The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Sekibundo-Shuppan (Sekibundo Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.978 December 2018

SPECIAL ISSUE: Population and the Powers (Ⅱ)

Groping for Population Theory in 20th-Century China……YOSHIZAWA Seiichirō(1)

The Ancient Roman Census: The Ancient State of Europe and
an Attempt to Ascertain its Population…………………MŌRI Akira(13)

Relief and Reform: The Great Famine of Ireland…………KATSUTA Shunsuke(24)

Critical Reviews on the Papers Presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session…………………………SHINOHARA Hatsue, USUKI Akira(36)
Ancient History Section………………YAMANE Kiyoshi,IMAZU Katsunori (39)
Medieval History Section…………………SAITŌ Natsuki,YUASA Haruhisa(43)
Early Modern History Section…………………………………………ONO Shō (45)
Modern History Section…………MATSUBARA Hiroyuki,MACHIDA Yūichi (48)
Contemporary History Section…………TOKUDA Masashi,IZUTA Shunsuke(51)
Joint Section ………………………………………………SUGIYAMA Kiyohiko (54)
Special Section…………………………TSUCHIDA Hiroshige,ODA Masahiro (58)

Index. Nos.966–978(January–December 2018)……………………………(62)

Groping for Population Theory in 20th-Century China
Although population theory in modern China had its origins in the theories of Malthus and other Western thinkers, it has been adapted to the realities of China from the beginning. Several factors illustrate the differences between the standpoints of population theories in China. First, there was the debate over the issue of whether poverty in China was due to overpopulation or unfair economic and social institutions. There were also differences of opinion regarding whether the tendencies of marrying at a later age and the declining birth rate in the West – factors which were unforeseen by Malthus – were desirable. Furthermore, these debates had been based on inaccurate premises because there were no accurate statistics regarding China’s population.
The Population Census of 1953 indicated that the population of China was over 600 million. Scholars such as Ma Yinchu warned of the danger that an increasing population could limit China’s economic growth. In response, although Mao Zedong stated that there was a need to publicly propagate the idea of population control, he remained unmotivated to adopt a coercive population policy too soon. This passive attitude on Mao Zedong’s part could be interpreted as a consequence of his pragmatic thinking. Once China entered its “one-child policy” period in 1979, the Chinese government began to advocate Ma Yinchu’s population theory in order to justify the extremely interventionist administrative measures taken under that policy.

The Ancient Roman Census: The Ancient State of Europe and an Attempt to Ascertain its Population
MORI Akira
Although the English word “census” comes from Latin, the ancient Roman census was not necessarily conducted for the purpose of ascertaining the number of citizens (i.e., the population); rather, it was a survey of the property and family members of citizens, for the purpose of determining their duties to the state (military service and taxes) and their political rights (participation in voting at Rome) in accordance with their wealth. In this paper, we will focus our discussion of the ancient Roman census primarily on four topics, and on the republican period. Our topics are: I. The census and the origins of the Centuriate organization, II. The census and the lustrum, III. The civium capita, and IV. The “decentralization” of the census.

Relief and Reform: The Great Famine of Ireland
KATSUTA Shunsuke
During the Great Famine (1845-50), Ireland was part of the United Kingdom; as a result, the highest governmental authority responding to the famine was the British Government, which was located in London. Prior to the Great Famine, the government was already aware of problems in rural Ireland, such as the imbalance between capital and labor (as well as indolence and the resulting poverty), but had yet to come up with effective policies to combat these problems. From the government’s perspective, the Great Famine provided a perfect opportunity to implement reforms as part of its relief package. During the early part of the Great Famine, the government policy had mainly been focused on relief because it was expected that the local communities in the affected regions – where landowners stood at the pinnacle of society – would take the lead in providing relief. Thus, the British Government’s relief policy was mainly focused on promoting landowners to invest capital on their estates to create employment. However, this policy was far from adequate, and as the Great Famine moved into its latter half, the government began to show a different attitude, by relocating those who had become impoverished in poorhouses and teaching them the value of work ethic, while at the same time forcing landowners who had insufficient assets, property, or desire to assist to relinquish their estates. Thus, during the Great Famine, those considered “surplus population” in the rural villages of Ireland were not limited to the starving common people, but also included landowners who were unable to assist in relief efforts.

No.977 November 2018

SPECIAL ISSUE: Population and the Powers (Ⅰ)

Preface……………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Guaranteeing Survival and Reproduction in Local Communities in
Ancient Japan  ……………………………………… SAKAE Wataru(2)
Classifying and Aiding “the People”: The Power Base of Edo-Period Lords
            ……………………………………TAKANO Nobuhara(11)
An “Unreliable” Census: Failure of the Koseki Family Registry
System in Modern Japan ……………………………………ENDŌ Masataka(22)
Understanding and counteracting the “unemployment of the intellectual
class” issue in the pre-war Showa era in Japan ……………MACHIDA Yūichi(33)
The Imperial examination and quota system of Song dynasty China:
Focusing on the Jizhou district of the Southern Song………KONDŌ Kazunari(44)
The population of Istanbul in the late 16th century………………SAWAI Kazuaki(55)

Counting ‘population’ in a military society: the muster of the
Early Modern German army ………………………………………SAITŌ Keita(67)

Guaranteeing Survival and Reproduction in Local Communities in Ancient Japan
SAKAE Wataru

Chronic famine made life harsh for regional communities in ancient Japan. To examine the system and social norms related to guaranteeing people’s survival and reproduction, in this paper, I focus on the Retributive Narratives and the utagaki (communal antiphonal singing) folklores from four sources: the “Nihon Ryoiki,” Japan’s first collection of Buddhist tales compiled in the first half of the 9th century; “Fudoki,” a compilation of local gazetteers; and two historical works, the “Kojiki” and “Nihon Shoki.” The latter three were compiled in the first half of the 8th century. The conclusions of this paper are as follows.
In regional communities in ancient Japan, adult women often lived in poverty, triggered by the death of their immediate family members or spouse. In view of theses circumstances, I indicate how kinship and local community, as well as establishing new spousal relationships through marriage or remarriage, acted as a minimal measure to ensure the survival of such women at risk. A universal marriage norm for unmarried women and widows also existed during this time. Those in search of a partner or spouse would participate in the communal utagaki gathering, where attendees included even elderly men and women, who sang about their experience in appeals for the proactive love practiced by younger people. I show that the utagaki, was a community practice designed to guarantee reproduction through the combined efforts of the village inhabitants.

Classifying and Aiding “the People”: The Power Base of Edo-Period Lords
TAKANO Nobuharu

In this essay, I examine the social groups used as a power base by lords (daimyo)in the Edo period in Japan. There were many different social groups of people during the Edo period, including the samurai, who served the lords, and the nobility, who served the Emperor. These classes did not perform laborious work. Instead, peasants, artisans, merchants, and so on carried out the work of production and distribution. In addition, some people had jobs ordinary people avoided, such as disposing of dead bodies or arresting criminals. These working classes, who engaged in various types of labor, formed the power base of the lords. To maintain the political system, these workers’ family lives had to remain stable and protected. To achieve this, the lords admonished the people to provide aid to each other within their families and communities and to pay taxes to the lords. They emphasized this was to reward the lords for providing the people with an environment enabling them to live their daily lives. Those who agreed to these terms and worked hard served as the power base of the lords and were given aid if they fell into poverty. On the other hand, those whose family lives fell apart were said to suffer because they did not adhere to the lord’s teachings. Such persons were denied aid and dealt with harshly

An “Unreliable” Census: Failure of the Koseki Family Registry System in Modern Japan
ENDO Masataka

Since ancient Japan, the Koseki (family registry) was used as a population census. The Tokugawa period koseki was still insufficient as a census when its role ended with the collapse of the Tokugawa system, but the Meiji government established the Jinshin koseki family registry in 1872 as a necessary state undertaking to implement its policy of “enrich the nation, strengthen the army”. Although the government tasked the inshin koseki family registry with handling the nation’s demographic statistics, the “registered population” data based on the Koseki census was far from accurate. As population mobility increased with modernization, the Koseki family registry ceased to reflect people’s place of domicile as they moved away from their registered home address (Honseki).
In addition, there was no way to prevent citizens from neglecting to register or providing false registration data, and it was too difficult to determine the number of unregistered people. Government officials frequently pointed out how inaccurate and ineffective demographic data based on the Koseki family registry was, and in 1920, it was replaced by the national census as a scientific and realistic demographic measure. The Koseki family registry no longer served any objective state function, but continued to exist as an embodiment of the ideal of the state-sanctioned ie family system of the time.

Understanding and Counteracting the “Unemployment of the Intellectual Class” Issue in the Pre-war Showa Era in Japan

In this paper, I examine what it entailed to understand and counteract the effects of the social issue known as the “unemployment of the intellectual class” during the 1920’s to 1930’S. Chapter one explores the definition of the “unemployed intellectual class” and outlines various national surveys, which while conducted individually, were collectively reported. These indicate that approximately 100,000 people belonged to this group. In chapter two, I highlight the fact that policies introduced by the Social affairs Bureau of the Ministry of Home Affairs, such as planned vocational education and immigration policies, as well as employment agencies used as countermeasures were largely ineffective. I also show that the issue was later treated as pertaining to population. In chapter three, I examine the conditions of those living in poverty and significance of anti-unemployment projects, and highlight the issues that accompanied short-term employment and the realities of prolonged unemployment. In Chapter four, after I explore preventative measures taken, I argue that restricting higher education, ideological control, and the invasion of continental Asia following the Mukden Incident became effective solutions to intellectual unemployment. Furthermore, I clarify that subordination to state employment becoming a prerequisite for employment led to a rapid increase in the use of intellectual employment agencies. Then, I conclude that measures to understand and counteract the issue of the unemployment of the intellectual class may be seen to present a prehistory of wartime mobilization.

The Imperial Examination and Quota System of Song Dynasty China: Focusing on the Jizhou District of the Southern Song
KONDO Kazunari

Reportedly, the late Northern Song dynasty had a population of more than 100 million people. In the beginning of the 13th century, the population of the Southern Song dynasty totaled around 80.6 million, despite the empire having lost its northern half. This was almost double that of the Jin dynasty (43.8 million) during the same period. The Southern Song era paved the way for great social, economic, and cultural developments for the region south of the Yangtze River basin, which would then be inherited by the Ming and Qing dynasties. However, aspects particular to the Song dynasty alone can also be identified. In this paper, I first investigate the quota (the number of candidates allowed to pass) of the first stage of the imperial examinations for each province, as well as characteristics evident in the number of spots allocated to each province. Next, I examine why provinces with higher quotas were not the economical and culturally “advanced” provinces of Jiangnan, but rather those considered “late developers” in Chinese history, such as Fujian or Jiangxi. Finally, I touch on the subject of Jizhou district in Jiangxi province and reevaluate the character of Wen Tianxiang, whose loyalty and patriotism are still highly admired today. Furthermore, I discuss how Jizhou’s historical background was significantly related to the district’s high imperial examination quota.

The Population of Istanbul in the Late 16th Century
SAWAI Kazuaki
It has been thought that Istanbul, which flourished as the capital of the Ottoman dynasty, was a large metropolis with a population of 500,000 to 800,000 people during the late 16th century, in previous research. Even now, this outlook is widely accepted by Turkish, American, and European historians specializing in Ottoman historical studies.
However, comparing this figure to those obtained from modern population censuses of Istanbul conducted since the 19th century, it appears highly likely that the statistics for the late 16th-century population claimed until now have been greatly overestimated.
In this study, I elucidate the fact that the aforementioned established theory either lacks historical basis or that issues are present in the method of estimation from historical records. I also investigate how this theory was formed and developed. Furthermore, I re-estimate the population of Istanbulin the late 16th century by using newly discovered historical documents from that era and employing an approach different from the one used in prior research.

Counting ‘Population’ in a Military Society: the Muster of the Early Modern German Army

Focusing on the Bavarian army during the Thirty Years War, this paper explores the implications of the development of the muster, an administrative procedure to control army strength. Although Maximilian I of Bavaria was able to apply the framework of muster to his militia, which had evolved since 16th century, counting the number of mercenaries proved to be difficult. The colonels serving as semi-independent regiment-proprietors were reluctant to submit their units to the control of the warlord and, moreover, they disguised the number of their troops to make them appear more numerous than in reality, and obtained payment for the disguised soldiers gathered temporarily from other units. Maximilian was aware of this deception, but he had to pay attention to his army commander, who often defended the colonels as their patron, and also to the competition with the imperial armies for officers. Accordingly, it was difficult for him to take strict measures against this fraudulent conduct in order to maintain the strength of his army, while he also had to protect soldiers, who were often victims of exploitation by the officers. This paper concludes that the muster was the occasion where the various interests of the people involved in the army came to the surface and it was rather the efforts to adjust these often competing interests that characterized the activity of the warlord than top down orders from above.

No.976 October 2018

Extra Edition
Special Edition
The Annual Meeting of the Society in May 2018
Re-Examining War: Historicizing the Events Surrounding 9/11

Plenary Session
Re-Examining War: Historicizing the Events Surrounding 9/11
      ……………KIBATA Yōichi,TAJIMA Nobuo(2)

Ancient History Section
The Formation of the Governance Structure of the Ancient State
      ……………SHIINA Kazuo, HIRAISHI Mitsuru, MŌRI Ken-ichi(26)

Medieval History Section
Religion and Society in the Medieval Age……YOSHIZAWA Hajime, KONDŌ Yūsuke(59)

Early Modern History Section
Authority and People in Early Modern Japan
      ……………TSUBAKIDA Yukiko, YOSHIOKA Taku(80)

Modern History Section
Labor and Social Relations in Everyday Life
      ……………SASAKI Kei, MINAMI Shūhei(103)

Contemporary History Section
Institutionalization of Knowledge and Organization of the Nation
  during the Early Cold War
      ……………TSUCHIYA Yuka, FUJIOKA Masaki, KAWAI Nobuharu(129)

Joint Section
Rethinking the Sovereign State
      ……………FURUYA Daisuke, GOTŌ Harumi, AOTANI Hideki(160)

Special Section
History since 3.11……………ABE Kōichi, HOTATE Michihisa, KITAHARA Itoko(198)

No.975 October 2018

The Relationships between Members of Parliament and their Constituencies in 1628:
  the Forced Loan Refuser's Election and Activities in Parliament……NAKAMARU Hideki(1)

Proliferation and Convergence: The Dawning of the Historiography of the Reformation
  from the Perspectives of Plurality, Long Term Trends,
  and Globalism……………………………………………NAGAMOTO Tetsuya(18)

Current Topics
The 19th National Congress and the13th National People’s Congress
  of the Chinese Communist Party
  from an Historical Viewpoint………………………………MORISAKI Gunketsu(27)

Trends: Rethinking “Meiji 150”③
The Formation and Establishment of the System of Government in the Era
  of the Meiji Restoration………………………………………YUKAWA Fumihiko(33)
Studies of Economic History During the Transition from the Tokugawa Era
  to the Meiji Restoration……………………………………KOBAYASHI Noburu(39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YOSHIE Akiko, Studies on Ancient Japanese Empresses……SAKURADA Marie(47)
KASAHARA Tokushi, The Whole History of the Japanese-Chinese War, 2vols.
                             ……………YOSHII Fumi(50)
TAKAI Yasuyuki, Balhae and Fanzhen: A Study of Local Governance in the Liao Period
                           ……………KUDŌ Toshiharu(53)
NII Yōko, Jesuit Missionaries and Universal Empire…………………TANAKA Yūki(56)
TOYOKAWA Kōichi, “Exploration” and Changing Spatial Consciousness
  in 18th Century Russia………………………………………TANAKA Yoshihide(59)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(63)

The relationships between Members of Parliament and their Constituencies in 1628:
   the Forced Loan Refuser’s Election and Activities in Parliament.

   This article explores the relationships between the constituencies and the Members of Parliament in 1628 by examining the Members who resisted the Forced Loan. R. Cust, who has made the most detailed study on the loan, argues that central and local government were interdependent with each other in making or implementing the policy, and that the loan had some influence over the elections. But even he investigates only a few cases of county elections and assumes simply that MPs represented local interests. To address these problems, this paper analyses comprehensively why loan refusers were elected and what kind of activities they carried out in the Parliament.
   The conclusions are summarized in the following two points. First, it can be said that the status of MP which reflected individual honours in the local communities had not changed drastically up until 1628. Many MPs were not profoundly conscious that they were the representative of a specific county or a whole nation. Second, however, some MPs had come to take actions in compliance with the intentions of the constituencies from which they were elected. This phenomenon can be recognized as having a certain significance in exploring the history of parliamentary government.

No.974 September 2018

Study on the Research Institute of National Policy:
  “National Policy” (Kokusaku) and “National Unity”(Kyokoku-Icchi)……CHATANI Shō (1)

Series: Dialogue between Historians and Archivists (4)
“Digital Archives” and Archives, or the Situation surrounding Historians
  and Digital Archives as a Locus of Dialogue…………………GOTŌ Makoto(18)
The Present Situation and Future of Digital Archives:
  Revolutionizing Ideas about Free Access to Historical Research……KIKUCHI Nobuhiko(24)
Digital Archives as a Locus of Dialogue: Data Literacy and Web Design for Historians
  ……KOKAZE Naoki,NAKAMURA Satoru,KIM Boyoung,KIYOHARA Kazuyuki,
    FUKUDA Masato & TANAKA Akira(31)
The Present Situation and Future of the University Archives……KURAKATA Yoshiaki(38)
Visiting Archives
Tamil Nadu Archives: History and the Present Situation of
  a State Archives in India………………………………………SHIGA Miwako(42)
Holocaust Studies and Archives: Towards the Complex of Informations……TAKEI Ayaka(46)
Support for the National Archives of Modena, Italy,
  after Earthquake Damage……………………………………YAMABE Noriko(51)
Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(55)

The Society’s Report
Report on the 2018 General Assembly…………………………The Committee(59)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(65)

Study on the Research Institute of National Policy:
    “National Policy” (Kokusaku) and “National Unity” (Kyokoku-Icchi)

   This study discusses several questions on “national policy” and “national unity” by examining the Research Institute for National Policy during the National Government period.
   First, the principle and conception of the institute as well as its relation to the army are analyzed. During the Saito and Okada cabinets, the staff of the Association for National Policy, was mostly composed of people who supported the slogan/concept of “national unity”. The Association, in cooperation with the central part of the Army Ministry in the Empire, held the goal of gaining political hegemony by proposing a “national policy” conceptualized by its members.
   Moreover, after the February 26 Incident, the institute was reorganized: the staff was increased and its aim was transformed into the accomplishment of political reconciliation through pursuing “national policy” studies.
   This paper indicates that “national policy” in this period functioned as a discourse; its role was not restricted to the construction of a national security state nor proposing a general policy. The idea of “national unity” also functioned as a discourse, and there were some movements which tried to realize this idea.

No.973 August 2018

The Expansion of Zinc Cash Circulation and Transformation of
  Copper Cash Usage in 19th Century Vietnam………………TAGA Yoshihiro(1)
Writs, Disturbances, and Revenue Defaulters: Indigenous Uses of
  Law and the Administrative Sense of Crisis in
  Early Nineteenth-Century Colonial India……………………INAGAKI Haruki(18)

Views and Reviews
Historiographical Significance of the Works of ARAI Shin-ichi……KASAHARA Tokushi(32)

Trends: Rethinking “Meiji 150”②
Why did Foreign Ships Come to Japan?: A Case of the British Surveying Ship ‘Actaeon’
                         ………………GOTŌ Atsushi(39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SUZUKI Masanobu, Clan System and the Transmission of Lineage in Ancient Japan
                         ……………HASEBE Masashi(48)
SANO Mayuko, A Study on Diplomatic Rituals in the Last Days of the Tokugawa Regime
                         ……………KUSUMI Shin-ya(51)
SUGIMOTO Hiroyuki, Social Urban Policy and Minorities in Modern Japan
                         ……………NAKAMURA Moto(54)
ŌMORI Hiroyoshi, History of Public Hygiene in France:
  Epidemics and Housing in Paris in the Nineteenth Century……NAGAYAMA Nodoka(57)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(61)

Society’s Announcements: A Resolution in Opposition to the Intervention of
  the Ministry of Education to a Lecture in a Public Junior School at Nagoya /
  A Resolution of Protest against the Falsification and Concealment of the Public
  Records and in the Claim for the Institutional Reform for their Proper Writing out,
  Management, Preservation and Disclosure……………………………………(63)

The Expansion of Zinc Cash Circulation and Transformation of Copper Cash Usage in 19th Century Vietnam
TAGA Yoshihiro

   Introduced in the 18th century into central Vietnam, zinc cash eventually archived nation-wide circulation in the 1820s, which enabled the Nguyễn dynasty to increase the supply of small denomination currency dramatically. Unlike copper cash, zinc cash did not function as a means of storing value due to its material fragility and its circulation was limited to the domain of Vietnam. A large amount of copper cash was exported to China from Vietnam as zinc cash became prevalent.
   As for the minting of copper cash, whereas the first Emperor Gia Long mainly minted smaller copper cash, the second Emperor Ming Mệnh attempted to increase the weight of this cash because of his conviction that zinc and copper cash should complement each other. Following the policy encouraging copper cash usage adopted in 1839, the exchange ratio between copper and zinc cash frequently altered in favor of the former after the 1850s.
   In northern Vietnam copper cash circulation turned out to be unsuccessful in the 1860s. This resulted from the population’s distrust of copper cash due to its lack of uniformity in term of its size as well as value, and the absolute shortage in copper cash supplied by the central government.

Writs, Disturbances, and Revenue Defaulters: Indigenous Uses of Law and the Administrative Sense of Crisis in Early Nineteenth-Century Colonial India

   Previous studies have shown that, in colonial India, the indigenous people were well informed about the ways they could use the British courts of law for their own economic and social purposes, but what were the political implications of these uses of law? In this article I address the question by examining the jurisdictional conflict between the East India Company’s government and the King’s Court in Bombay in the 1820s.
   Although its jurisdiction was limited to the presidency town, the King’s Court caused various problems in the newly conquered provinces (the mofussil) of the former Maratha empire. First, the King’s Court would summon the Company’s district officials to Bombay city, taking them away from their ordinary business. Second, the sheriff of the King’s Court executed the writs in the provinces, an unpopular action that was thought to cause disturbances by provoking the Indian people to resist the writs’ execution. Third, the revenue defaulters used the court to overturn the decrees of the Company’s Court and avoid taxation. The government officials perceived these actions as a denial of their executive and judicial sovereignty in the provinces.
   In this article, I argue that these examples of Indian legal agency using the King’s Court were the key to understanding the colonial government’s attempt to strengthen its control over the judiciary in colonial India.

No.972 July 2018

Special Issue: Walls in History: Construction and Collapse (Ⅱ)
Early Modern Osaka’s Dōtonbori Neighborhood: An Analysis of
  Dōtonbori's Beggar(Hinin)Enclave and Tea Stalls………TSUKADA Takashi(1)
Imperial Tours and Trenches: The Northern Defense Structure during
  the Reigns of Emperors Shizong and Zhangzong of Jin……YOSHINO Masafumi(13)
City Walls and Identity in Medieval Europe………………………HARADA Akiko(26)
Migration and European Integration: Building “Walls” from
  an East European Perspective…………………………………IEDA Osamu(37)

Current Topics
A New Line of Confrontation?: The Results of 2017 German Federal Elections
  and Current Political Tendencies………………………………SATŌ Kiminori(48)
Exhibition Reviews
A Contemporary History Exhibition as Challenge and Provocation:
  “1968: A Time Filled with Countless Questions”………………TOBE Hideaki(59)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………………(64)

Early Modern Osaka’s Dotonbori Neighborhood: An Analysis of Dotonbori’s Beggar (Hinin) Enclave and Tea Stalls

   Previously, I asserted that early modern Japanese society could be understood as a composite network of internally stratified social (status) groups. Perhaps it can be said that there were walls dividing status groups from each other. However, it is not the case that early modern Japanese society was completely balkanized. On the contrary, the individual social groups comprising early modern society were part of an organically-integrated composite structure. From this perspective, I attempt to comprehensively grasp the social structure of Osaka’s Dotonbori neighborhood.
   The area surrounding Dotonbori was a diverse composite that included bustling entertainment districts where playhouses and teahouses operated, the Dotonbori beggar enclave, Sennichi Cemetery, the Hijiri-rokubo (Fraternity of Graveyard Attendants), and an execution ground. Adding to the area’s diversity, teahouses (honchaya), which employed “tea girls” (chatate-onna) and functioned as brothels where prostitution was tolerated, coexisted with teahouses where performances were held (iroha-chaya), tea huts (hachiken-chaya) that operated year-round along the road leading to Sennichi Cemetery, and tea stalls that were only permitted to operate during the latter part of the seventh month of the year.
   Although specific details vary from one case to the next, when seeking official permission to engage in these trades, the actors that petitioned the city authorities all emphasized their role in helping to maintain the urban social order. The chief of the Dotonbori beggar enclave controlled the tea stalls that were permitted to operate only during the latter part of the seventh month of the year. Stalls operated by his subordinates coexisted with those operated by the members of the other status groups.

Imperial Tours and Trenches: The Northern Defense Structure during the Reigns of Emperors Shizong and Zhangzong of Jin
YOSHINO Masafumi

   This paper discusses imperial tours and boundary trenches (Jin jie hao) during the Jin dynasty as well as their relation to the northern defense structure that was in place during the reigns of Emperors Shizong and Zhangzong. Emperor Shizong of Jin periodically toured the Jinlianchuan steppein southeastern Inner Mongolia in the period 1166–1186. This was unprecedented among Jin emperors, but it aimed not only to provide political stability on the Mongol Plateau, but to prevent the Qara Khitai from extending their influence to the tribes on the plateau as well. Emperor Shizong created a stable structure for northern defense by personally touring the plateau and constructing forts on a large scale in the borderlands. Yet, during the reign of his successor Emperor Zhangzong, it became impossible for the emperor to tour the Mongol Plateau due to the feeble power base of Emperor Zhangzong. This is why large-scale trenches were dug in the borderlands in addition to the forts, but this was insufficient as a defensive measure.

City Walls and Identity in the Medieval Europe

   This paper examines city walls in the medieval Europe, especially in German. According to the long-accepted theory, the medieval cities in Eupore had acquired freedom and autonomy from feudal lords and they were an outrider of modern society. However, today it is well established theory that a city’s autonomy was often granted by its lord as a form of conciliation, rather than being wrested from him. With the development of the studies, it is proved that there was no common feature for the medieval cities, so we may say that it will be in vain to look for a single definition of them. The city wall is the same: not all the medieval cities had walls. However, it is true that the walls have been often considered as a symbol of the city in narrative records as well as in hymns of praise of the cities. Therefore, it is possible to say that city walls ware something symbolic representing the city. On this assumption, this paper discusses the medieval city walls in Germany in relation to the following three points: firstly the changes of its form and functions; secondly the significance of the towers on city walls; and thirdly, the relationship between the city gate, where entry ceremonys for bishops or the emperor were held, and the self-identity of the city.

Migration and European Integration: Building “Walls” from an East European Perspective
IEDA Osamu

   European countries, aiming to abolish the walls to free movement over state borders, established the European Union (EU). However, the current chaotic influx of asylum seekers and immigrants threatens the future of European integration. It is still fresh in our memory that a huge number of Syrian refugees flew into Europe, while violent attacks by terrorists occurred in various cities there. The United Kingdom choose Brexit in 2016 to stop the increasing immigration from the new EU member states in Eastern Europe. The denial of free movement, the essential ideal of the EU, has put European integration in crisis. High walls are once again emerging as barriers in the EU countries.
   This paper discusses “walls” from a standpoint of Eastern Europe, since this part of Europe has been an epicenter of the issue of migration, and has been blamed for its nationalist responses. The paper questions this stereotyped interpretation of Eastern Europe, suggesting an alternative approach to a long-term and wider perception of European integration and “walls”.

No.971 JUNE 2018

Special Issue: Walls in History: Construction and Collapse (Ⅰ)
Preface……………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Okinawa as Seen through Two Walls……………………………TAIRA Yoshitoshi(2)
Loss of Walls: Dismantling of City Walls in Modern China…………MURAKAMI Ei(14)
Making Walls Effective: An Historical Overview of Asia Minor and
  the Byzantine Empire during the Mid-Seventh Century……KOBAYASHI Isao(25)
Territorial Formation of the Early Modern Russian Empire: Background to
  the Construction of a Fortified Line in Southeastern Russia……TOYOKAWA Kōichi(36)
U.S.-Mexico Negotiations on Unauthorized Migration:
  The Contested Relationship between Border Control and
  Importation of Migrant Labor, 1942-55…………………TODAYAMA Tasuku(48)
The Berlin Wall: The Construction, Expansion, and Ultimate Collapse
  of a Structure that Restricted People’s Freedom……………IZEKI Tadahisa(57)

Current Topics
A People’s Long-cherished Desire Has Crumbled: The Historical Significance
  of the Kurdistan Regional Government’s Referendum on Independence……YAMAO Dai(69)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(78)

Okinawa as Seen through Two Walls
TAIRA Yoshitoshi

   When the world was divided into the United States and Soviet Union factions by the Cold War, the United States constructed “walls” in Okinawa: U.S. military bases. To enable the unrestricted use of these military bases, Article 3 of the Treaty of Peace with Japan, signed in 1951, separated Okinawa from Japan establishing another “wall” between Okinawa and the Japanese mainland. However, in 1972, before the end of the Cold War, the “wall” between Okinawa and the Japanese mainland was removed and Okinawa was returned to Japan. The driving forces behind the return of Okinawa were a feeling of solidarity between Okinawans and mainland Japanese and the collaboration between Okinawan and mainland Japanese political parties.
   Following the end of the Cold War, Okinawans requested the consolidation and reduction of U.S. military bases, and both the governments of the United States and Japan resolved that bases, including Futenma Air Station, would be returned to Okinawa. However, the Okinawan and Japanese governments could not agree on whether a replacement facility for Futenma Air Station would be built within or moved to some location outside Okinawa Prefecture. This difference of opinion has continued for 20 years, eroding the feeling of solidarity between Okinawa and mainland Japan, and weakening collaboration between Okinawan and mainland Japanese political parties. In this manner, a new “wall” has recently begun to form between Okinawa and mainland Japan.

Loss of Walls: Dismantling of City Walls in Modern China

   At the beginning of the modern age in China, city walls began losing their political and cultural functions and started to become an economic handicap. However, most of the existing city walls remained until the late Qing dynasty due to their military effectiveness. Though city walls were removed in Shanghai and other places after the Xinhai Revolution, their effect on urban development was not the same everywhere. With the worsening of public security in the majority of regions, the military importance of the walls often increased instead. In addition, the Nationalist Government in Nanking considered the walls to have cultural value and sought to protect them in some cities. Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the military significance of walls was lost, and under MAO Zedong’s instructions, the city walls continued to be removed in Beijing. At the time of the Great Leap Forward campaign, the government removed many of the remaining walls nationwide, without considering urban planning nor the cultural value of the walls.
   From this discussion, it is clear that the military function of walls was emphasized, walls were often removed in a hasty and unplanned manner, and the removal of walls was not necessarily connected to urban development in modern China. Finally, although many walls were removed, problems with “new walls” began to occur, such as information barriers and discrimination between cities and rural areas.

Making Walls Effective: An Historical Overview of Asia Minor and the Byzantine Empire during the Mid-Seventh Century

   Until the first half of the 7th century, Asia Minor enjoyed relative stability. However, as a result of the intensive Arab invasions that occurred from the middle of the 7th century onward, large part of the region fell into ruin. To deal with this situation, during the second half of the reign of Constans II (reign: 641-668/9), the construction, reinforcement, and repair of defensive walls and fortifications were undertaken in many areas. However, simply building “walls” did not necessarily ensure their effective functioning. There were cities which surrendered to or were subjected by the Arabs without any resistance even though those were surrounded by walls.
   During 660ʼs, this situation began to change. The turning point was the failure of the Arab attack on Constantinople in 654. This event showed that the Arab armies were not invincible, which strengthened people’s will to resist them.
   During the second half of the reign of Constans II, various new fortifications were constructed. This was the period in which the basic conditions necessary for the walls to function was created. With the establishment of a national system to support these “walls” and the strengthening of people’s will to resist the Arab armies, these “walls” finally became effective.

Territorial Formation of the Early Modern Russian Empire:Background to the Construction of a Fortified Line in Southeastern Russia

   Throughout its history, Russia had built fortification lines to expand its territory and prevent invasions by nomads and other peoples. However, while expanding its territory in Central Asia in the 18th century, Russia realized that it could increase its control over the region by setting up well-planned fortification lines.
   In fact, in 1731, the early modern Russian Empire decided to construct a fortified line called the new Trans-Kama Line in the southeastern area of the empire. This fortified line was important because it was a beachhead in Central Asia and provided an opportunity for Russians to trade with India and China. However, during the process of construction, it became clear that the older type of multiple fortifications based on securing a seamless series of locations was unnecessary. Through the establishment of mobile and effective district militias and the construction of new fortifications, it became possible to maintain the security of border regions at a much lower cost. This became an important consideration during the establishment of fortified defensive lines in areas bordering on territory controlled by external enemies. The importance of this strategy was further clarified during the Orenburg expedition .

U.S.-Mexico Negotiations on Unauthorized Migration: The Contested Relationship between Border Control and Importation of Migrant Labor, 1942-55

   This article examines negotiations between Mexico and the United States on migration control from the mid-1940s to the early 1950s and argues that the Mexican government played a crucial role in making unauthorized migration a central issue in the relationship between the two countries.
   During the 1940s, a large number of Mexican temporary workers were allowed to legally work in the United States under a bi-national “guest worker” program, known as the bracero program. This period also saw a rapid increase of unauthorized Mexican immigrants in the United States. Mexico proposed to introduce some form of punishment against the employer of such migrants as a measure to prevent exploitation of its nationals. However, the proposal for employer sanctions did not materialize because U.S. Congress took no action legislating such measures because of the strong opposition from American employers.
   After the bracero program was temporarily suspended from 1948 to 1949 due to the large-scale employment of unauthorized workers, the U.S. and Mexican governments formulated the framework of migration policy that was continued until the mid-1960s: apprehending unauthorized entrants when necessary while continuing admission of temporary workers from Mexico into the United States to meet both countries’ economic and labor needs.

Berlin Wall : The Construction, Expansion, and Ultimate Collapse of a Structure that Restricted People’s Freedom
IZEKI Tadahisa

   In 1961, with the goal of preventing the efflux of its population, the East German government constructed the Berlin Wall, which divided the city of Berlin into East and West. Subsequently, groups were formed in West Berlin to help the citizens of East Berlin flee by developing escape strategies such as tunnels. Near the wall, many people were shot to death while trying to escape. With the expansion of border control measures near the wall and reinforcement of surveillance by the secret police, escaping to West Berlin became very difficult. Through education, the government aimed to raise a new generation obedient to the system; however, it could not extinguish the people’s desire for freedom. In the 1980s, the number of applicants to leave the country increased, and during a West Berlin concert near the wall, young people and police forces repeatedly clashed on the eastern side. In 1989, following the democratization in Eastern Europe, holes began to appear in the Iron Curtain, and the wall stopped serving its purpose. Finally, on November 9, 1989, at an international press conference organized by the government, it was mistakenly announced that freedom of travel would be reinstated “immediately,” and the wall collapsed under the force of the people as they flocked to cross into West Berlin.

No.970 May 2018

The Original Kaezeni (Bill Exchange) during the Kamakura Period:
  Characteristics and Reasons for Its Co-Existence with the Saifu……INOUE Masao(1) 
“Intellectuals and People” in the Early 1950s in Japan: OKUDA Shūzō’s Experience
  of “Self-transformation” as a Leader of the “National Historical Movement”
                          ……………TAKADA Masashi(17)

Current Topics: Rethinking “Meiji 150”①
Locating “Meiji 150” in History:
  From a Perspective ofFeminism and Gender History……………HIRAI Kazuko(35)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KAWAWAKE Keiko, The Boddington Family and Modern Britain……MIZUI Mariko(41)
BABA Satoshi, A Social and Economic History of Town Planning in Germany
                          ……………IWAMA Toshihiko(44)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Society in May 2018……(48)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(60)

Society’s Announcements
The General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan for the Year 2018………(65)

The Original Kaezeni (Bill Exchange) during the Kamakura Period: Characteristics and Reasons for Its Co-existence with the Saifu

   In Japan, a coin-denominated bill of exchange was established during the mid-Kamakura period (we define this as the ‘original kaezeni’). In the late-Kamakura period, a new bill of exchange emerged called saifu. In this paper, we re-examined the “Copy of the Exchange Receipt Sent from KAJIKI Yorihira,” and clarified that the original kaezeni was built on a series of mutual fiduciary relationships between parties, from the remitter of the exchange document to the ultimate payer. The final payouts could be made safely based on this stability.
   On the other hand, the saifu concept was innovative in that it made payouts possible even when the parties involved in the final payout lacked a fiduciary relationship. However, the original kaezeni continued to exist even after the emergence of the saifu, as the original kaezeni was superior with respect to the ease, stability, safety, and flexibility of payouts offered to participants capable of constructing this type of network. The new and old bills of exchange had mutual advantages: this is the reason for their co-existence in Medieval Japan.

“Intellectuals and People” in the Early 1950s in Japan: OKUDA Shuzo’s Experience of “Self-transformation” as a Leader of the “National Historical Movement”
TAKADA Masashi

   This paper is to review the historical images of the early 1950s from the viewpoint of cultural movement, taking as starting points the relationship between “intellectuals and people,” which has been studied in popular culture research on World War II and the post-war period, and the problem of the “cultural double structure” existing between the two social groups.
   OKUDA Shuzo (1919-1997) was a leader of the National Historical Movement at the Nara branch of the Association of Democratic Scientists. Through his “self-transformation” experience in that movement, I re-examined the relationship between “intellectuals and people” in the early 1950s. OKUDA, after the defeat in the war, aimed for “the enlightenment and organization of the unenlightened masses”, but he achieved “self-transformation” through his experience of setbacks in the movement and gradually learning to accept a different kinds of autonomous interactions with history by a variety of people.
   Up until now it has been assumed that the “cultural double structure” existing between “intellectuals and people” was resolved from the period of rapid economic growth. However, it should be considered that a new relationship between the two social groups was established in the early 1950s through a “self-transformation” of the intellectuals,.

No.969 April 2018

Special Issue: The Historiology of WAKITA Haruko
Preface…………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Telling the Development of Commerce……………………HAYASHIMA Daisuke(2)
WAKITA Haruko and Medieval Women’s History…………HOSOKAWA Ryōichi(9)
WAKITA Haruko’s Theory of Medieval Cities……………………MIEDA Akiko(17)
WAKITA Haruko’s Theories of Social Status and the Performing Arts
                         ……………TSUJI Hirokazu(25)
The Contributions and Legacy of WAKITA Haruko
  in the Non-Japanese Scholarly Environment…………Hitomi TONOMURA(36)

Current Topics
20th Anniversary of the Transfer of Sovereignty over Hong Kong:
  From a Perspective of Modern and Contemporary History………KOIZUMI Tatsuya(47)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
MACHIDA Yūichi, Lower Classes of Modern Cities ………………ŌSUGI Yuka(53)
MURAMOTO Ken-ichi, Studies on Walled Cities and Imperial Mausoleums
  in the Han, Wei, Jin and Northern-Southern Dynasties Periods……KUBOTA Kazuo(56)
ASHIBE Akira, Catholicism and Social Policy in Post-war West Germany
                         ……………NAKANO Tomoyo(59)

Society’s Announcements
The 2018 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan………(63)

Telling the Development of Commerce

   This paper examines the contribution of WAKITA Haruko (1934-2016) to the studies of the history of commerce, from 11th century to 16th century, in relation to her life. Together with SASAKI Ginya (1925-1992), WAKITA formed the second generation of researchers building on the foundation of first-generation researchers, ONO Koji (1904-1942) and TOYOTA Takeshi (1910-1980). SASAKI focused on the regional commerce of the provinces while WAKITA focused on the commerce of the capital, Kyoto.
   One of the characteristics of WAKITA’s research was her attempt to understand the dynamics of the history of commerce by discerning changes in the empirical evidence uncovered by first-generation researchers. Most of her studies were based on the story of the development of commerce in stages. While WAKITA herself was critical of Marxist interpretations of history, including developmental-stage-based historical explanation, she left behind a simple developmental-stage-based historical explanation in the form of “the development of the commodity economy”, both giving theoretical clarity and leaving herself open to criticism at the same time. Moreover, non-developmental-stage-based explanations have become the mainstream in studies on the medieval economy since the 1990’s, and furthermore, recent studies on the early modern period are opposed to viewing the establishment of the early modern economy as a sequential development of the medieval economy. Instead, there is a trend toward placing importance on other factors such as the population increase after the Shokuho (ODA Nobunaga and TOYOTOMI Hideyoshi) Period. In view of these changes, WAKITA’s explanation of the development of medieval commerce has fulfilled its historical role.

WAKITA Haruko and Medieval Women’s History

   WAKITA Haruko’s medieval women’s history research is characterized by two major propositions: that the medieval household (Ie) based on monogamous marriage (although mistresses were admitted) was the basic unit of production, and that the position of the wife as manager of the household was high, equivalent to that of second in command in the household. This presented a new common theory on the establishment of the household in the medieval period to replace that of TAKAMURE Itsue. Moreover, WAKITA’s women’s history pays particular attention to the variety in women’s condition in the medieval period, contrasting the privileged rank of women who were able to become legitimate wives and build households with the condition of women who were excluded from households. Her analysis of women engaged in performing professions, such as courtesans, puppeteers (kugutsu) and shrine maidens (miko), as being social outsiders who kept alive the old primitive shamanistic beliefs during the medieval period is in glaring contradiction to her arguments regarding the establishment of the medieval household. Accordingly, one can perceive WAKITA as two different entities: one a social-economic researcher and the other a seasoned Noh performer.

WAKITA Haruko’s Theory of Medieval Cities

   This paper examines WAKITA Haruko’s research regarding medieval cities, based on the contents of her book Medieval Cities of Japan, published in 1981. WAKITA’s theory of medieval cities is built on four main pillars: (1) the formation, maintenance, and development of city-dwellers’ community as an important foundation for understanding cities; (2) clearly distinguishing between cities and villages; (3) not only studying the urban populace but also lords’ power and forms of land ownership; (4) uncovering the hierarchy of groups that form the city, i.e., the “structure of the city,” giving special attention to (4) as the most important one. In the light of contemporary research, WAKITA’s contributions in these areas require re-examination, in particular her arguments regarding the timing of the formation of “town” communities and city-village “rivalry.” On the other hand, her formulation of the two principles of control, i.e. “control of people” and “control of land”, should be incorporated in future research.

WAKITA Haruko’s Theories of Social Status and the Performing Arts
TSUJI Hirokazu

   WAKITA Haruko’s studies of discriminated peoples make two points valid today: her criticism of the common view of medieval discrimination as a continuation of conditions already existing in ancient society, and her concern with locating the various discriminated groups within medieval society. However, there are problems with WAKITA’s arguments regarding the historical development of medieval discriminated peoples, in particular her interpretation of “kawaramono” as hunters.
   The value of WAKITA’s theory of performing arts is found in the fact that it elucidated the link between the structure of the performing artist groups and the structure of society at the time.
   WAKITA’s theories of social status and the performing arts reveal the sureness of her image of medieval social groups. WAKITA’s perspective is always from that of the social groups, revealing various facets that cannot be seen by focusing solely on the relationships of these groups with authority.

The Contributions and Legacy of WAKITA Haruko in the Non-Japanese Scholarly Environment

   WAKITA Haruko was a formidable scholar of great distinction whose enduring legacy will continue to influence the English-language academic world for many generations to come. While the exact weight of WAKITA’s influence is impossible to gauge, this short article seeks to put it in perspective by noting her publications that were issued in English and, therefore, made broadly accessible to researchers and students who do not read Japanese. WAKITA’s interests and accomplishments ranged broadly across many disciplines, including history, religion, performance art, literature, and art history. They also extended beyond the confines of the medieval period, which was her specialty, to the ancient, early modern and even modern periods. WAKITA’s publications attracted the attention of a broad sector of researchers, including those of world regions outside of Japan, who sought information and insights of comparative value. Whether writing on commerce and merchants or on women’s contribution to household economy, WAKITA Haruko inspired us with her incisive analysis of historical sources, probing questions, and fearless challenge to the established ideas and theoretical formulations. We are also indebted to WAKITA for her tireless efforts to cultivate a shared scholarly community, by connecting scholars throughout the world, with her generous sense of hospitality, and by her willingness to share her knowledge.

No.968 March 2018

Formation of the Concept of Ancestral Mausoleums in Japan:
  Usa-gū, Kashii-byō and Ise-jingū………………………………INOUE Masami(1)
Social Circumstances surrounding the Location of Military Bases
  and Pleasure Quarters in the Post-Russo-Japanese War Era:
  The Case of the Establishment of the Nakajima Brothel
  in Asahikawa Town, Hokkaidō…………………………MATSUSHITA Takaaki(17)

Current Topics
A Historical Victory and the Court Judgements regarding Government Policy and Hate Speech:
  Reconsidering the Three District Court Judgemnets regarding Inclusion of
  the North Korean-related High Schools in “the National Tuition Exemption Program”
                       ……………FUJINAGA Takeshi(35)
The Meaning of Governor KOIKE's Decision not to Present a Memoral Message for the Victims:
  Some Notes on the Massacre of Korean People in the Great Kantō Earthquake
                       ……………TANAKA Masataka(45)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
UESUGI Kazuhiko, A Study on the Governance Structure of Kamakura Bakufu
                       ……………TAKAHASHI Noriyuki(52)
MATSUMOTO Eiji, The Diplomatic Policy and Military Affairs and Information
  in Late Eraly-Modern Japan……………………………MATSUKATA Fuyuko(55)
KAWAGOE Yasuhiro, A Study on the Establishment of the
  Governmt of Yongle Emperor in the Ming Dynasty………TAKAHAHSHI Tōru(57)
TUJI Asuka, Fourteenth-century Egipt as Portaryed in Coptic Hagiographies
                       ……………SATŌ Kentarō(62)

Formation of the Concept of Ancestral Mausoleums in Japan: Usa-gu, Kashii-byo and Ise-jingu
INOUE Masami

   From the end of the 10th century, certain specific Shinto shrines such as Usa-gu and Ise-jingu came to be referred to as so-byo (ancestral mausoleums). Nevertheless, there has been no research elucidating the process by which this concept was formed. Although FUKUTO Sanae has described the relationship between ancestral worship and the concept of ie (household), there has been no research from this perspective concerning the formation of the concept of Shinto ancestral mausoleums.
   Thus, this paper focuses on the relationship between the formation of the concept of Shinto ancestral mausoleums and Kashii-byo. The results show that Usa-gu and Kashii-byo became increasingly involved with each other starting in the early 9th century. Under these circumstances, during the period of government by regents of the Fujiwara Family, there appeared structures used for the worship of the ancestors in the ie of retainers and which were also referred to as byo. So, in oder to distinguish between the byo that refers to the structure used for the worship of the ancestors of the Imperial Household and those of others, the current concept of Shinto shrine ancestral mausoleums was formed.

Social Circumstances surrounding the Location of Military Bases and Pleasure Quarters in the Post-Russo-Japanese War Era: The Case of the Establishment of the Nakajima Brothel in Asahikawa Town, Hokkaido

   This study examines the debate that occurred in 1907 over the establishment of a pleasure quarter, the Nakajima brothel, in Asahikawa Town, Hokkaido, where a division of the army was stationed. Since the existing brothels in Asahikawa were located a distance away from the military barracks, plans were made for the establishment of a new brothel in Nakajima, a district of adjacent Nagayama Village. In response, the mayor of Asahikawa and a majority of the town councilors organized a protest movement. Though the opposition movement formally justified their position as being based on the proximity of the anticipated site to a school, the argument also arose that the town's tax income would be reduced with a new brothel, an important tax resource.
   The groups in opposition took action to arouse public opinion in Tokyo to support their cause. This coincides precisely with a period of military expansion following the Russo-Japanese War. There was a rapid increase in places that were demanding the establishment of brothels taking military location as a pretense and this had become a focus of criticism. It was against this background that the actions of the opposition movement of Asahikawa came to gain repercussions.
   However, it would be a mistake to consider the purpose of the movement of Asahikawa to be the elimination of prostitution. Rather than opposition to licensed prostitution itself, its main aim was to boost prosperity in the town while co-existing with the both the military and brothels.

No.967 February 2018

Did the Maritime Ban (Kaikin) Policy Target Ryūkyū?……………KIDO Hironari(1)

Series: Dialogue between Historians and Archivists (3)
The Future of Historical Studies and Archive Studies in Japan………ANDŌ Masahito(18)
Current Topics
Some Problems regarding Public Records Management and Information Disclosure
as Seen from the Scandals of Moritomo Gakuen and Kake Gakuen………MIKI Yukiko(35)
Visiting Archives
A Personal Memoire of the National Archive of Argentine, 2001-2017……TAKEDA Kazuhisa(43)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ŌGUSHI Junji, People’s Experiences at “the Home Front”:
  Local Assistance for Imperial Rule…………………………HIESHIMA Hiroto(47)
SHIMIZU Misato, “Development” of Imperial Japan and Colonial Taiwan
                          ……………MINATO Teruhiro(50)
NAGUMO Taisuke, The Rupture of the Roman Empire………ŌTSUKI Yasuhiro(54)
ITABASHI Takumi, Black Europe: The Idea of the Conservative
  Christian “Abendland” in Germany, 1925-1965…………………ONO Kiyomi(57)

Exhibition Reviews
SOUKOU - A Japanese Way to Beautify and Preserve Cultural Heritage:
  Culture of Paper and Silk/ History and Design of Hanging Scrolls……YOSHIZAWA Hajime(62)

Did the Maritime Ban (Kaikin) Policy Target Ryukyu?
KIDO Hironari

   This paper clarifies what principles the Tokugawa Shogunate applied to the Kingdom of Ryukyu when its policy of Maritime Ban (Kaikin), implementing strict control over immigration and trade. This policy was adopted as part of the ban on Christianity as a matter of national policy
   As enforcing in Ryukyu was essential to complete the nationwide ban on Christianity, the Shogunate demanded the Satsuma domain, which controlled the Kingdom of Ryukyu, to put the ban into effect there thoroughly. On the other hand, because the Shogunate did not have power to supervise comings and goings between Satsuma and Ryukyu, it was Satsuma domain which controlled maritime traffic in this area. Moreover, the Shogunate allowed the free transfer of weaponry from Satsuma to the Kingdom of Ryukyu, and only prohibited the export from Ryukyu to other “foreign” countries such as Ming China. In addition, raw silk imported from Ryukyu to Satsuma was not subject to Itowappu (a Bakufu-controlled monopoly system of importing raw silk threads) as applied in in the Bakufu port of Nagasaki.
   In terms of the Maritime Ban policy, the Shogunate did not treat the Kingdom of Ryukyu as a "foreign” country and nor did it distinguish the Kingdom from the other lands held by Satsuma domain in the provinces of Satsuma and Osumi of Kyushu, treating all the territories of the Satsuma domain as an integrated unit.

No.966 January 2018

Collection of Land Tax Silver by Merchant Banking Agent (Kakeya) in
  the Late Edo Period: Case Study of the Estates of Hitotsubashi Family
  in Bicchu Province……………………………………HIGASHINO Masanobu(1)

Recent Studies on the Manor “Kaseda-no-shō” in Province of Kii:
  Response to the Criticisms by Professor MAEDA Masaaki……HAYASHI Kōhei(19)

Current Topics
What We can Glimpse beyond the Distant Edo Period ?:
  On “Blissful Images of the Edo Period” and Cultural Nationalism………IWABUCHI Reiji(29)
On the Results of the Trial of the Libel Suit against a Diet Member(2)……YOSHIMI Yoshiaki(39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SHIODE Hiroyuki, Political History of the People Crossing Borders:
  Japanese Migration and Colonization in Asia and the Pacific Islands
                        ……………NAKAYAMA Taishō(44)
TOBE Ken, “Social Education” in Tianjin in the Modern Period………TAKADA Yukio(47)
KASAHARA Tokushi, The Chinese Nationalist Movement during the First World War
                        ……………KOIKE Motomu(50)
HIRATA Masahiro, Education, Language and History in Wales…IWAI Jun(54)
IMAI Hiromasa, Experimental History of Violence: Experiences
from the German Volunteer Corps after the First World War, 1918-1923
                        ……………ONODERA Takuya(57)
ISEKI Masahisa, Protest Movements in Germany after World War II
                        ……………TAKAHASHI Hidetoshi(61)

Announcement: A Protest Statement against the Resolution of the Supreme Court
regarding YOSHIMI Yoshiaki’s Final Appeal………………………………………(65)

Collection of Land Tax Silver by Merchant Banking Agent (Kakeya) in the Late Edo Period: A Case Study of the Estates of Hitotsubashi Family in Bicchu Province

   In this paper, I examine the management reforms of the HIRAKI Family, which was engaged as a merchant banking agent (Kakeya) for the estates of HITOTSUBASHI Family in Bicchu province, and the role of the family in the collection and advance payment of the land tax silver.
   As a merchant banking agent, the HIRAKI’s principal duties included tasks such as making advance payments of land tax silver, conversion of silver notes, and management of public monies. In particular, the family played an important role in the collection of land tax in the estates. Furthermore, in cases where the total land tax silver was insufficient, the house would borrow a sizeable amount of silver from the merchants of Osaka. The house, therefore, functioned as a nodal point, connecting Osaka and the province. In order to carry out these kinds of responsibilities, not a few merchant banking agencies had to shoulder economic burdens. In the case of HIRAKI, the family tried implementing some measures for management reforms from 1859 (the 6th year of the Ansei era), but their business did not improve.