The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Sekibundo-Shuppan (Sekibundo Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.1013 September 2021



Articles
The Idea of “Taiwan Re-Emancipation” by Thomas Liao:
Focusing on hisRelations with the Chinese Democratic League in the Early Post-war Era(1945-1948)………………………CHANG Tsai-wei (1)

Trends
The Current State of Ainu Historical Studies:
The History of SocialInteractions and Other Arguments

………………………MINOSHIMA Hideki (18)


Series: Dialogue between Historians and Archivists (9)
Proposals
University Archives………………………SHIMIZU Yoshihito (28)
Trends of University Archives during the 2000s and 2010s……KATŌ Satoshi(34)
The Compilation of the History of Aoyama-Gakuin

………………………KOBAYASHI Kazuyuki, HINATA Reo (42)

Visiting Archives
The Past and the Future of Kyoto University Archives………………………NISHIYAMA Shin(49)
A Review of the Waseda University Archives

………………………SAGAWA Kyohei. HIROKI Takashi (51)


The Society's Report
Report on the 2021 General Assembly ..............................The Committee(57)

RecentPublications........................................................................(63)


<Summary>
he Idea of “Taiwan Re-Emancipation” by Thomas Liao: Focusing on his Relations with theChinese Democratic League in the Early Post-war Era (1945-1948)
CHANG Tsai-wei
This paper examines the “Taiwan Re-Emancipation” movement led by Thomas Liao in terms of itsrelationship tothe Chinese Democratic League (CDL). In Taiwan, colonial structures persisted underthe Kuomintang (KMT) regime, even after the “emancipation” from Japanese colonial domination.Liao pursued the political, economic, and cultural autonomy of Taiwan in tandem with the CDL’s“federalist self-government” theory. However, through a series of events such as the negation ofautonomy in the Constitution of the Republic of China, the postponement of self-government basedon the Constitution, and the February 28th massacre, Liao came to stand in opposition to the KMTregime. After moving his base to Hong Kong, Liao organized the Formosan League for Re-emancipation and explored the possibilities of conducting a referendum to determine whether toparticipate in the Chinese Federation, but ended in confronting not only the Chinese CommunistParty but also the CDL. Liao’s ideas had much in common with the CDL in terms of liberalism, buthis thought put more importance to the “freedom from the state”, by prioritizing decolonizationbased on his colonial experience.

No.1011 July 2021


Special Issue: Historical Study about Human Movement and Knowledge Production

Preface ……………………… the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
The “Study-Abroad” Experience of Japanese Monks Visiting Sung Dynasty China: Focusing on the Heian Period

………………………TESHIMA Takahiro(2)

The Meanings of the Traveling Done by the Aṣḥāb/Ahl al-Ḥadīth

………………………MORIYAMA Teruaki(12)

The Organization of Knowledge about China from the Perspective of “(Not Migrating” —Sinology and Beyond

………………………NII Yoko(22)

Traveling for study in the Medieval Dominican Order

………………………KAJIWARA Yōichi(31)


Current Topics
The Toppling of Edward Colston’s Statue: a dialogue with an unpredictable past

………………………INOSE Kumie(41)


Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
TANIMOTO Akihisa, Studies on the Ezo Local Society in the Early Modern Era

………………………IWASAKI Naoko(51)

NAKANO Ryo, Militaly Military Exercises of the Imperial Japanese Army and Local Society

………………………MOTOYASU Hiroshi(54)

ICHIKAWA Kōji, Tiananmen Square: A Spatial History of the Chinese National Square

………………………ONODERA Shiro(57)

MIZUNO Hiroko, Victimhood-Nationalism (Opfer-Nationalismus) in Austria after World War II: Rememberingf the Great Wars and Nazism

………………………TAKAHASHI Hidetoshi(61)


<Summary>
The “Study-Abroad” Experience of Japanese Monks Visiting Sung Dynasty China: Focusing on the Heian Period
TESHIMA Takahiro
There was a wide variety in the purposes of Japanese monks visiting Sung Dynasty China. Chōnen, who visited the Northern Sung Dynasty in 983, followed in the footsteps of monks who visited during the Tang Dynasty, studied esoteric Buddhism, and introduced it into Japan along with Buddhist scriptures. He also proselytized the newest teachings of Sung Dynasty Buddhism, but met with opposition from the mainstream factions of Buddhism in Japan. Jakushō, who traveled to Sung Dynasty China in 1003, did not return to Japan but remained in China to study Buddhism in depth. Jōjin, who visited Sung Dynasty China in his old age in 1072, rather than wishing to learn new forms of Buddhism, wished to engage in ascetic practices at sacred sites and attain rebirth in the Buddhist paradise. For some time afterwards, there are no verified accounts of Japanese monks entering Sung Dynasty China. Eisai and Shunjō, who entered Southern Sung Dynasty China at the end of the 12th century, believed that the Sung Buddhism was the Buddhism of Nirvana. Upon their return to Japan, they built new temples where they recreated the daily life of an order of Sung Dynasty monks and practiced Buddhism according to Sung rituals. Many of their students went on to study Sung Buddhism directly in China, and JapanSung Dynasty relations flourished.

The Meanings of the Traveling Done by the Aṣḥāb al-Ḥadīth
MORIYAMA Teruaki
This article discusses the meanings and functions of the traveling engaged in by a group of ulama, who referred to themselves as Aṣḥāb/Ahl al-Ḥadīth in West-Asian Muslim society throughout the classical Islamic period (from the 9th-13th century CE). Although different groups of ulama claimed the name of Aṣḥāb al-Ḥadīth for themselves across various regions and periods, the Aṣḥāb al-Ḥadīth focused upon here are the Hadith scholars who supported the Shāfiʻī School of Law and were connected to a scholarly line originating from the 10th century Khurāsān. This article traces the formation of the scholarly line in the 9th-10th centuries Khurāsān, along with its spread westward to Jibāl, Iraq, and Syria between the 11th and first half of the 13th centuries. The paper then considers the historical changes in the meanings and functions that travel had in the development and distribution of the knowledge which the Shāfiʻī Khurāsānī Aṣḥāb al-Ḥadīth created around the Hadith.

The Organization of Knowledge about China from the Perspective of “(Not) Migrating”—Sinology and Beyond
NII Yoko
Before the 18th century, knowledge about China was accumulated, systematized, and specialized through the collaboration between moving reporters (i.e., missionaries) and sedentary scholars (i.e., Catholics and intellectuals living in Western Europe). However, the cessation of exchanges between France and the Qing Dynasty from the end of the 18th century to the early 19th century prompted the systematization of institutionalized academic knowledge about China. Coupled with increased movement between Britain and Asian countries, this was perceived by Remusat as a “national” crisis for France. The main objective of Sinology, which developed in the wake of this crisis, was to become familiar with local languages, but by the early 20th century, it was organized as a discipline that comprehensively integrated knowledge about China, including languages.
However, certain knowledge was not obtained through Sinology but was gained from other routes. French society incorporated the Yongzheng Emperor’s precepts banning gambling as useful wisdom for moral education. The precepts influenced the moral writings of the early 19th century and the magician Houdin in the late 19th century.

Traveling for study in the Medieval Dominican Order
KAJIWARA Yoichi
This paper examines the educational system of the medieval Dominican Order which promoted traveling for the purpose of study, by analyzing the acts of general chapter and the registers of master general. The network of Dominican studia, whose hierarchical and tripartite structure – convent schools, studia provincialia and studia generalia – was built up during the 13th century, aimed to guarantee and improve theological learning and knowledge of the friars who were engaged in everyday spiritual care of the faithful. At the same time, it was focused on training the lectores charged with instructing ordinary brethren in the convents. However, because of economic difficulties experienced by the Dominican convents, their studia suffered from a chronic resource shortfall. At the same time, various privileges accorded to students and a thirst for this advantageous position often damaged the Order’s governance and the solidarity among the brethren.

No.1010 July 2021


Special Issue:Infectious Disease and Human Movement (Ⅱ)

Articles
Religious Responses to Epidemics in the Japanese Middle Ages: Examining the Yosumiyosakai-no-matsuri Ritual

………………………YAMADA Yuji(1)

A Firsthand Account of the Cholera Epidemic of 1858: From the Diary of Masuya Yahei, of Sunshu Omiyacho

………………………SUZUKI Noriko(12)

Pilgrims and Quarantine in Nineteenth Century Ottoman Iraq

………………………MORIKAWA Tomoko(26)


Current Topics
Remembering the History of Lynching in the United States

………………………SAKASHITA Fumiko(38)

Currrent Topics : The Government’s Refusal in 2020 to Appoint 6 Nominees as Council Members to the Science Council of Japan
The Tasks Raised for Us by the Problem of the Science Council of
Japan (Part II)

………………………ITAGAKI Yuzo(47)



<Summary>
Religious Responses to Epidemics in the Japanese Middle Ages: Examining the Yosumiyosakai-no-matsuri Ritual
YAMADA Yuji
Among the various calamities that can befall humankind, epidemics have historically been the most feared. This is because of the manner in which they have struck people down, seemingly without reason. In Japan, disasters have traditionally been faced by a corresponding mobilization of the different religions of the land, including Shintoism, Buddhism, and Onmyōdō (Taoist divination). However, only the outbreak of epidemics prompted the special carrying out of the so-called yosumiyosakai-no-matsuri rituals. These rituals were first conducted at the beginning of the 10th century, as an Onmyōdō practice. They were intended to prevent the emperor from becoming sick when epidemics reached the vicinity of Kyoto or crossed the threshold of the imperial palace itself. Eventually, the rituals took on the form of prayers to ward off evil spirits and were held at the four corners (yosumi) of a household, or at four key points (yosakai) around a province. Thus, they came to be referred to as yosumiyosakai-no-matsuri and were conducted more broadly as a means of quelling an epidemic. They were also conducted at the Kamakura shogunate. On those occasions, however, it was used to assist a shogun or regent's convalescence. In the Muromachi period, the imperial court continued to carry out yosumiyosakai-no-matsuri rituals, initially to pray for the end of an epidemic by the command of the emperor. Gradually, however, financial privation led to the real authority over such rituals passing to the shogunate before their performance finally ended in the middle of the fifteenth century.

A Firsthand Account of the Cholera Epidemic of 1858: From the Diary of Masuya Yahei, of Sunshu Omiyacho
SUZUKI Noriko
This paper provides a detailed analysis of a firsthand account of the cholera epidemic of 1858, as recorded in the diary of Yahei, the head of the Masuya family of sake brewers. To date, there is a tendency within Japanese early modern history research to deploy the term “the cholera disturbance” when referring collectively to the experience of cholera by the populace, thereby eliciting imagery of chaotic or deluded behavior. However, I aim to challenge the above common conception through a consideration of epidemic history from a micro-perspective. As I shall show, my analysis of Yahei's diary as a historical record reveals that his experience of the epidemic unfolded as an extension of his everyday life. There are a number of more specific subjects that I shall discuss. These include (a) how Yahei's perspective on cholera was shaped by information from his family doctor and information from other regions, along with his past experiences of the illness; (b) how seemingly outlandish religious ceremonies that were conducted to drive away the illness were held following consultation with the people of the town and based on information from other regions; (c) how the epidemic disrupted the customary rendering of aid to the poor by the wealthy members of the town; and (d) how discordance could be observed between the town's official denial of any discrimination against sick individuals or their households and the actual response toward them by various individuals.

Pilgrims and Quarantine in Nineteenth Century Ottoman Iraq
MORIKAWA Tomoko
The nineteenth century was the age of mass transportation and epidemics. After the cholera epidemic in 1831 the Ottoman government introduced a quarantine system to prevent epidemics caused by Muslim pilgrims traveling to holy sites such as Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula, and Najaf and Karbala in Iraq. In particular, Najaf and Karbala had been the centers of the Shi'ite pilgrimages and one hundred thousand pilgrims visited there from Iran annually during the latter half of the nineteenth century. According to their travelogues and diplomatic documents, these caravans of Iranian pilgrims faced the newly introduced quarantine stations at the land border, where they were strictly isolated in a walled area together with hundreds of other pilgrims for five days in a quarantine overseen by European doctors. Additionally, Iranian pilgrims transported thousands of corpses and bones for interment at saints' mausoleums at holy sites in Iraq. These corpses were at various stages of decomposition. The Ottoman government rigorously inspected the coffins and bodies being transported by the pilgrims at the quarantine stations of the border to ensure they would not be the cause of disease transmission. However, from the pilgrims' point of view, the newly introduced quarantine system was nothing other than 'injustice' levied on Shi’ite pilgrims in terms of additional taxation, movement restrictions, and allegations of their ‘uncleanness'.

No.1010 June 2021


Special Issue: Infectious Disease and Human Movement ()

Preface………………………………………………the Editorial Board ( 1 )
Articles
On the Historical Impact of Smallpox Epidemic in the Nara Period, Based on the Excavation of Nara Capital Site

………………………JINNO Megumi ( 2 )

The Spread of Cholera and Traffic Blockades in the Late 1870’s and Early 1880’s

………………………TAKEHARA Kazuo (10)

Hansen’s Disease in the Historical Experiences of Korean Residents in Japan

………………………KIM Kwiboon (22)

The Plague, Isolation, and Traditional Chinese Physicians in Modern China: The Case of Tianjin

………………………TOBE Ken (34)

Reception of Miasma Theory and Issues of Movement during the Era of the Plague in Western Europe: On Plague Etiology

………………………ISHIZAKA Naotake (45)

Venereal Disease of Soldiers in the Age of Total War: Attempts of Imperial Germany to prevent STD during the First World War

………………………MURAKAMI Hiroaki (59)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SUZUKI Yoshitoki, Household (Ie) of Wealthy Merchants and Farmers and Book Asquisitions in Japan during the 17th to mid-19th Centuries

………………………KAWAMURA Hajime (70)

KANEKO Hajime, Parliament and Constitution in Modern China: Genealogy of ‘Parliamentiary Despotism

………………………ISHIZUKA Jin (73)

Announcement………………………………………………(80)



<Summary>
On the Historical Impact of Smallpox Epidemic in the Nara Period, Based on the Excavation of Nara Capital Site
Jinno Megumi
In the Nara period (8c A.D.), an infectious disease regarded as smallpox spread throughout Japan. In 737 A.D., this disease finally invaded Nara, the capital city. It is estimated that as much as 25-35% of the population died in Japan. In this study, I re-examined evidence for the effects of this epidemic, using archaeological materials excavated from the Nara Capital Site. I investigated the relics found in long trenches dug in garbage dumps uncovered in the excavation of the NijoOji (one of the main streets) of the Nara Capital site.
From the trenches, two wooden slates inscribed with magic spells warding off smallpox have been found. Pottery used in the house of Fujiwara no Maro, an aristocrat who died of smallpox, was also found in the trench. I consider that this pit was a garbage dump for throwing away tableware or other objects contaminated with smallpox. People gathered the contaminated objects in one place and threw it away for fear of spreading the disease. After the epidemic, the number of large earthenware decreased, and the number of small tableware increased. I suggest that people who have experienced the smallpox epidemic avoided the use of large dishes. I assume that the change to serving food in small dishes was a measure to contain infection due to sharing common dishes. As we strive to contain Covid-19 infections today, I am convinced that the epidemic experience of the Nara Period was tragic enough to change people's sanitation consciousness.

The Spread of Cholera and Traffic Blockades in the Late 1870's and Early 1880's
TAKEHARA Kazuo
In this paper, I examine the issues surrounding traffic blocks implemented to prevent cholera in the late 1870's and early 1880's as well as the measures used against these problems. The traffic blocks were meant to prevent the spread of the disease by cutting off movement between areas with cases of infectuion and unaffected areas. The Meiji government made legal provisions for contain infection by cutting off movement to and from areas with cases of infection. These traffic blocks were effective as long as the number of cases was small, which meant there was a need for prompt and precise judgment. If a faulty judgment were made, the traffic block was not only futile but would also help to spread the disease. However, excessive traffic blocks were implemented in many places during cholera outbreaks. Several local communities even imposed autonomous traffic blocks to prevent infections from reaching their area. The national and prefectural governments, which were responsible for wide-area prevention, could not allow such excessive use. Accordingly, the Meiji government made detailed stipulations about the conditions and methods for implementing traffic regulations as well as strengthening its control over the implementation of traffic blocks.

Hansen's Disease in the Historical Experiences of Korean Residents in Japan
KIM Kwiboon
In this paper, I attempt to elucidate ways that political power can regulate individuals for reasons of disease and nationality by examining the experiences of Korean residents in Japan who either had or were recovering from Hansen's disease as they were caught between immigration control and Hansen's disease policies.
Not long after liberation of Korea, the Alien Registration Ordinance was applied to sanatoriums, after which patients who were Korean residents in Japan were all required to register. Regardless of whether it was for discriminatory control or preserving public order, the aim was not to ensure the rights of the Korean Hansen's disease patients. Furthermore, with regard to those who were considered “illegal immigrants” to be deported under the Immigration Control Ordinance, which was issued in 1951, they became subject to even stricter surveillance, which placed severe limitations upon their lives. In this paper, I argue that the blatant discriminatory policy against Korean Hansen's disease patients was based on an inhumane and exclusionist ideology that equated Koreans, illegal immigrants, criminals, and Hansen's disease patients.

The Plague, Isolation, and Traditional Chinese Physicians in Modern China: The Case of Tianjin
TOBE Ken
This paper examines the attitude of traditional Chinese physicians to the Chinese government's anti-plague measures from the end of the nineteenth to the early twentieth century. Infectious diseases such as the plague and cholera occurred frequently in modern China. The Chinese government rushed the creation of a modern healthcare administration to deal with infectious diseases in the twentieth century. As part of this process, the government expanded its social control with healthcare as a medium, which caused opposition between the government and the populace. In particular, this was most frequent when the government imposed isolation and movement restrictions on the people as a way to stop the spread of the diseases. What were the traditional Chinese physicians' thoughts on such isolation and movement restriction measures? In order to consider changes over time, I examine the contents of Shuyi huibian (Compilation on Plague), which is a medical text by the traditional Chinese physician Luo Rulan from 1890. Next, I consider the activities of traditional Chinese physicians in 1910's Tianjin during the plague, focusing especially on the activities of celebrated traditional physician Ding Guorui.

Reception of Miasma Theory and Issues of Movement during the Era of the Plague in Western Europe: On Plague Etiology
ISHIZAKA Naotake
During the era of the plague (Late Middle Ages, Early Modern Period) in Western Europe, physicians recommended patients to move (escape) to areas where the air is healthy and safe in order to escape air-borne pollution during times of pestilence. In this paper, I pay attention to the reception of the air-borne pollution theory (miasma theory) and discuss how it was used to regulate (play with) people's behavioral patterns during the era of the plague. At a time when people did not know that plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, they thought of it in the context of air-borne pollution theory as if it were a type of viral pandemic like COVID-19. However, although it did become customary to flee the cities as recommended by physicians, individual experiences also reveal ideas that differed from those of physicians and realistic responses. Thus, I look at concrete cases of West European urban citizens' experiences here. The sources I have consulted are life records, such as the diaries maintained by urban residents in the fourteenth century and beyond. Finally, I turn to the reality of how the wealthy escaped the plague (scale, time, destinations, etc.), which has previously been neglected in historical studies, from a social history point of view.

Venereal Disease of Soldiers in the Age of Total War: Attempts of Imperial Germany to prevent STD during the First World War
MURAKAMI Hiroaki
Besides commerce or pilgrimage, military events have long been the main factor causing largescale movements of persons to distant places, and have contributed to therefore not merely the creation of new cultures, but geographical diffusion of infectious diseases which were originally indigenous.
However, such the relation between military movements and infectious disease assumed several new aspects during the 20th century. First, wars in this century took the form of “total war"; that is, the male population serving in the field grew on a massive scale so that the risk of carrying diseases into the homeland rose in proportion. Second, the First World War was the first European war in which bacteriological knowledge was mobilized. Hence there was a fear during wartime that soldiers would bring exotic bacteria into the home, and even one's own neighbors or relatives might be the perpetrators.
This paper focuses as an example of venereal or sexually transmitted disease (STD) because it was also redefined as “infectious disease" in the meaning of bacteriology through the discovery of pathogens from the end of 19th to the beginning of 20th century. Moreover, except for influenza, it was one of diseases which showed the highest infection rate among German soldiers in the First World War.

No.1009 May 2021



Articles
Peopleˑs Life and Mentality in Shanghai during the Chinese Civil War

………………………ISHIJIMA Noriyuki(1)

Views and Reviews
Memoirs of the 2020 Online General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan.

………………………NAKAZAWA Tatsuya(17)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KOBAYASHI Isao, Confronting with the Nascent Civilization: A New View of History on the Mediterranean World of 7th Century.

………………………KUSABU Hisatsugu(25)


Critical Reviews on the Papers Presented at the 2020 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session…………………AKIYAMA Shingo,NAGANAWA Norihiro(28)
Ancient History Section………………………ICHI Hiroki,HONJO Fusako (30)
Medieval History Section……………………NITTA Ichiro,IENAGA, Junji (33)
Early Modern History Section ………………………WATANABE Takashi (36)
Modern History Section ……………UENO Tsuguyoshi ,HIRATAI Yumi (39)
Contemporary History Section …………AWAYA Toshie ,OIKAWA Eijiro (41)
Joint Section ………………………………………………SASAKI Makoto (44)
Special Section……………………………OTSUKI Hideo ,OTANI Satoshi (47)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan in May 2021……………(50)
The Society's Report
Report on the 2020 General Assembly (2)………………The Committee (62)

Announcements
Request Form for Preservation of ‘Takanawa Embarkment’

………………………16 Associations related to Historical Studies (63)

Online Replacement, The 2021 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan……………………………………… (65)


<Summary>
People's Life and Mentality in Shanghai during the Chinese Civil War
ISHIJIMA Noriyuki
This paper is a study on Chinese People's life and mentality in Shanghai during the period of the Chinese Civil War (1945-1949). Main documents which I used are two newspapers in Shanghai, "The Shanghai Dagongbao" and "The Wenhuibao".
When the Sino-Japanese war ended, Chinese people strongly wished for the coming of peace and democracy. At first this wish seemed realized by the Political Consultative Conference in January, 1946, but all-out civil war began at the end of June. This paper clarifies that many people opposed the civil war and took action to stop the war in Shanghai and other large cities. However, the National Government did not listen to the voice of the people and enforced a civil war policy. The tide of the war gradually went against the national army and the economy in the region ruled by the Kuomintang fell into a critical condition. This paper also clarifies that hyper-inflation caused severe suffering to people's life. As a result, the Nationalist Government failed to get the support of the people and was defeated in the civil war.


No.1008 April 2021


Special Issue: Historical Studies of Sports: Present and Future

Preface …………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
De-Mythifying of the 1940 and 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games         

…………………………………………SAKAUE Yasuhiro(2)

East Asia and the Olympics …………………………………TAKASHIMA Kō(12)
Comment
Is It True that Participation is Important in Itself?: Tasks and Prospects for Historical Studies of Sports and the Olympic Games

…………………………………………OBARA Jun (20)

Discussion …………………………………………………………………………(27)

Articles
Mass Propaganda of the KMT and CCP during the First Alliance: The Formation and Organization of Propagandists and Propaganda Corps

…………………………………………SUZUKI Takahiro (31)

Views and Reviews
Considerations on the Book Reviews on the Series, “World History Seen in/from Japanese History”

………………………MINAMIZUKA Shingo,KIBATA Yoichi&KOTANI Hiroyuki (49)

Current Topics:the Government’s Refusal in 2020 to appoint 6 Nominees as Council Members to the Science Council of Japan
The Tasks Raised for Us by the Problem of the Science Council of Japan (Part 1)

…………………………………………ITAGAKI Yūzō (54)

Exhibition Reviews
Gender in Japanese History, Special Exhibition at the National Museum of Japanese History

…………………………………………YOSHIDA Yuriko (58)


<Summary>

De-Mythifying of the 1940 and 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games
SAKAUE Yasuhiro
From the historian’s point of view, the 2020 Tokyo Olympics raise issues of the fabrication and mythologization of the history of the previous two Tokyo Olympics that cannot be overlooked. This paper primarily discusses two points crucial for the correction and demythologization of these issues on the basis of historical fact. First, the cancelation of the 1940 Tokyo Olympics was not unavoidable, but should be regarded as an independent decision by Japan to push forward with war in the face of the IOC and international public opinion. Second, previous studies of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics lack a proper grasp of the contemporary criticism of the Tokyo Olympics. It is necessary to construct a new view of history that incorporates these elements.

East Asia and the Olympics
TAKASHIMA Ko
This report provides an overview of the history of “East Asia and the Olympics” from three points of view—① inclusion and exclusion, ② the world and Asia, and ③ sports and politics.
The international sports world, as represented by the Olympics, has taken an apolitical stance, claiming that “sports are separate from politics.” On the other hand, the Asian sports world has taken the position that “sports and politics are inseparable.” Major international sporting countries and Japan, which regards itself as a leading power in Asia, have secured the inclusion of Asia in the world.
The competitive strength of China, which successfully joined Asia and the world in the 1970s, began to exceed that of Japan in the 1980s. Furthermore, China improved its relationships with South Korea and Taiwan and took Japan’s place as a unifier of East Asia.


Mass Propaganda of the KMT and CPC during the First Alliance: The Formation and Organization of Propagandists and Propaganda Corps
SUZUKI Takahiro
This paper analyzes the “Propagandists” and “Propaganda corps” during the first alliance of the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) and the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) to clarify the characteristics of the mass propaganda issued by the two parties.
The CPC had been working to develop propagandists before the formation of the party in 1921. The KMT enlisted propagandists in 1922 to appeal to a wide range of people, including workers and peasants. During the alliance between the two parties, the number of propaganda corps in which propagandists were organized increased.
The CPC was deeply involved in the propaganda bureau of the KMT, led the development of the propaganda corps, and implemented the “propaganda outline,” “catchword,” and “slogan” methods to unify the content of propaganda. Even after the purge of the CPC, the KMT continued to organize the propaganda corps promoted by the CPC to develop mass propaganda, and the contents of propaganda on unification remained unchanged. Producing content making a unified claim to mass support has become a characteristic of political party propaganda and serves as one of the means of governance of one-party rule in modern China.

No.1007 March 2021


Extra Edition


Plenary Session
Considerations on the History of “Hardness of Life”

………………………MATSUZAWA Yusaku, MATSUBARA Hiroyuki ()

Ancient History Section
Institutions and the System of Rule in Ancient Rituryo States

………………………KAWANO Yasuhiro, KANBE Kosuke (28)

Medieval History Section
Power and the Eastern Regions in Japanese Medieval History

………………………SATO Yuki, UEDA Shinpei (49)

Early Modern History Section
Shogunate Power and Wealthy Farmers, Village Officials in the Mid-18th to Mid-19th Centuries Japan

………………………MANDAI Yu, KODAMA Kenji (70)

Modern History Section
Reconsidering “Science”: From the Locus of Practices for Welfare and Sanitation

………………………NAKANO Tomoyo, ISHII Hitonari (96)

Contemporary History Section
Gender and “Emancipation” in the Age of the Cold War: From the Crossroads of Social Policy and Social Movement

………………………TOYODA Maho, SCHIEDER, Chelsea S. (120)

Joint Section
Rethinking the Sovereign State Part 3: Reorientation of Theories of Empire

………………………SUGIYAMA Kiyohiko, AOSHIMA Yoko (146)

Special Section
Considerations on the History of “Hardness of Life” II: The Problems of Young Researchers

………………………Working Group of the Historical Science Society of Japan for the Problems of Young Researchers, Special Committee of the Japanese Historical Council for the Problems of Young Researchers (170)


No.1006 March 2021



Articles
The Negotiations between the US and Japan Concerning the First PL 480 Title I Agreement: 1954–55

………………………ITO Atsushi(1)

Trends

‘Islands-wide Unity’ as an Issue in Post-War Okinawan History

………………………KOHAGURA Kei(16)

Current Topics

Digital Public History in the Age of Corvid-19 Pandemics: Current Status and Historiographical Possibilities and/or Tasks of the ‘Corona Archives @ Kansai University’

………………………KIKUCHI Nobuhiko,UCHIDA Keiichi,OKADA Tadakatsu,HAYASHI Takefumi,FUJITA Takao,NINOMIYA Satoshi & MIYAGAWA So(23)

A Study of the Decision by the Turkish Government to restore the Agia Sofia as a Mosque

………………………IMAI Kohei(32)

Current Topics:Government’s Refusal to appoint 6 Nominees as Council Members to the Science Council of Japan
Issues Concerning the Science Council of Japan

………………………KOTANI Hiroyuki(40)

Government’s Refusal to appoint 6 Nominees as Council Members to the Science Council of Japan and the Activities of the Science Council of Japan: With a Focus on the History Committee

………………………KIMURA Shigemitsu(47)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
WATANABE Takashi, Japanese Villages in the 17th to Mid-19th Centuries

………………………KOMATSU Kenji (55)

IWAI Shigeki, Tribute, Kaikin and Mutual Trade: Trade and Order in the Early Modern East Asia

………………………OKAMOTO Takashi (58)

MIZUNO Shoko, The Century of Ecology and Scientists in the Colonies: British Empire, Development and Environment

………………………ISOBE Hiroyuki(61)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(65)


<Summary>
The Negotiations between the US and Japan Concerning the First PL 480 Title I Agreement, 1954–55
ITO Atsushi
The US Government concluded Public Law (PL) 480 Title I agreements with Japan in 1955 and 1956. The purpose of this article is to examine the negotiation process for the first agreement.
Analysis of official documents from the US and Japanese governments reveals the following: 1) As an agricultural trade negotiation, the focus of the discussion was rice. The USDA, which needed to dispose of surplus commodities, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, which was eager for agricultural development funding, discovered a mutual interest in rice trade; 2) As a fund-raising negotiation, the Japanese government was anxious to obtain a large portion of counterpart funds and demanded autonomy for Japan in managing those funds. This approach was a result of Japan’s bitter experience of the Mutual Security Act (MSA) Sec. 550 agreement in 1954; 3) As a result of the changing US strategy toward Asia in the Cold War era, the use of counterpart funds was converted from rearmament to economic development.
These findings refute the existing literature that regards PL 480 as an extension of MSA and claims that the US intended to develop Japanese market for US wheat through PL 480 agreements.

No.1005 February 2021



Articles
The Japanese Navy’s Conscript Mobilization and its Accord with the Army
during the War in Asia and the Pacific…………………KIMURA Miyuki(1)

Current Topics
The National Diet Library in the Covid-19 Pandemic……KURASHO Kazuki & TAKEUCHI Hideki (18)

Series : Dialogue between Historians and Archivists (8)
Proposals
Problems Concerning Memories Related to Disaster Experiences:
Considerations from the Collection and Preservation
of Documents on Recent Disasters………………………AMANO Masashi (28)
Reflections from On-site at the National Archives and
Records Administration in USA …………………NAGASASA-MYERS Yoko (34)
Visiting Archives
Regenerating the “Amagasaki Municipal Archives of Regional
Studies” as “The Amagasaki Archives”: The Archives Projects
of Amagasaki City………………………KONO Mio & TSUJIKAWA Atsushi (43)
Present Conditions of the Archives established by Municipalities:
a Case Study of the Achievements and Problems of the
Musashino City Musashino History Museum……………TAKANO Hiroyuki (46)
Recent Publications…………………………………………………………… (51)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YAMAGUCHI Hideo, Regional Societies and Administrative Organization
in Ancient Japan ………………………………………KITAMURA Yasuhiro (54)
TAKANASHI Kumiko, The Age of Henry VIII seen by an Ambassador
to England ……………………………………………………MINAGAWA Taku (57)

Announcement
Joint Statement of Academic Societies in Humanities and Social Sciences againt the Rejection by the Government of the Nomination of Recommended Members for the 25th Term of the Science Council of Japan
……………310 Academic Societies in Humanities and Social Sciences (62)

<Summary>
The Japanese Navy’s Conscript Mobilization and its Accord with the Army during the War in Asia and the Pacific
KIMURA Miyuki

The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to examine how the Japanese Navy considered conscript mobilization during the war in Asia and the Pacific; second, to clarify the manner in which this attitude brought about changes in mobilization. From 1927, the Japanese navy recruited volunteers with a pathway open for promotion to the rank of petty officer. They sought to pressure the army to secure high-quality personnel through conscription. However, the army could no longer neglect the continuing increase in the number of men the navy deemed necessary for its operations. A new accord was thus signed between the army and navy in 1943 regarding conscript enlistment numbers. During the negotiations, what most concerned the navy was securing Japanese youth. In contrast, the army believed that a stable supply of soldiers could be better secured by mobilizing large numbers of Koreans, Taiwanese, and individuals once deemed physically unsuited for service. This difference in thinking between the military branches enabled the navy to recruit large numbers of volunteers from amongst the youth at their own discretion. The Navy’s advocacy also had an influence on the conscription system, namely the lowering of the suitable age for conscription in 1944-45.

No.1004 January 2021



Special Issue: Reconsidering the Japanese Imperial Succession: The Historical Possibility of Female, Maternal-line Monarchs and the Historical Reality of Crown Princes

Preface……………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
“The Unbroken Lineage” Theory and the Empress / Crown Princess: Focusing on the Change of Consciousness Concerning the Imperial Lineage
………NITO Atushi(2)
Comment
Empress and Crown Princess in the Medieval History of Japan
…………………………SAEKI Tomohiro (12)
Empresses and State / Society in Japan from 17th to Mid-19th Centuries
……………………………MURA Kazuaki (16)
“The Possibility of Female, Maternal-line Monarchs” and the “Modern Age”
…………………………OSA Shizue (19)

Articles
Revival Plans of the Imperial Court before the Restoration: The Significance
of Plans to Revive Courtiers’ Salaries ……………………KIM Hyung-jin(24)
Trends
Doctors, Hospitals and Patients as “a System”: Achievements and
Tasks of Medical History studied by Historians ………ISOBE Hiroyuki (41)

Current Topics
:
“Museums in My Living Room,” an Experiment in Dealing
with the Covid-19 Pandemic………………………….…SHIBUYA Mizuki(50)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(60)

Announcement
An Urgent Protest Statement on the Refusal by Prime Minister Suga to appoint the Six Nominees to the Science Council of Japan
…37 Associations related to Historical Studies (63)

<Summary>
“The Unbroken Lineage” Theory and the Empress /
Crown Princess: Focusing on the Change of Consciousness
Concerning the Imperial Lineage
NITO Atushi
This study aims to present key issues in the recent discussion of the Japanese imperial succession, especially those concerning matrilineal sovereigns, female sovereigns, and crown princesses, from the perspective of the historical process of imperial succession from ancient times. In the first half of this article, I present a criticism of the ahistorical view of imperial succession summed in the slogan “An unbroken lineage since time immemorial,” and then examine qualitative differences determined by prevailing contemporary circumstances, with special attention given to the modern and medieval periods. In the latter half, I incorporate ideas on kingship taken from the arguments derived from comparative studies of historical royal authority into an examination of actual examples of female sovereigns and crown princesses in Japan during the classical and early modern periods. Here, the main goal is not merely to discuss the possibility of a female sovereign or crown princess; it is rather to explore the shaky historicity of the content of the “hereditary succession of royal line” prescribed by the Imperial Household Law.


Revival Plans of the Imperial Court before the Restoration:
The Significance of Plans to Revive Courtiers’ Salaries
KIM Hyung-jin
In 1827, the shogun Tokugawa Ienari was promoted to the post of daijo-daijin (grand minister of state) with the court’s approval. This was the first time that an incumbent shogun was promoted to daijo-daijin. In return for this favor, the court proposed a plan of new salary system for the courtiers to be implemented with the shogunate’s support. According to this plan, salaries would be given to courtiers ostensibly according to the ancient ritsuro salary system-such as iden (rice fields provided depending on the court rank) and shikiden (rice fields allotted according to the post in the court).
Although this plan was ultimately not accepted by the shogunate, it had a greater significance than it appeared to. To date, studies of the imperial court’s plans for restoration have focused solely on matter related to the revival of rituals and ceremonials, this study demonstrates that these plans also included solutions for the courtiers’ daily living expenses.
The role of the kampaku (chief advisor) Takatsukasa Masamichi was important in devising this plan. He is generally known as the leading pro-shogunate courtier during the political turmoil after the 1850s. However, it should be noted that Masamichi himself also have had a strong desire to restore the court’s historical heritage.