The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Sekibundo-Shuppan (Sekibundo Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.1003  December 2020


Special Issue The Crisis of Cultural Properties and Historical Studies (Ⅱ)
Articles
Ownership and Communalization of Cultural Properties:
Who owns Cultural Properties ?………………………………YOKOUCHI Hiroto(1)
Is it Possible to “Utilize” Cultural Properties? :
Considerations with Respect to Ainu “Cultural Property”………………TANIMOTO Akihisa(10)
The Crisis of Public Museums as Institutions for the Preservation of Cultural Property:
The Arrival of the Local Incorporated Administrative Agency as a Form of Management
……………………INOUE Tomokatsu(20)
Issues and Future Prospects for the Administration of Regional Cultural Property Protection
…………………………TAKAGI Tokuro(31) 

Trends
Pandemics and the Medical Environment in Japan during 17th to Mid-19th Centuries
……………………UMIHARA Ryo (39)
Studies on Contagious Diseases in the Modern and Contemporary History of China
……………………FUKUSHI Yuki (48)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SHINOKAWA Ken, Studies on the Kunino-miyatsuko (Regional Governors) System and Regional Societies in Ancient Japan ……… MIZOGUCHI Yuki(57)
BABE Takahiro, Studies on the Hosokawa Family’s Power during
Mid-15th to 16th Centuries …………………………HAMAGUCHI Seiji(60)
OIKAWA Takuei, The Continental Policy of Imperial Japan and
the Manchurian Army …………………………………SHIBUTANI Yuri(63)
KIJIMA Atsushi, Regional Formation and Social Movements
in Post-War Japan ………………………………… TATEMOTO Hiroyuki(66)
MASAMOTO Shinobu, Reconsiderations on the Governance
Structure of French Absolutism ………………………NAKAMATSU Yuko(70)

Announcement:Urgent Protest Statement against the Rejection by Government of the Nomination of 6 Members for the Science Council of Japan ………(77)

Index. Nos.992–1003(January–December 2020) ……………………………………(78)

<Summary>
Ownership and Communalization of Cultural Properties:
Who owns Cultural Properties?
YOKOUCHI Hiroto
The current Act for Protection of Cultural Properties limits the private property rights of owners in order to realize the public nature of nationally designated cultural properties. Because of Japan’s declining birthrate and aging population, depopulation, intensifying natural disasters, tourism-related pollution, spiking real estate prices, and such phenomena as the Covid-19 pandemic that have resulted in a deterioration of the social environment property owners face, it is difficult for owners to maintain cultural properties. Moreover, the ongoing conversion of cultural properties into tourism resources will further promote the division between owners and cultural properties. Policy for the conservation of cultural properties has, in modern times, been limited to minimal, broad public assistance programs based on self-help, with little assistance provided to owners. In addition, religious and cultural properties owned by temples and shrines have been situated between religion and scholarship or art and do not reach the level of complete communalization. This is one of the causes for the stagnation of administrative assistance. Against this backdrop, temples and shrines have sought to ensure communality by opening their facilities such as treasure halls and libraries to the public while conserving their religious nature. With recent efforts to promote the public disclosure of data related to cultural properties, religious cultural properties must sacrifice their holiness. In order for the owners to maintain such cultural properties, society will need to respect the history of the stewardship of cultural properties through the owners’ efforts and render appropriate consideration and compensation.

Is it Possible to “Utilize” Cultural Properties? :
Considerations with Respect to Ainu “Cultural Property”
TANIMOTO Akihisa
The Act on Protection of Cultural Properties has been amended in Japan. The current Act specifies that the “utilization” of cultural properties should be promoted. The idea is to “generate revenue using cultural properties.” This Special Issue raises concerns regarding this policy change, as well as the concept of liberal “utilization” of such properties as a tourism resource.
In addition, I discuss the cultural assets of the Ainu people, the indigenous people of Japan. In the context of the nation-state, what criteria can be used to evaluate the cultural properties of minority groups? Discussions from this perspective have newly emerged in Japan, and this article addresses this point.
In this article, I also consider the history of how, since being absorbed into the Japanese nation-state in a position of inferiority, the Ainu people have sought recognition as a Japanese ethnicity by presenting their role as cultural stewards to the dominant Wajin group (the so-called “Japanese” people). This is thereby to propose that the mode of “utilization” of cultural properties should not be limited to “revenue generation.”

The Crisis of Public Museums as Institutions for the Preservation of Cultural Property:
The Arrival of the Local Incorporated Administrative Agency as a Form of Management
INOUE Tomokatsu
In 2019, the Administrative Agency for Osaka City Museums was established as a local independent administrative corporation. This organization manages the five museums which were transferred to it from the Osaka Board of Education. The museum’s collections were also assigned to this organization. The management of public museums by local independent administrative agencies was introduced to overcome the problems of direct management by municipalities and the alternative designated administrator system. However, those problems could be adequately resolved by a combination of direct management and the designated administrator system. The problem in having local independent administrative corporations run public museums is that they have opened the way for the outflow of the museum’s collection which is the common property of citizens. Local independent administrative agencies are permitted by law to sell or mortgage a property that is deemed no longer necessary due to a review of their operations or changes in socio-economic conditions. If the financial situation of the local independent administrative agencies becomes tight, there is a risk that the museum’s collection will be mortgaged or sold off or discarded, and thus be lost. Simultaneously, it has come to light that the government is considering a “Leading Museum” plan which promotes the sale of the collection of art museums. The self-evident method of protecting cultural heritage by local governments has come to a crucial turning point.

Issues and Future Prospects for the Administration of Regional Cultural Property Protection
TAKAGI Tokuro
The recent development of laws in the “amendment” of the Act for Protection of Cultural Properties and the enactment of the Cultural Tourism Promotion Act has clarified the government’s tourism-oriented national policy with regard to the use of cultural properties. However, the number of regional museums in each of the regions of Japan that together hold more than 75% of nationally designated cultural properties is currently inadequate. If, in actuality, there are not enough people and facilities to protect cultural properties, it will be exceedingly difficult to pass on these properties in their current state to future generations, even if money is spent on legislation-driven “cultural tourism” initiatives. In particular, the shortage of staff in regional cultural property protection offices, which originally did not have sufficient staff to reflect the variety of specialized cultural property-related fields, has become more serious following the “Great Heisei Mergers” of local government bodies at the beginning of this century. However, in some cases, the type of legislation described above can be seen as an opportunity to deploy human resources with specialized knowledge of cultural properties in the tourism and regional promotion departments of local governments. The academic community will also need to take active and affirmative measures such as promoting the creation of new qualifications: for example, “cultural property professional.” Universities are also being asked to identify new modes of education concerning the protection of cultural properties, such as increasing opportunities for students to come into contact with actual materials.


No.1002  November 2020


Special Issue The Crisis of Cultural Properties and Historical Studies(I)
Preface ……………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
Preservation and Utilization of the Castle Remains……………SHINYA Kazuyuki(2)
The Future of Historical Documents in Private Hands:
The Conservation of Historical Materials in the Age of Covid-19
…………………………………NISHIMURA Shintaro(11)
Cultural Policy Trends and Cultural Properties: Gaining Wider
Appreciation of the Value of Cultural Assets…………KOBAYASHI Mari(20)
Challenges with Tools and Raw Materials used in Restoring
Cultural Artworks and Artifacts: with Particular
Focus on Soko (Dressing) Restoration………………JINUSHI Tomohiko(30)
The Current State of Cultural Property Restoration and Issues to be Resolved
…………………………………………………OKA Iwataro(42)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
NISHIDA Kaoru, Studies on the Organization of the
Families of Shrine Priests during the late 16th to mid-19th
Centuries in the Province of Kai……………………………TANIDO Yuki (55)
OBIYA Shunsuke, League of Nations: Universality and Regionality of the International Organization.…………………………………SAKAI Kazuomi(57)
JI Hyang-Heo, From philosophy to 哲+學(Tetsu-gaku/Cheol-hag).…RYU Chung-Hee (60)

Announcement:Online Replacement, The 2020 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan……………………………………… (67)

<Summary>
Preservation and Utilization of the Castle Remains
SHINYA  Kazuyuki
The recent revision of the cultural property protection system has strengthened the utilization of cultural assets for tourism and town development. The maintenance of castle ruins and parks, which are popular tourist attractions, is a major administrative issue in regional areas, and there is a tendency to pursue their newsworthiness. Unlike historic buildings, structures such as castle ruins are not always recognized as cultural assets, and they receive less official protection. To preserve these castle ruins for the next generation, it is important to understand their essential value as cultural property.
In this paper, issues regarding the maintenance and management of the castle ruins are discussed as follows. Part I explains what needs to be preserved in castle ruins, with a specific focus on the stone walls. Part II deals with issues related to restoration of castile sites, and touches upon effective ways of communicating the cultural value of such sites. Part III reflected on the respective roles of local government and private organizations in the management and operation of castle ruins. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of publicizing the cultural importance of castle ruins, and argues that paying due attention to the feelings of local residents towards such sites is the most effective way to achieving their appropriate preservation and utilization.

The Future of Historical Documents in Rrivate Hands:The Conservation of Historical Materials in the Age of Covid-19
NISHIMURA Shintaro
This paper reviews the current state of the local preservation of historical materials. The author will elaborate on his involvement in material conservation, including problems and issues of conservation, succession, and utilization.
Old documents are always in danger of being disposed of or becoming dispersed. However, since 2000, the nation-wide rush of mergers of municipalities and the resulting reduction in the number of public servants has resulted in a marked thinning out of cultural property administration. This and an increase in the workload placed on teachers at schools and other institutions of learning locations has contributed to the further loss of old documents. On the other hand, there are various problems at conservation organizations such as Janpin, where the author serves as a representative. Resultingly, it is be expected that the administration of cultural properties in the age of Covid-19 will suffer even further damage than what was induced by the revision of the Cultural Property Protection Act. The daily operations of preserving old documents will temporarily cease as large numbers of people will not be able to gather in document repositories and is disaster rescue operations. However, collaboration with the local community, owners of the repositories, and the local governments are indispensable and may open up new opportunities for material conservation.

Cultural Policy Trends and Cultural Properties: Gaining Wider Appreciation of the Value of Cultural Assets
KOBAYASHI Mari 
When was the administration of cultural property protection turned into cultural property protection “policy”? Is administrative policy the same as a cultural policy? How has the administration of cultural property come to be included in cultural policies, and what problems does it entail? The first question is, what exactly is a cultural policy? To answer to the question, it is necessary to ponder how the policy has changed. The concept of public policy became widespread in the 2000’s. Only 20 years of public policy development has been observed. The government’s involvement in cultural policy is, therefore, a recent occurrence. So, how should this evolving role of the state in cultural policy be regarded? Today, cultural policies are expected to be objective and rational public policy. In this paper, we will examine the status of government-led policy, and the administration of cultural assets at the local government level.

Challenges with Tools and Raw Materials used in Restoring Cultural Artworks and Artifacts:With Particular Focus on Soko (dressing) Restoration
JINUSHI Tomohiko
Many cultural assets, such as artwork and artifacts, passed down over many generations in Japan, are made from paper, silk, and wood. These cultural assets require regular restoration with traditional tools and materials to be passed on to the next generation. Since such restoration is essential, the administration for cultural property protection provides subsidies for designated restoration projects. Since 1975, “traditional techniques and skills that are indispensable for preserving cultural properties” have received official protection, and subsidies have been provided for technical training, securing tools and raw materials, and fostering inter-generational succession. However, the aging of producers of tools and raw materials, and the absence of successors have become a severe problem. For example, Misu paper, produced in Yoshino-cho, Nara Prefecture, is indispensable for the lining of hanging scrolls and is an essential material for soko restoration. However, the aging producer of Misu paper is from only one family line, and the supply of the primary raw materials, mulberry and aibika, has fallen sharply. In fact, there is a supply crisis. Although the Agency for Cultural Affairs began a production support project for restoration tools and raw materials, such as paper mulberry and aibika in FY 2020, it is time for drastic measures to support restoration projects and secure the availability of tools and raw materials.

The Current State of Cultural Property Restoration and Issues to be Resolved  
OKA Iwataro
The art of restoring cultural assets, such as paintings and calligraphy that utilize paper or silk as a base material, is referred to as soko (dressing) restoration. The core of this soko restoration is renewing the backing paper adhered to the base material, reinforcing the structure. In the early 1980s, technique for safely renewing the lining paper was developed. This technique has become widely used in recent years and is a significant improvement in soko restoration. Restoration policies were carefully revised because of this technique.
To ensure that cultural assets are passed on to future generations, human resources must be trained to acquire the necessary technological skills for proper soko restoration. In addition, the production of tools and materials to support the soko restoration technique has declined critically due to aging and the lack of successors. Cultural assets have entered the era where they are utilized and protected. While soko restoration technique maintains the condition of cultural assets, it is exposed to various challenges. Among these are, developing skilled human resources and securing a stable supply of high-quality renovation material.

No.1001 October 2020


Articles
Changing the Army Enlistment Period of the Normal School Graduate:
From the Reform of Conscription Law in 1918 to the Placement
Law of Active Officials into Schools …………………KASAMATSU Keita (1)
The “Raising of Awareness in the '60s” in the Study of Korean History in
Postwar Japan: The Intersection of KAJIMURA Hideki's and
HATADA Takashi's Thoughts on “Nation” and the “Japanese
Responsibility to Koreans” ………………………YAMAMOTO Kosho (15)

Trends
Current Trends and Tasks in Underwater Archaeology in Japan
…………………………………………………IKEDA Yoshifumi (32)

Current Topics
Shurijo Castle, Consumed by Fire…………………………DANA Masayuki (41)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
MANDAI Yu, Wealthy Farmer’s Management and the Clan
Finances in the Kinai Region from 17th Century to 19th Century
…………………………………………FUKUZAWA Tetsuzo (51)
HIROSE Reiko, Girls living in the Empire: Colonial Experiences
of the Schoolgirls of Soul Daiichi Women’s Public High School
…………HIRURA Satoko (53)
SEKI Tomohide, Political Concepts of Chinese Collaborators
with Japanese Expansion in China: Around the Period
of the Chinese-Japanese War…………………………HIGUCHI Hidemi(56)

Exhibition Reviews
‘New Life for Timeless Art’: Special Exhibition of Sen-Oku
Hakukokan Museum et.al / ‘Craftman's Implements: Tools and
Materials for Japanese Mounting’: A Special Exhibition of
the Kyoto Cultural Foundation………………………HAYASHI Akihiro (60)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………… (61)

Announcement
The Declaration for Prevention of Harassment of Associations related
to Historical Studies……16 Associations related to Historical Studies (63)
Online Replacement, The 2020 General Meeting of the Historical
Science Society of Japan…………………………………………………… (64)

<Summary>
Changing the Army Enlistment Period of the Normal School Graduate: From the Reform of Conscription Law in 1918 to the Placement Law of Active Officials into Schools
KASAMATSU Keita
The enlistment period of the Normal School graduate was changed several times, from six weeks to one year, from one year to five months. The author explains two reasons for why the enlistment period was reduced from one year to five months.
First, the budget of the Ministry of Education was not sufficient to pay the expenses arising from extending the enlistment period. This Ministry was concerned that extending the period of enlistment might cause a decrease in the number of applicants to Normal Schools. The proposal by the Ministry of Education to pay graduated during their period of enlistment was targeted at avoiding a drop in the number of applications. However, because the KATO Takaaki cabinet at the time was pursuing a policy of fiscal consolidation, the Ministry could not afford the expense of paying salaries to graduates for one whole year.
Second, the Ministry of Army was in a weak position during the negotiations. To support army officers who had lost their jobs due to the government’s disarmament policy, the Ministry of Army wanted to implement military training in schools as soon as possible. However, the Ministry of Education was adamant as they considered the issue of military training to be their bargaining chip to shorten the enlistment period. Therefore, the enlistment period was shortened significantly from one year to five months.

The “Raising of Awareness in the '60s” in the Study of Korean History in Postwar Japan: The Intersection of KAJIMURA Hideki's and HATADATakashi's Thoughts on “Nation” and the “Japanese Responsibility to Koreans”
YAMAMOTO Kosho
This paper aims to clarify the “raising of awareness in the '60s” at the core of the philosophy of KAJIMURA Hideki — a scholar of Korean history in postwar Japan — by tracing the intersection of KAJIMURA's and HATADA Takashi's thoughts on “nation” and the “Japanese responsibility to Koreans”.
The first half of the 1960s was a period of the dawn and development of the study of Korean history in postwar Japan. During this period, KAJIMURA put up a joint front with HATADA but was critical of his methods.
Around 1970, in response to accusations from Koreans in Japan and other minorities, KAJIMURA engaged in self-reflection and sought a methodological and qualitative renewal of his methodology. KAJIMURA redirected his criticism of HATADA at himself, and his thought deepened and flourished. Through this process, KAJIMURA began to study the Japanese settler colonials in Korea to deeply and concretely pursue the “Japanese responsibility to Koreans”.
In the 1980s, KAJIMURA began to criticize research trends that had lost their critical attitudes toward society, and he reaffirmed that he and HATADA shared a common set of values — the “raising of awareness in the 1960s”. KAJIMURA's reevaluation of HATADA had the connotation of criticism against contemporary research trends.

No.1000  September 2020


In Commemoration of the 1000th Number
Special Issue: Digitalization and the Issues It Raises for Historical Studies
Preface ……………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
The Present State of the Digitalization Historical
Materials for Japanese History ……………………………YAMADA Taizo(2)
Electronic Libraries and Databases in the Chinese-Speaking
World and Historical Studies of Modern and Contemporary China:
Centering on Outreach Activities………………OOSAWA Hajime(11)
The Digital Universe of Historical Resources as seen from ECCO
…………………KONDO Kazuhiko(24)
A Digital Humanities Approach to the History of the Colonial Andes:
The Case of the General Resettlement of the Native Population…………
SAITO Akira, KONDO Yasuhisa, MIZOTA Nozomi & KOYAMA Tomoko(32)
Concerns and Prospects for the Digitalization of the Publishing World:
The Survival of Academic Publicating in the Age of Digitalization
……HASHIMOTO Hiroki(39)
Disseminating the Results of Historical Research through Twitter:
The Case of Historical Background Research for NHK
Historical Drama ‘Sanada-Maru’……………MARUSHIMA Kazuhiro(46)
Twenty Years of ‘Cyber Chinese Studies’ ……………………SATO Shinya(51)
Communications and the Transmission of the Results of Historical
Studies through Twitter ……………………………NAGAMOTO Tetsuya(56)
Historians’ Workshop: Promoting Bottom-up International
Engagements in the Age of Digitalization
……………ICHIKAWA Kayoko,NAKATSUJI Yuzu & YAMAMOTO Koji(62)

<Summary>
Digitalization and the Issues It Raises for Historical Studies
the Editorial Board
Digitalization has rapidly transformed historical studies. This feature critically explores the issues that this trend raises for the discipline, exploring three main perspectives at the same time. The first perspective covers communication. Digitalization has led to a greater range of options to communicate the findings of historical research, making it easier for historians to communicate with a global audience. Social media, for example, offer historians the chance to reach beyond their peers and connect with the general public. This feature discusses the benefits and problems with this trend. The second perspective concerns the increasing use of digital archiving and Big Data in historical research. This technology has yielded fresh research outcomes, but it also entails limitations and problems, all of which are discussed here. The third perspective has to do with the attempts among historians, especially those concerned with East Asian history, to share their research activities and research outcomes as essentially open data, usually before they are complete. Thus, this feature discusses how sharing knowledge in this way affects research practices as emergence of collective wisdom.

No.999  August 2020


Articles
Issues of Organizing Process of Mutual Aid Teams and Elementary
Production Co-ops in Hebei Province:
From the Viewpoint of Mutual Benefit and Surplus Labor ………………………………KŌNO Tadashi(1)

Book Reviews:Series, “World History Seen in/from Japanese History”
MINAMIZUKA Shingo, World History as an “Interlocked” Whole:
Japan in the 19th Century World ……………………………………ISHII Hitonari(19)
KIBATA Yōichi, Travelling on the Empire Route: British Colonies and Modern Japan …………………………………………MATSUOKA Masakazu(22)
KOTANI Hiroyuki, Korea and the South Sea Islands of NAKAJIMA
Atsushi: His Experiences in the Two Colonies ……………………HARA Yūsuke(26)
KUBO Tōru, The Chinese National Anthem Born in Japan:
The Era of “March of the Volunteers” …………………………KUROKAWA Iori(29)
YUI Daizaburō, Give Peace a Chance:
Voices Opposing theVietnam War across Borders……………ŌNO Mitsuaki(33)
IKEDA Shinobu, Japan as an Empire of Handicrafts:
The Age of Folk Art, Handicraft, and Peasant Art…………………………ŌSAWA Hironori(36)
YOSHIMI Yoshiaki, An Empire of “Buying Sex”:
Historical Background of Japan’s “Comfort Women” Problem…………TAKEMOTO Niina(39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese
SERIGUCHI Mayuko, Doctrines and Indocrination in the
Buddhism of 17th-19th Japan ……………………………UENO Daisuke(43)
KAWANISHI Hidemichi, The Age of the Union of Japanese Socialist
and Communist Parties: Rethinking the History of
Revolutionary Movements after World War II …………………FUKE Takahiro(46)
ŌNISHI Haruki, Ocean Trades and the English
Revolutions……………………KAWAWAKE Keiko(49)

Exhibition Reviews
The Great Fire of Yokohama and the Modern History of Fire Fighting …IIDA Naoki(53)

The Society's Report
Report on the 2020 General Assembly ……………………The Committee (56)

Announcement: (Publication Request) We Ask for the Expansion of Basic Knowledge and Information by Expanding the Opened Range of the Digital Collection of the National Diet Library……………24 Associations related to Historical Studies(62)

<Summary>
Issues of Organizing Process of Mutual Aid Teams and Elementary Production Co-ops in Hebei Province: From the Viewpoint of Mutual Benefit and Surplus Labor
KONO Tadashi
In the early People’s Republic period, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) implemented an agricultural collectivization policy which started with mutual aid teams that developed as the People’s communes. Recent studies have suggested that it is because the social structure had already changed and the CCP’s power was much stronger in rural society that collectivization policies were accomplished rapidly within a short period. This paper reconsiders these hypotheses by re-examining the organization process of mutual aid teams and elementary co-operatives. In particular, this paper focuses on issues of mutual benefit and surplus labor in Hebei province.
We conclude that despite the CCP’s attempts to transform peasants’ “old-fashioned” cooperation into “solid” mutual aid teams, this attempt was not sufficiently accepted in rural society, and the gap between the CCP’s objectives and the actual state of communities were not closed. As such, mutual aid teams and production co-ops remained less cohesive than what the CCP intended them to be. Thus, the CCP’s power and influence was not sufficiently strong to achieve its goals and social reforms implemented by the CCP were not adequate at the grass-roots level even in the elementary co-ops era. Moreover, the CCP moved on to organize advanced co-ops and People’s communes without addressing these problems.

No.998  July 2020


Special Issue: The Politics over Excavations (Ⅱ)
Articles
The Creation of a Historical Monument in 17th -19th Centuries
Japan and Regional Society ………………………………………KAJI Kōsuke(1)
Postwar Administrative Achievements of the Cultural Properties Protection
in Japan and New Challenges of the 2018 Law Amendments…SAKAI Hideya(13)
Political Dynamics concerning Archaeological Remains and Myths in
Present-Day China: Who “Owns” the History of Zhuolu?…YOSHIKAI Masato(25)

Articles
Characteristics and Functions of the Extended “Village” in 14th Century Japan:
The Case of Kamimura and Shimomura in Yano Estate in Harima Province
…………………………AKAMATSU Hideaki(38)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
NAKAMURA Moto, Democracy and the Rise of Modern Cities in Japan.
…TAKASHIMA Shūichi(55)
ONO Yasunori, The Formation of the Ideal Image of Scholar Officials in the Late Quin Period: Guo Songtao’s Contemplation and Practice.……………TESHIROGI Yūji (58)

<Summary>
The Creation of a Historical Monument in 17th -19th Centuries Japan and Regional Society
KAJI Kosuke
This paper examines a cultural heritage preservation project conducted in 17th century Mito Domain, and how this project came to influence local society. The second daimyō of Mito Domain, Tokugawa Mitsukuni, had gathered together scholars from all over Japan to write a national history. When Mitsukuni learnt that there was a stele dating to the 7th century located within his domain, he dispatched a historian, Sasa Munekiyo, to the village where the stele was located. The historian enlisted the help of a local leader, Ōgane Shigesada, to erect a shrine to protect the stele. Furthermore, in order to ascertain whom the stele was erected to commemorate, Sasa conducted an excavation of two neighboring tumuli. The work of Sasa in cooperation with Ōkane resulted in the creation of the “Nasu Kokuzo Stele” as a historical monument. Maintenance of the site was entrusted to the Ōgane family, and the local villagers initially did not play an active role in preserving the site. However, the villagers came to see that the monument lent their locality a special solemnity, and played on the existence of the monument to claim exemption from a tax imposed in the form of providing post station porter service in the 19th century.

Postwar Administrative Achievements of the Cultural Properties Protection in Japan and New Challenges of the 2018 Law Amendments
SAKAI Hideya
Archeological sites and buried cultural properties, their excavation, research and protection, have played a major part in postwar administration of cultural properties in Japan. A large number of experts in archeology are working in the local public bodies in charge of the protection of buried cultural properties. The number of excavations assiduously undertaken across Japan are among the most numerous in the world and have elucidated the diverse local histories. Those excavation works have greatly contributed to the development of Japanese archeology.
The Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties was amended in 2018. This was not an institutional revision in a particular field, but aimed at comprehensive protection and utilization of all different types of cultural properties. One important example is that local government bodies were required to legally set a masterplan for managing local cultural properties (local heritage management plan). The change was a part of reaction to save declining local society, such as the towns derived from early-modern castle towns. It also proposes to shift the burden of maintaining cultural heritage from individual owners to the society as a whole. There are major problems with the large emphasis on tourism applications of cultural properties, but this direction can nonetheless turn to be positive if it could adjust the previous overemphasis of local cultural properties administration on buried cultural properties and historical sites. To bring this about, it will be necessary to review the short-comings of current cultural preservation administration, and to include fields other than archeology in this new undertaking.

Political Dynamics concerning Archeological Remains and Myths in Present-Day China: Who “Owns” the History of Zhuolu?
YOSHIKAI Masato
In this paper, the author mainly discuss the political dynamics concerning archaeological sites and their relation to ancient myths in China today. The specific case discussed was the site of Huangdi-Cheng Walled City in Zhuolu County, Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Since 2000 years ago, Peoples have evaluated these ruins to be a site relevant to an ancient Hero, Huangdi, in the myths of Han Chinese, but academic interest in the site was limited until recently. Although there is no archaeological c data to support the myths or beliefs by Han Chinese, in the first half of the 1990s, a variety of people living in various areas and having various social positions and ethnic identities took an interest in the site, and started to interpret the myths in different ways for the sake of their own economic or political gain. Examples include local CCP elites, CCP elites in the capital of Beijing, overseas Chinese investors, a political society established by CCP’s retired leaders for advocating Han nationalism, non-Han Chinese minority elites, and historians who represent the national academy. Contemporary China is characterized by the dominance of the CCP, but the reality is that the country is so big and the social composition so complex, that we can see complex political dynamics instigated by diverse actors with diverse motives also with regard to archaeological remains and myths.

Characteristics and Functions of the Extended “Village” in 14th Century Japan:
The Case Kamimura and Shimomura in Yano Estate in Harima Province
AKAMATSU Hideaki
This paper discusses the characteristics and functions of a wide-area mura (village) referred to in historical documents featuring mura that were established with development in the early medieval period as momentum. Kamimura and Shimomura in the Yano Estate in Harima are featured to explore the characteristics and functions of mura in the late medieval period.
Chapter I confirms that Kamimura and Shimomura were established in accordance with the local framework that spanned the regions dominated by Ryouke or Jitou. Review of the agricultural lands distribution of myou (taxable unit) revealed that myou in Yano Estate can be broadly divided into north and south areas. The territories of Kamimura and Shimomura, which were only estimated earlier, were identified. Studies were conducted regarding the characteristics of Kamimura and Shimomura in view of religious and irrigation aspects to identify the unique characteristics of each village. It was found that the origin of the characteristics dates back to the early medieval period when the farmland was developed.
In the Chapter II, the author reviewed the two ikki (riots) in the Estate to clarify the functions of Kamimura and Shimomura. Yuson, a local administrator, maneuvered to quell the ikki by taking advantage of the difference of the two villages. The study indicates that wide-area mura since the early medieval period functioned as a framework representing the interests of the respective areas within the estate in the case of the Yano Estate, which had a large area.
Based on the above analysis, the characteristics and functions of the mura, which were established in the early medieval period, were clarified. In view of the results of this paper and the multi-layered nature of the mura that has recently been pointed out, the term mura in the medieval period has a flexible meaning. Further exploration of actual conditions is required to clarify the overall image of the mura in the medieval period.

No.997 June 2020


Special Issue: The Politics over Excavations (Ⅰ)
Preface……………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
The Toa Archaeological Society’s Bohai Study and the
Japanese Advance into Manchuria………………SAKAYORI Masashi(2)
Modern Archaeology and Buried Cultural Property Administration………KIDACHI Masaaki(14)
Excavations and Politics in Modern Greece:
The Case of Heraion at Samos…………………… SUTŌ Yoshiyuki(25)
World War I from an Archaeological Perspective:
Experiences and Memories of Northeastern France ……………TATE Hazuki(35)
Current Topics
Classical Education and Redefinition of Ancient History in Greece
in the Period of the Rise of Extreme Right Party ‘Golden Dawn’ and
Coalition of the Radical Left…………………MOROO Akiko(48)

Articles
The Ethnic Policy of the Chinese Communist Party during the Chinese Civil War:
A Case Study of the Korean Cadres……………YIN Guohua(57)

Exhibition Reviews
“Rurouni Kenshin (Samurai X)”×Museum Meijimura:
Historical Studies and Entertainment History.
Cutting Open the Returning Horizon…………………ŌE Hiroyo(74)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(78)

<Summary>
The Toa Archaeological Society’s Bohai Study and the Japanese Advance into Manchuria
SAKAYORI Masashi
At the end of the 19th century, Japan participated in quashing the Boxer Rebellion in the Shandong Peninsula in China. Afterward, Japan received compensation that it used for academic research projects in China. With this support, researchers of the Tokyo and Kyoto Imperial Universities with those of Peking University in China and elsewhere, established the Toa Archaeological Society in 1926, to conduct archaeological research throughout east Asia. With the founding of the state of Manchukuo in March 1932, the Toa Archaeological Society received permission from the Manchukuo Ministry of Education to excavate the Dongjingcheng palace in the capital city of Bohai (Shangjing Longquanfu), supposed to have been founded by the Manchurian people. These excavations were conducted in two waves in 1933 and 1934. This work supposedly confirmed and proved, through archaeological studies, that the friendly relations between Japan and Manchuria had their origins in the amicable ties between Japan and Bohai and that the founding of Manchukuo was founded on this historical background. The Toa Archaeological Society’s study of Dongjingcheng, therefore, conferred academic justification for Japan’s advance into Manchuria.

Modern Archaeology and Buried Cultural Property Administration
KIDACHI Masaaki
In so-called administrative excavations, generally speaking, heavy equipment strips away the modern and recent layers to study the remains from pre-modernity and inclusion layers. However, modern archaeological sites are important links between archaeology and traditional crafts and modern society. The September 29, 1998, notification from the Deputy Commissioner for Cultural Affairs titled Protection of Buried Cultural Property and Facilitation of Excavations had a significant influence. While this notice stated that studies of modern archaeological sites “of particular importance to the region” were “possible,” this was interpreted by many local municipalities as a reason to abandon such studies. This is not only an administrative issue; it is influenced by the field of archaeology and university education. At universities, many administrators of buried cultural property have not studied recent history. These administrators bring the experience gained in on-site excavation to their administrative functions. However, the systematization of buried cultural property administration and the decline in civic movements have had an adverse impact, and these administrators cannot free themselves from the academism learned at the university-level. Hence, they have a low opinion of the modern era. We should aim for an archaeology open to the people that transcends academic boundaries.

Excavations and Politics in Modern Greece: The Case of Heraion at Samos
SUTO Yoshiyuki
This paper aims at elucidating the intricate relationship between archaeology and politics concerning the ancient religious center of Heraion at Samos, located in the eastern Aegean off the coast of modern Turkey. In spite of its active involvement in the Greek War of Independence, Samos remained a principality tributary to the Ottoman Empire and tried to establish its own legislative measures to protect the cultural heritage of Heraion against the avid antique dealers and speculative archaeologists of Western Europe. As it turned out, the semi-independent Samian government was fraught with instability and inefficiency and could not reject the application of the German archaeologist Theodor Wiegand, who had powerful political and financial backing. Wiegand successfully excavated the Heraion from 1910 to 1914. But the fact should not be overlooked that the long course of complex bargaining with such foreign archaeologists over the value of their own antiquities contributed to the creation of local cultural identity among the contemporary Samian people.

World War I from an Archaeological Perspective:
Experiences and Memories of Northeastern France
TATE Hazuki
This paper discusses the processes that developed in archaeological research in France concerning World War I and the archaeological contributions to research of the Great War by demonstrating new knowledge from discoveries in this field. It also expands examination of how excavating the “near past” of World War I impacts the duty to remember and looks at issues in archaeological preservation. Great War archaeology in northeastern France has become active with the development of preventive archaeology and interest in archaeological approaches to violence since the 1990s. Also, through the identification of remains, victims of this conflict regain their names and are honored and remembered by their countries and societies. Simultaneously, the scientific results of archaeology contribute to understanding the aspects of this war, including burial methods and life in the trenches. Trends in internationalization and denationalization in World War I research have also impacted the discipline and expanded what is subject to excavation. Although these achievements are insufficient under current circumstances, they have made contributions to society through public history and public archaeology.

The Ethnic Policy of the Chinese Communist Party during the Chinese Civil War:
A case Study of the Korean Cadres
YIN Guohua
This paper analyses the process and characteristics of the structure of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) cadres by pursuing the position of Korean cadres in the CCP during the Chinese Civil War.
Previous studies about the process of penetration of the CCP in Yanbian, which historically had many Koreans, have solely focused on the conflict between Han and Korean cadres when discussing power conflicts within the party. However, the intraparty factions among Korean members themselves are an extremely important element when dealing with the establishment of power of the CCP and the changes in its policy towards the Korean cadres in Yanbian. Focusing on this aspect, this paper firstly discloses the conflict among Korean cadres. Secondly, it points out that there are two reasons for the changes within the Korean cadres: the power struggle between the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and the CCP, and the perception gap over Yanbian’s sovereignty among Korean cadres. This paper provides new material for examining changes in the policy of the CCP towards ethnic cadres.


No.996 May 2020


Articles
Publication of Official Journals and Transformation of Government
Information Dissemination in the Late Qing ………… YUI Qing (1)

Trends
Recent Trends in Research on the Korean Correspondence Mission to Japan
………………………YOKOYAMA Kyōko(18)
Historical Peace Studies in Germany ………………………KIDO Eiichi(28)

Current Topics
Reflections on the Japanese Era Name System ………………ŌTA Yukio(36)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SHINBO Atsuko, Chinese Muslims under the Japanese Occupation
………………MATSUMOTO Masumi(43)
AOYAMA Yumiko, The Chancellor Section in Flanders from the
11th to 12th Centuries ………………HATA Naomi(46)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan in May 2020……………(50)

Society’s Announcements: Postponement of the General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan for the Year 2020 and other Meetings……………………………(63)

<Summary>
Publication of Official Journals and Transformation
of Government Information Dissemination in the Late Qing
YUI Qing
This paper investigates political culture during the New Policies period (1902-1911) by focusing on the publication of official journals.
The immediate purpose of publishing official journals was to manipulate public opinion in order to prevent a resurgence of anti-foreign movements. But as the New Polices advanced, actively announcing policies of the government was also required in order to expand the functions of the government.
As a result, at the provincial level, by publishing official journals, the provincial governments began to continuously and systematically announce policies within each province for the first time. At the central level, with the publication of the Zhengzhi Guanbao and the Neige Guanbao, the central government began to actively publish official documents by itself for the first time, and Neige Guanbao was ultimately given the legal role of “the organ for promulgating the nation’s laws and ordinances”. Thus, the reason for publishing information changed from releasing information in order to smooth the implementation of government policies, to a conscious dissemination of information as a necessary condition for implementing policies. By publishing official journals, the dissemination of information by the government started to become obligatory and be systematized.


No.995 April 2020


Articles
Conceptions of “Infants” and Funeral Rites in Ancient and Medieval Japan:Were Infants up to Seven Years Old Considered “Gods ?”…… SHIMAZU Takeshi (1)
Water Irrigation Facilities and Water Rights during the Colonization of Korea
…………………HONG Chang Guek(17)

Current Topics:The American-Mexican Border Problem
The American-Mexican Border seen from the USA: Border Line, Border Zone, and Border in History ……………………ODA Yusei (33)
The Mexican-American Border Problem seen from Mexico and Central American Countries ……………………ROMERO Isami (44)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HARAGUCHI Daisuke, The Chair of the Japanese House of Peers: With Focus on Prince Tokugawa Iesato, the Sixteenth Head of the Tokugawa Familiy …………NAITO Kazunari(52)
UMEMURA Naoki, Local Schools in Song China : The Transformation of Ritual Spaces and Local Identities …SUE Takashi(55)
NASU Kei, The English Revolutions and Transforming ‘Religion’ ……………TOMITA Rie(58)

Exhibition Reviews
Special Exhibition, Three Chronicle of the three Kingdoms, Tokyo Exhibition
………………………………SEKIO Shiro(61)

Society’s Announcements
The 2020 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan……………(65)

<Summary>
Conceptions of “Infants” and Funeral Rites in Ancient and Medieval Japan:
Were Infants up to Seven Years Old Considered “Gods ?”
SHIMAZU Takeshi
It has been claimed that from antiquity, there has been a conception that “infants up to seven years old are gods”, and even today this idea is still accepted in Japanese society as a kind of folk wisdom. This idea was asserted before World War II by folklore scholars. Their claim had two characteristics, that is, infants have divinity, and the spirits of dead infants will regenerate. However, recently some scholars have pointed out that the origin of this assertion actually derives from a fictive work of Yanagita Kunio.
While medieval historical studies has been influenced by this school of folklore studies and has been influenced by the view of infant divinity and of regeneration, more recent historiography considers the view of infants being divine to be inappropriate. However, the view of whether infants were not buried because the infant’s spirit was expected to regenerate has not been examined so far and remained as an issue.
This paper examines cases of infant funeral from the 8th century to the end of the 16th century and the views on the post-mortal world prevailing at the time.
As a result, it is made clear that the idea that “the infant is a god” did not exist in ancient nor medieval Japan.

Water Irrigation Facilities and Water Rights during the Colonization of Korea
HONG Chang Guek
This study examined the nationalization process of a dammed water facility called Nandai lake (equivalent to a Japanese reservoir) and the large scale conflicts that arose over its continued existence and ownership rights between 1907 and 1909 in this process.
From 1907, there was a huge drive to reclaim land from Nandai lake and authorization was granted by the Court and the Ministry for Agriculture, Commerce and Industry resulting in widespread protests by farmers who profited from the reservoir. While the land reclamation was authorized under the Nandai lake nationalization process , the farmers protested against the land reclamation on the grounds that the reservoir was privately-owned land. Ultimately, the area designated for land reclamation was scaled down but, after the protests were defeated, part of Nandai lake was reclaimed as national uncultivated land, and the remainder nationalized as a dam.The reservoir would eventually be totally reclaimed and cease to exist after being loaned to the Yellow Sea Water Supply Union in 1930, during the colonial period.

No.994  March 2020


Articles
The Gokenin (Shogunal Vassal) System during the Late Kamakura Period:
A Reassessment of the Standards for Land-holding and Vassalage ………NOGI Yuudai(1)

Current Topics
Protest Movement in Hong Kong against the 2019 Extradition Bill,
seen from a Historical Perspective: Compared with the Movement
for Autonomy in the 1960s………………………………………MURAI Hiroshi(14)

Series : Dialogue between Historians and Archivists ()
Proposals
The Task of Historical Epidemiology: ‘Making’ the Documents of Endemics…………IIJIMA Wataru(24)
Casting Medical Archives into Society: Learning from the Practices of Museum and Gallery in Bethlem Royal Hospital…TAKABAYASHI Akinobu(30)
Visiting Archives
The Current State and the Use for Research of Archives of
Mental Health History in Japan………………………………GOTŌ Motoyuki(38)
Current State of Archives on Social Care in Australia:
Access to and Problems Surrounding Care Leavers’ Records………………AKUTSU Miki(42)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
NAGAMURA Yoshitomo, Relations between the Imperial Court and
Warriors in Medieval Japan and the Jōkyū Rebellion……SHIMOMURA Shūtarō(47)
HARUTA Naoki, A History of Livelihood in Medieval Japan………SHIROUZU Satoshi(50)
YAMAZAKI Kōichi, The French Revolution:
The Birth of ‘The Republic’……………………………………KUSUDA Yūki(54)
TSUZAKI Naoto, The Problem of Nuclear Weapons in Germany…SATŌ Nagako(57)

Exhibition Reviews
Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics and Museum Exhibitions The Special Exhibition of Edo Tokyo Museum, ‘Sports in the Edo Era and Tokyo Olympics’……HAMADA Sachie(61)

Announcement
Regular Meeting of General Subcommittee of Rekishigaku Kenkyukai
“Sports and History: Their Current and Future”……………………………(65)

<Summary>
The Gokenin(Shogunal Vassal)System during
the Late Kamakura Period: A Re-assesment of the Standards
for Land-holding and Vassalage
NOGI Yuudai
The term “The Decrees of the Tempuku and Kangen Eras” which appears repeatedly in Kamakura-Period documents, has been interpreted as a collective term referring to shogunal decrees issued in 1234(Tempuku Era)and 1243(Kangen Era). However, in reality, this term refers to a decree issued in the 5th year of the Sho’o Era(1292). It was only under this decree that a common consensus was created that the condition for enfeoffment derived from the Decrees of the Tempuku and Kangen Eras. Under the Sho’o Decree, the qualifying condition for recognition of claimant’s land-rights was that the claimant had provided military service to the Shogun since the Tempuku and Kangen Eras. Thus, the Sho’o Decree created a clear timeframe for deciding whether a claimant qualified as a shogunal vassal (Gokenin)or not, and provided a defining linkage between vassalage and rights to enfeoffment. The Sho’o Decree of 1292 not only marks a watershed in system of enfeoffment and vassalage of the Kamakura Bakufu, it also marks a major turning-point in the Kamakura Bakufu’s processing of handling the thorny problem of how to incorporate the vassals of Western Japan into the Gokenin vassalage system.

No.993 February 2020


Articles
The Legal Status of Foreigners in the Early-Modern French Colonies:
From the Introduction to the Abolition of the
Droit d’aubaine in the Antilles………………………………MISE Haruka(1)

WGIP Problems
Trends:Education or Propaganda? :Historiography and Tasks
Concerning the Propaganda Activity of GHQ ……………KAMO Michiko(17)
Current Topics:Sweeping up the Debris: Before and After the
WGIP View of History.……………………………………………YONAHA Jun(25)

Views and Reviews:A Joint Meeting: New Perspectives for the Social
History of Japan during the Asia Pacific War
Preface…Academic Committees of Modern History Section and Contemporary History Section……………………………………………………(34)
A Review of HOSOYA Tōru, Japanese Pionneers in Manchuria and Mongolia, and the Expansion and Collapse of Imperial Japan …YASUOKA Ken-ichi(35)
A Review of SASAKI Kei, An Age of Industrial Warriors…MACHIDA Yūichi(38)
Comment:From the Point of View of Gender
and Women’s Experiences …………………………………ONOZAWA Akane(42)
Reply:The Japanese Pioneers in Manchuria and Mongolia
and Regional Society: Linking the Social History of Japan during
the Asia Pacific War to Social History After the War………HOSOYA Tōru(45)
Reply:The Features of the Wartime System, seen from the
Mobilization of Labor Forces ……………………………………SASAKI Kei(47)

Current Topics
‘Regeneration’ of Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris as a Historical
Patrimony and a Space of Belief ………………………SAKANO Masanori(51)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
FUJIMOTO Hitofumi, Shogunate Power and the Japanese State from
the 17th Century to the Mid 19th Century ………KOMIYAMA Toshikazu(60)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(64)

Society’s Announcements
Rekiken Symposium: Reconsidering the Japanese Imperial Succession:
The Historical Possibility of a Female, Maternal-line Monarchs and the
Hisotrical Reality of Crown Princes"…………………………………………(65)


<Summary>
The Legal Status of Foreigners in the Early-Modern French
Colonies: From the Introduction to the Abolition of the Droit
d’aubaine in the Antilles
MISE Haruka
This article aims to clarify the characteristics of the legal status of foreigners in the early-modern French colonies, by analyzing the introduction and development of the droit d’aubaine – royal right to seize the foreigners’ property after their death – in the French Antilles through a comparison with the metropole. This law, which was transplanted to the French Antilles when the crown put the area under his direct control in 1674, was put into effect following the same rules as the metropole under the principle of the legal agreement between colonies and metropole. But since the 1760s, the king decided not to apply the European treaties of reciprocal abolition of the droit d’aubaine to the colonies, while he abolished it unconditionally in French Guiana and two islands of the Antilles. The analysis of this series of development shows that the legal status of foreigners in the French colonies was determined on the basis of two inconsistent demands – exclusion of foreigners from colonial trade and their utilization for colonial development –, and that it was no longer the same between the metropole and the colonies, or within the colonies, on the eve of the French Revolution.


No.992 January 2020


SPECIAL ISSUE: Histories of “Water” as a Resource (Ⅱ)
Articles
River Management in Early Modern Hungary and the Kingdom’s
Local Communities: A Case Study of the Rába, a Right Bank
Tributary of the Danube ………………………………………IIO Tadaki(1)
Watering the Mexican Northern Frontier: Crossroads of the
Mexican Revolution, Dollar-Diplomacy, and South Africa… OKADA Atsumi(12)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YAMAMOTO Yukio, Shōsōin Documents and Zōjishi Kanjin
(Officials for the Construction of Temples)……………MIYAZAKI Kenji(26)
OHASHI Yukihiro, On the Hidden Religions in Early Modern Japan:
Kirishitan (Crypt Christians) and Hidden Prayer to Amitabha
……………………………………MATSUKANE Naomi(29)

Critical Reviews on the Papers Presented at the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session…………………………ASADA Shinji, TARUMOTO Hideki(32)
Ancient History Section…
…………………HAMAKAWA Sakae, FURUICHI Akira, HORII Kayoko (36)
Medieval History Section……………………………………KAWAOKA Tsutomu(40)
Early Modern History Section…………………………………………HORI Shin (43)
Modern History Section…………KAWANISHI Hidemichi, MAKITA Yoshiya(45)
Contemporary History Section………KIJIMA Atsushi, FUKAZAWA Yasuhiro(49)
Joint Section ……………………………………………………IIYAMA Tomoyasu (52)
Special Section………………………………………………………HIRAI Kazuko (55)

Announcements
Rekiken Symposium: "Untangling the Conflict over Historical Consciousness
between Japan and South Korea: Rethinking
the 'Conscripted Workers' Problem"……………………………………………(66)

Index. Nos.979–991(January–December 2019)…………………………………(61)


<Summary>
River Management in Early Modern Hungary and the Kingdom’s Local Communities: A Case Study of the Rába, a right bank tributary of the Danube
IIO Tadaki
This paper examines river management in the Kingdom of Hungary between the 16th and 18th centuries to understand how social order in the kingdom evolved during that time. The region this paper focuses on is the area around the Rába, a tributary of the Danube. The historical documents analyzed include royal law, records of the noble estate councils, and 18th century records of the Government-General.
According to royal law and the records of the noble estate councils, during the 16th and 17th centuries, rivers were used and managed by local communities, enlisted and directed by the high-ranking nobility. The Rába was managed by local groups across a wide region, and it served as a natural defense against the Ottoman Empire while also powering water wheels.
With the expulsion of the Ottomans, the kingdom underwent a period of social reorganization in the 18th century. During this process, the central government started getting involved in river management. The Government-General dispatched engineers to redirect rivers to create more arable land and a system of canals. However, instead of providing a large-scale workforce and funding, the Government-General followed the traditional approach for river management—enlistment of local communities and coordination by noble estates. It was only after the turn of the century that local actors started forming a consensus over river control, giving rise to full-fledged river control projects.

Watering the Mexican Northern Frontier: Crossroads of the Mexican Revolution, Dollar-Diplomacy, and South-Africa
OKADA Atsumi
This paper analyzes the historical process of Mexico’s irrigation policies following the Mexican Revolution, with a focus on the Yaqui Valley, Sonora. After undertaking irrigation works on a small scale, the federal government of Mexico entered into a concession agreement with a US firm, Richardson Construction Company, which then undertook the irrigation work of this arid area.
However, land tenure became subject to restrictions under Article 27 in the Constitution of 1917, which was promulgated after the revolution. Whether the article would be retroactively applied to existing foreign-owned businesses, was a crucial dispute. Consequently, US-Mexico relations hinged upon the issue of whether Mexico would nationalize US investments. Executives from Richardson Construction mediated in the talks aimed at getting the US to approve the Obregón regime. On the other hand, they also played an important role in bilateral negotiations in which the US sought to prevent nationalization of the existing foreign investments.
Nationalization of Richardson Construction was decided in the circumstances of a policy-shift in irrigation works from a concession-led to federal government-led. Worldwide political contexts, including that of South-Africa, should be taken into consideration to understand these business owners’ engagement in extensive activities.