was probably a prerequisite in the development of the Ryukyu Kingdom as an entity which traded extensively with the outside world.

The Transitional Period between Early Modern and Modern Periods in Ryukyu and Okinawan History: Research Trends on the Ryukyu Disposition and the Preservation of Old Customs

MAEDA Yuki

This study refers to how historical research on the "Ryukyu Disposition" and the subsequent "preservation of old customs" changed with the "return Okinawa to Japan" movement in 1972 and the background to this change.

In the context of the sovereignty movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the "Ryukyu Disposition" was a central theme in the study of Ryukyuan Okinawan history. The discussion essentially inherited prewar historical research and was based on recognizing the "Ryukyu Disposition" as "emancipation of slaves and ethnic unification”.

However, advancements in Ryukyu historical research after the islands reverted to Japanese rule established the image of the Ryukyu Kingdom as constituting an independent "nation" , which resulted in creating a new perspective on the "Ryukyu disposition" as an act of annexation. Today, in face of the reality that the situation of Okinawa as an island dominated by U.S. military bases has not changed even fifty years on from the Reversion, research on Okinawan history has to re-examine its premises, such as what is its standpoint and on whom it focuses on as its protagonists.

With this in mind, this paper argues that in order to write the history of Okinawa as an “autonomous entity after the Disposition, scholars need to both go back to learn from old Ryukyuan historical research on the one hand, and to utilize previously ignored historical sources.

Based on the above research trends and considering the current catchphrase of Okinawan "autonomy" as a future perspective, this study highlights the necessity in depicting modern Okinawan history by utilizing new historical materials while studying the results of Ryukyu historical research, a stark contrast to the situation 50 years ago.

Considerations on the Battle of Okinawa

TOMIYAMA Ichiro

The Battle of Okinawa is repeatedly mentioned in considerations on postwar Okinawan thought. This study examines what it means to consider the Battle of Okinawa in relation to the history of Okinawan thought and historical awareness. A major point of contention is how people view the act of vocalizing experiences involving the Battle of Okinawa. This study examines this issue in the following three respects. The first is counterintelligence and espionage. The overlap between everyday life and counterintelligence and espionage in the mobilization and participation of the Okinawan people in the Battle of Okinawa is extremely important. Second is the overlap between occupation and the battlefield. This question concerns what the situation from the battlefield until the beginning of occupation and reconstruction was like for the people who were exposed to violence and trying to survive. The third question is that of memory. The process by which memories of the Battle of Okinawa are conveyed in words is not one of memories suddenly leading to a verbal testimony. This study uses these three points to examine what it means to consider the Battle of Okinawa.

The Politics of Okinawan Occupation, Food Rationing, and Labor: The Spatial Structures of Kin Bay and Minato Village

JAHANA Naomi

This study reveals that under the U.S. occupation, the people of Okinawa were subjected to control by the intertwined structures of food rationing and labor, a topic so far unexamined in Okinawa's postwar history. In order to reduce the cost of occupation, the U.S. military "resettled" people from internment camps to revitalize production. Those who resisted resettlement, especially the citizens of Naha, were forced to move because the military had closed off the areas to which they should have returned. This forced resettlement was made possible by military labor, whereby displaced people were concentrated in Kakinohana district as dock workers around Kin Bay, or in Minato Village as Naha harbor work teams. These two locations constituted spatial areas where the underpinnings of daily life such as food rations and housing, were dominated by military labor. People relocated in Kin Bay were able to negociate with the authorities, but as the Occupation continued people were subjected to further relocations which resulted in a further reinforcement of the power structures controlling the spatial relationships. In Minato Village, Okinawan people were incorporated into the Occupation structures of dominance, and expelled dock workers who attempted to unionize. The voice of the dock workers became a "spatial rift" that showcased the politics of food rationing and labor that dominated the spatial relationships, and which do not become apparent in examinations of the administrative district. This domination has continued since the days of the internment camps.

Relocating the Okinawa Reversion in the Close-down Processes of the U.S. Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR)

YOSHIMOTO Hideko

The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR), which was the American administrative body during the period of the U.S. administration of Okinawa, was dissolved due to the Okinawa Reversion of May 1972. Its functions were transferred to the Japanese and Okinawa prefectural governments and private corporations. However, the military support operations such as public affairs or intelligence activities were not transferred to the Japanese government but to the related civil service divisions of the U.S. Embassy and U.S. Military Forces in Japan. Reviewing the U.S. national archives, this paper identifies the processes whereby the privileged status guaranteed to US military bases became institutionalized as a part of Japanese politics of the post-reversion period. By signing the Okinawa Reversion Agreement in June 1971, the Japanese government formally recognized the post-reversion effectiveness of the military laws that had established the privileged status of U.S. military bases in Okinawa. In this way, the Okinawa Reversion consolidated the U.S. base privileges in Okinawa.

The Cold War in East Asia and Okinawa

NARITA Chihiro

After the Second World War, the Cold War order took form in East Asia, characterized by the division of the Korean Peninsula and the conflict across the Taiwan Strait. This study examines changes in the issues of sovereignty over Okinawa and U.S. military bases, primarily between the 1940s and the 1970s, focusing on the relationship between the creation of and changes to this Cold War order.

In addition, as the end of the Cold War and the rise of Okinawan citizen movements since 1995 have made the issues surrounding U.S. military bases in Okinawa more visible, research on Okinawa's postwar history has recently gained momentum in East Asian countries. In South Korea, which was also heavily affected by the Cold war, there is a growing body of research on the postwar experience of Okinawa. Meanwhile, in both Taiwan and China, against the background of the conflict devolving on sovereignty over the Senkaku Islands after 2010s, there is a growing interest in the issue of sovereignty over Okinawa. Taking this recent scholarship into account, this study also reviews the involvement of East Asian countries regarding the issues of sovereignty over Okinawa and U.S. military bases during the Cold War period, and then addresses remaining issues.

No.1022 May 2022

Articles
The Tianzizhixi Seal Enthronement Ceremony and Imperial Worship of Tian during the Han DynastyAbe Yukinobu(1)
Changes in Governance and Native Chieftains in Lạng Sơn Province under the Nguyễn Dynasty in the Early to Mid-Nineteenth Century VietnamYOSHIKAWA Kazuki(16)
Views and Reviews
On the Exclusion of Students of the Korean University, Kyoto, from the Emergency Student Support HandoutSANO Michio(23)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HAYASHI Daiki, The Emperor's Personal Retainers and the Early Modern Imperial CourtISHIZU Hiroyuki(43)
HARA Jyun-ichirou, Travel and Feudal Domains in the Early Modern Period: the Religious Environment of Yonezawa DomainTAKAHASHI Yoichi(46)
CHIBA Takuma, The Maeda Family of Kaga Domain and the Imperial CourtASAI Ryosuke(49)
Preparatory Papers
Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan in May and June 2022(53)
Announcements
The 2022 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan(65)

Summary

The Tianzizhixi Seal Enthronement Ceremony and Imperial Worship of Tian during the Han Dynasty

Abe Yukinobu

From the late first century BCE, that is to say the Age of Confucianism, the Han emperors possessed six seals. In general, these seals were used when issuing directives to imperial retainers. However, the Seal of the Son of Heaven (Tianzizhixi天子之璽) which was used specifically for diplomatic correspondence was also used for sealing up the written prayers offered to the diety of Heaven (Tian天). Moreover, the Tianzizhixi seal was the only seal worn by the emperor himself at his enthronement ceremony. In other words, the Han emperors succeeded to the throne by receiving the Tianzizhixi seal and manifested their authority by presenting documents to Heaven under this seal. Similarly, a head of a government department was given an official seal on his investiture and after that he was required to seal all documents addressed to the emperor with this seal. In short, imperial authority at the time was characterized by creating a symbolic bond between the emperor and Heaven through the secular act of issuing a sealed document in the same fashion that imperial bureaucrats issued sealed documents in their daily work. This symbolic action presented the imperial authority to retainers in a form that they could readily comprehend, and raised the imperial seal to the status of being a potent symbol of imperial power.

Changes in Governance and Native Chieftains in Lạng Sơn Province under the Nguyễn Dynasty in the Early to Mid-Nineteenth Century Vietnam

YOSHIKAWA Kazuki

This study examines changes in the local government system of the Nguyễn dynasty, particularly in its relation to the status of “native chieftains” [thổ ty土司] in Lạng Sơn Province from the early to the mid-nineteenth century. In the Minh Mang Era (1820-1841), the court abolished the post of native chieftain in the mountainous provinces of northern Vietnam and set up an administrative system similar to that in the delta provinces. Nonetheless, in Lạng Sơn Province, some former native chieftains were still appointed after the reforms, which indicates that the government made accommodations with the realities of local society. However, provincial officials continued to report that men who were nominally registered on the tax and corvée register were missing, which means that the Nguyễn dynasty could still not collect accurate tax information after the Minh Mang reforms. In addition, the infiltration into the area of armed bands from Qing Dynasty China in the 1850s brought on a crisis in central control of the northern highlands. In response, the Nguyễn dynasty revived the native chieftain’s post in Lạng Sơn and Cao Bằng Provinces. Incumbents of this post were exempted from registration on the tax registers and the duty to provide labor and military service. However, the revival of the post of native chieftain in these provinces did not represent a wholesale revival of the pre-Minh Mang order; it was taken as a measure to deal with the threat posed by the incursions of armed bands from China, and the Nguyễn court continued to maintain an administrative system ostensibly similar to that in the delta provinces.

No.1021 April 2022

Special Issue: Digital Sources and Public History: Lessons from Memory and History of the Irish Rebellion (1641)
Prefacethe Editorial Board(1)
Articles
Digital Sources and Public History: The 1641 Depositions ProjectOHLMEYER Jane(2)
Controversial Documents and HistoryGOTO Harumi(11)
The 1641 Rebellion in Public, Official and Academic HistoriesKATSUTA Shunsuke(22)
Historical Perceptions in Public History: Ireland, East Asia, and EuropeKENMOCHI Hisaki(32)
Some Implications for East Asian History: Will the Voices from 17th Century Ireland Be Heard?YOSHIZAWA Seiichiro(39)
The 1641 Depositions and Public History: Some Comments from the Perspective of the History of Japanese-Ainu Relations in Early Modern JapanHIWA Mizuki(43)
The Potential of Public History Using Digital Historical ResourcesGOTO Makoto(45)
Current Topics
On the Eve of the Implementation of “Modern and Contemporary History (Rekishi Sogo)” in the School CurriculumNARIYA Ryuichi(50)
Announcement
Protest against Further Tightening of State Control over TextbooksThe Committee(62)
The 2022 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan(65)

Summary

Digital Sources and the Public History: The 1641 Depositions Project

OHLMYER Jane

On 22 October 1641 a rebellion broke out in Ireland that triggered the onset of a decade of civil war in Ireland as part of the wars of the three kingdoms, as the civil wars across and between the Stuart kingdoms are now known. The rising was accompanied by incidents of extreme violence as catholics attacked, robbed and murdered their protestant neighbours. The protestants retaliated with equal force in what became one of the most brutal periods of sectarian violence in Irish history. The 1641 depositions provide an unique insight into this particularly traumatic period of Irish history. This brief article aims to focus on three things. First, it offers a brief introduction to the 1641 Depositions Project which oversaw the publication of the depositions (online and in print). Second, it 1ooks at the reception of the 1641 Depositions Project and assesses its contribution to public history. Third, it reflects on some of the challenges faced and the lessons learned.

Controversial Documents and History

GOTO Harumi

The 1641 Depositions are arguably the most controversial documents in early modern Irish history. The project to publish these documents online and in print offers valuable insight into the possibilities and difficulties of public history and digital humanities. This article explores the nature of the depositions as historical sources with special attention to the the process through which these written testimonies were produced and were then exploited for political purposes in the seventeenth century. The deposition is a formal legal document produced in answer to the inquisitors’ set questions. Thus, it is essentially ‘polyphonic’, reflecting voices and perceptions of various people other than the deponents themselves. Furthermore, their sworn testimonies were repeatedly “edited” and published by their contemporaries, which partly contributed to the controversy over the reliability of the 1641 Depositions as historical sources. The second part of the article introduces the educational kit developed in corporation with the project, to think about how these documents can be utilised by students and non-specialists, and what is the role of historians in this process.

The 1641 Rebellion in Public, Official and Academic Histories

KATSUTA Shunsuke

The memory of the Rebellion of 1641 still lingers in Irish society, despite the fact that Ireland has experienced several incidents of political bloodshed since then. This paper attempts to elucidate various historical representations of the 1641 Rebellion, which were constructed at official, public and academic levels. Although the Rebellion was a complex phenomenon, Irish Protestants interpreted and represented the event as an organised Catholic attempt at the annihilation of all Protestants in Ireland. The Protestant representation became an official narrative through the annual commemoration of the event held by the Protestant-dominated Irish state between 1661 and 1800, but after the formation of the United Kingdom, the state withdrew from the official commemoration. Public discourse regarding the Rebellion was at first dominated by the Protestant interpretation, though several attempts were later made, by Catholic as well as Protestant authors, to revise this interpretation and to offer more balanced views. The debate intensified when the Home Rule question prompted Protestant Unionists in the north of Ireland to reactivate their historical anti-Catholic representation of the Rebellion. In contrast, academic historians based in universities did not play a major role in the debate, partly because of the difficulty in handling the huge collection of the 1641 Depositions, the main source for studying the Rebellion. In the pro-Catholic Irish Free State and Republic, publication of the Depositions was planned but cancelled. Hence, the digitised online publication of the Depositions in 2010 marked a watershed. While several excellent studies have appeared since, it remains necessary to examine what impact the publication of the Depositions will have on Northern Ireland, where dominant Protestants maintain a revived, semi-official commemoration of the Rebellion.

Historical Perceptions in Public History: Ireland, East Asia, and Europe

KENMOCHI Hisaki

This paper addresses how a public history approach can contribute to solving the problem of historical perception. It is easy to imagine that the issue of historical perception regarding Ireland has even deeper roots than the serious situation in East Asia, considering the time frame involved in Irish history. There are two directions in public history: (1) widely disseminating to the public the results of historical research, and (2) opening up participation in the act of dissemninating such results to the general public. The author is concerned about the possibility of historical revisionists becoming involved in the latter approach. Therefore, this paper focuses on the former approach, in particular the innovative approaches being explored by history museums in Europe. The digital historical materials introduced by Professor Ohlmeyer in today’s symposium can be seen lie on the same trajectory. In this case, we need to bear in mind that the sharing of digital historical materials is a result, and not a cause, of conflict reconciliation. This is equally true for the relationship between the sharing of historical perceptions and historical reconciliation.

Some Implications for East Asian History: Will the Voices from 17th Century Ireland Be Heard?

YOSHIZAWA Seiichiro

What kind of suggestions could the 1641 Depositions give us about the polemical issues of historical perceptions in East Asia? We should have in mind the prolonged process the 1641 Depositions followed until today, and be prepared to keep making persistent efforts for easing confrontations about historical perceptions without reacting nervously to sort-term changes of situation.

Even if we cannot get problems of historical perceptions to settle down immediately, it is possible to construct some common foundation of arguments little by little. From a long-term point of view, the most important way will be to share historical sources because by doing so we can make a starting point of common recognition. For that purpose, we can expect digital technology to be considerably useful.

Actually, I am not optimistic about possibilities that sharing of historical sources may advance harmony for short-term. Even so, it is not desirable to try to evade looking the historical events in the face, because tragedies in the past will surely give valuable lessons to the mankind. Those who read 1641 Depositions, including peoples in East Asia, are requested to think perseveringly about complicated nature of humanity, in other words, to try to sympathize with victims’ pains and scrutinize victimizers’ hearts.

The 1641 Depositions and Public History: Some Comments from the Perspective of the History of Japanese-Ainu Relations in Early Modern Japan

HIWA Mizuki

This article discusses the potential of web-based publication of digital materials and public history in Japanese society from the perspective of the relationship between the Ainu people and Japanese society in Ezo (modern Hokkaido) from the 15th to 18th centuries.

The Potential of Public History Using Digital Historical Resources

GOTO Makoto

This paper aims to add some perspectives to Professor Ohmyer's report, especially from the side of Digital Humanities and “Digital Archives”.

The 1641 Depositions is a database that has existed for a long time and is noteworthy for its material characteristics. In my opinion, this system embodies the ideal of the Web in a sense that it allows equal access to data from an independent standpoint for both providers and viewers.

On the other hand, digital databases inherently suffer from the problem of fragmentation of information. To address this problem, I have presented a model for providing data in a package of data sets, and point to a new information discovery method may be enable us to avoid this problem.

I then pointed out that the effective use of both informatics methods, which allow for the simultaneous processing of large amounts of data, and historiography, which looks at individual materials and examines their differences, could open up new possibilities for historiography. Finally, I pointed out the importance of the role of historians in " conducting" the collaboration between the both.

No.1020 March 2022

Articles
A Theoretical Examination of the Listes des notables:
the governing techniques of the Brumairien party
FUJIHARA Shōta(1)
Trends
Methods and Issues in the Study of Ancient Family RegistersTANAKA Yoshiaki(18)
History of Reading Nihon Shoki and Kojiki: After reading Questioning the 1300 years of Nihon Shoki and Nihon Shoki reinterpretedSEKINE Atsushi(32)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KAWAMOTO Shinji, Confucian Learning and Scientific Knowledge in Medieval Zen BuddhismSUGAWARA Masako(40)
NOMOTO Teiji, The Rule of Early Modern Shogunal Retainers (Hatamoto) as Lords and Their VassalsTAKANO Nobuharu(43)
TANAKA Toshitatsu, The Imperial Court and the Shogunate in Early Modern SocietyHAYASHI Daiki(46)
IMAMURA Naoki, Regional Administration and Finances in the Early Modern Period and the Meiji RestorationMANDAI Yū(49)
TAMAKI Hiroki, Attempts to Build Political-Military Relations in the Showa Period and the Conception of Total War: The Conflicting Priorities of the Army, Navy, and Intellectuals before and during the WarICHINOSE Toshiya(53)
TAKEUCHI Yūsuke, Imperial Japan and Railway Transportation: The Transformation of the Specialization in Empire and the Korean EconomyŌMAMEUDA Minoru(55)
Exhibition Reviews
Museum Exhibition and its Digitization under the Corvid-19 Pandemics:
Renewal of The Shibusawa Memorial Museum
KOBAYASHI Noburu(59)
Recent Publications(63)
Announcement
Request for the Cancellation of the Demolition of the Wooden Building of the Former Tokyo Imperial University's Second Engineering Department(64)

Summary

A Theoretical Examination of the Listes des notables: the governing techniques of the Brumairien party

FUJIHARA Shōta

On 9 November 1799 (18 Brumaire VIII), a constitutional reform group formed around Director Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, namely the Brumairien party, carried out a coup d’état in cooperation with General Napoléon Bonaparte. The following day, the French Directory was dissolved and the party established the Constitution of the Year VIII as well as the Consulate. The election system stipulated by the Constitution is known as the listes des notables (slates of notables). The interior section of the Council of State led the legislation, but the system had a very complex form. Its complexity derives from the greatest common aspirations of the Brumairien party: namely representation, meritocracy, priority election of urban elites, stable government, gaining public confidence and deterring forces of opposition. In short, the system was a machine made of various complexly joining cogs while keeping a delicate balance. By operating this machine, the Brumairien party hoped to build a strong and stable government and to end the Revolution. This also resulted in the dawn of an era of notables in France.

No.1019 February 2022

Articles
The Environment and Dysentery Epidemics in the Sino-Japanese WarKATŌ Masaki(1)
Views and Reviews
Historiography of Women Historians:
On the occasion of the Publication of Handbook for Women Historians (Due to be published in 2022 by Sekibundō)
ŌE Hiroyo (18)
The Historical Science Society of Japan and The Problems of Young Researchers:
A Review of the Special Section of the Annual Meeting in 2020
2019 Working Group
of the Historical Science Society of Japan for
the Problems of Young Researchers
(28)
Series: Dialogue between Historians and Archivists (10)
Proposals
Some Personal Notes on the Research, Publication, and Use of Documents Owned by Temples and Shrines OCHIAI Hiroshi (35)
Institute of Hongwanji Archives as an Archives for the History of Jodo Shinshu Hongwanji-ha:
Current Situation and Issues
ŌHARA Miyoko (37)
Visiting Archives
Recent Changes in the Jesuit Archives in Rome (ARSI) and in FranceYAMAMOTO Taeko(42)
Participating in the Resource Recovery Project of Mario Marega's Documents in the Vatican LibraryŌTOMO Kazuo(45)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
OWAKI Hidekazu, Ichininryômei (Double Status) and Early Modern Society: Characteristics and Structure of Status, Domination and OrderHOTTA Yukiyoshi(49)
KUBO Mariko, Modern Criminal Justice in China: China's Modern Legal History from the Perspective of Criminal Judicial ReformKATŌ Yuzō(52)
YOSHIMI Takashi, A Political History of Jurisdiction in China, 1928-1949MORIKAWA Hiroki(55)
SUZUKI Hiroyuki, The Mass Uprisings “Intifada”: Occupied Palestine 1967-1993YAMAMOTO Kensuke(58)
ŌTSURU Atsushi (ed.), Overloading of National Self-Determination, Continuity and Discontinuity in East-Central Europe after the Great War SHIOKAWA Nobaki(61)
Recent Publications(65)

Summary

The Environment and Dysentery Epidemics in the Sino-Japanese War

KATŌ Masaki

This paper investigates the dysentery epidemics during the Sino-Japanese War, focusing on the relationship between military activities and the environment of the battlefield.

Previous studies have argued that the problems of infectious diseases in the Sino-Japanese War were caused by the inadequate supply system of the army and the poor sanitary conditions in the battlefield. On the other hand, this paper examines the mechanism of the dysentery epidemic, paying attention to the environmental burden of the battlefield caused by military activities. As a result, it was possible to clarify that dysentery was prevalent in the Sino-Japanese War by relating the following factors.

First, there was an increased risk of soldiers having to drink sewage-contaminated water due to a lack of clean drinking water. This was caused by lack of access to potable water due to the season of the year, lack of wells, and water quality problems. The lack of clean drinking water led to an influx of Shigella among soldiers.

Second, the human waste left by soldiers infected with Shigella spread the bacteria among the cities and villages where they were stationed. Civilian infections increased the longer troops were stationed in an area. Under these conditions, the number of people infected with dysentery increased because flies transmitted the dysentery bacillus from infected feces to food.

No.1018 January 2022

Special Issue: Gender History from Diversified Perspectives (III)
Article
Middle-class ‘Femininity’ and Girls’ Education:
North London Collegiate School and ‘Domestic Subjects’ 1871-1894
NAKAGOMI Sayaka(1)
Special Issue: Overseas Study and Colonialism
Articles
Prefacethe Editorial Board(15)
Colonialism and Study-in-Japan Programs for Korean Students under Colonial Rule:
Focusing on the "Annexation of Korea" to Mid-1920s
BAE Youngmi(16)
Chinese Students in Japan in the Modern Era:
Centered on the 1935-1936 Study-in-Japan Boom
TAKADA Yukio(27)
Experiences of Indian Overseas Students and Their Perspectives on Colonialism and Resistance:
Hopes and discords in Their Experiences of Studying in England / Japan
MIZUTANI Satoshi(37)
Students Crossing Borders and the Formation of Pan-AfricanismNAKAO Sakiko(51)

Summary

Middle-class ‘Femininity’ and Girls’ Education: North London Collegiate School and ‘Domestic Subjects’ 1871-1894

NAKAGOMI Sayaka

This paper examines the reproduction of middle-class femininity through educational practices in girls’ curriculum and how transformation of educational practices brought changes in middle-class femininity. This paper provides a case study of the transformation of home economics and related subjects in North London Collegiate School (NLCS) between 1871 and 1894 to clarify the role these subjects played in the development of the academic liberal curriculum by examining the educational aims of these subjects and composition of the students undertaking such courses. Special focus is laid on the link between ‘domestic subjects’ and the actual content of the knowledge and skills which formed the concepts of ‘double conformity’, ‘dual aims’ and ‘scientific housewife’.

This paper will first summarise the overall changes in middle-class girls’ education during the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. Secondly, this paper analyses the purported goals and actual class content of specific domestic subjects classes to reveal how middle-class 'femininity' was reproduced and reinterpreted through these subjects. Themain sources used are NLCS archival materials.

Colonialism and Study-in-Japan Programs for Korean Students under Colonial Rule: Focusing on the 1910s to Mid-1920s

BAE Youngmi

Korean students aiming for higher education during the colonial era did not have any choice but to study in Japan. The state of education and the political and economic situation in Korea under colonial rule dictated how students studied abroad. The 1919 Three-One movement inspired many people to study, and the number of students studying in Japan began to increase in 1920. Those who had returned after studying in Japan participated in the Three-One movement and the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Korea and China. Since 1919, they had taken a leading role in social movements in various fields energized by “cultural politics.” In particular, it is no exaggeration to say that the socialist movement and media outlets, such as the Dong-a Ilbo, were led by people who had studied in Japan. However, in comparison with the overall number of people who studied in Japan, only a small portion of the returnees engaged in social movements. Korean students studied in Japan under the asymmetrical power relationship between Japan, the imperial power, and Korea, the colony, and were caught up in the web of the colonial system. Within this context, independence movements and social movements aimed at breaking free from the shackles of the empire were subjected to violence and social exclusion on the one hand, while the students themselves were conciliated and subsumed into the system as Japan sought to nurture imperial collaborators.

Chinese Students in Japan in the Modern Era: Centered on the 1935-1936 Study-in-Japan Boom

TAKADA Yukio

In modern East Asia, the prevention of invasion by the West, the building of a nation modeled on the modern West, and the elimination of unequal treaties were regarded as the vital tasks for the nations and their peoples. China pursued reforms based on the Japanese model as a means of accomplishing these tasks, and many students studied in Japan following the Sino-Japanese War. Japan, for its part, welcomed Chinese students and dispatched Japanese instructors to China to promote a Sino-Japanese alliance and to establish cultural hegemony. For China’s Local elites, studying in Japan was a career strategy that took the place of imperial examinations. This is how the first study-in-Japan boom occurred.

The United States sought to discourage this trend. The Chinese YMCA, universities affiliated with Christian organizations, and Tsinghua University promoted study-abroad programs in the United States for more advanced education. Studying in the United States became more institutionally advantageous due to the educational reforms of 1922. As a strategy for career advancement, studying in the United States came to be seen as superior to studying in Japan, which was becoming to act oppressively towards China. Nevertheless, Chinese words invented in Japan were deeply embedded in the modern Chinese vocabulary, and Japanese literature continued to be an important source of information regarding the latest academic trends and thoughts of Western countries, and the Japanese hegemony was not entirely erased. As a result, Japan and the United States, which were emerging nations academically and technologically, came to fight for cultural hegemony in China. Furthermore, the Chinese government could not completely control students seeking to study in Japan because it was easy for them to travel to Japan. Therefore, many people studied in Japan as they pursued various “strategies” that were outside the purview of the Chinese government.

The third boom for studying in Japan occurred in 1935 and 1936. It was easy to study in Japan, and people wanted to escape unemployment and acquire advanced knowledge. Japan provided financial assistance, while students sought to understand the current state of society and various fields of Japan and pursue career opportunities by utilizing what they acquired in Japan.

Experiences of Indian Overseas Students and Their Perspectives on Colonialism and Resistance: Hopes and discords in Their Experiences of Studying in England / Japan

MIZUTANI Satoshi

Taking up the experiences of Indian youth in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as a case study, this essay aims to rethink the relationship between colonialism and studying abroad.  The first part of the essay discusses the experience of a group of Indian youth who went to study in Britain around 1870 in their effort to become admitted into the Indian Civil Service, the most privileged section of the colonial bureaucracy which had been monopolized by British men. This paper shows how these Indian youth ended up facing discriminatory treatment by the British before and after their appointment, and how this experience was shared by many Indian elites, serving as a catalyst for the emergence of the first phase of Indian nationalism in the early 1870s. The second part of the essay discusses the experience of those Indian youth who went to Japan between the period of 1904 and 1910 in order to learn industrial knowledge and skills for India’s cause of ‘swadeshi’. Leaving India at a time when the anti-colonial movement had reached a climax, they had high expectations for Japan as an emerging ‘Asian’ nation that had just beat a ‘white’ nation (Russia). This paper shows, however, that some of the Indian students came to entertain a great deal of anger and disillusionment at Japan because of the latter’s own imperialism in Asia as shown in its colonization of Korea starting in 1905. The discordant feelings also led Indians to fear that Japan’s economic influence―as shown in the increasing dominance of Japanese goods in the Indian market― might pose a threat to the growth of the ‘swadeshi industry’, ironically undermining the very purpose for Indians to study in Japan.

Students Crossing Borders and the Formation of Pan-Africanism

NAKAO Sakiko

Studying abroad is above all an act of crossing a border. This article aims to explore how, in the colonial context, this act of crossing the border has contributed to forging a sense of belonging to a wider community among West African students. To this end, it examines successively the crossing of colonial borders within the West African imperial space, the networking of students in imperial metropolis, and the search for an alternative African path in a third country. Students who have left their homelands to pursue higher education have always been made aware of their position, and have taken advantage of it. Examples from both French and British empires have shown that, in parallel with the circulation within the empire, the Atlantic network connecting West Africa, the Americas and Europe had a significant effect on shaping the consciousness of African students abroad.