The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Sekibundo-Shuppan (Sekibundo Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.965 December 2017

Articles
Conversion-inducing Policy of the Ministry of Justice and Control of Knowledge
  Information in the Early Showa Period: The Process of Control of “Reading”
  and “Writing” by Judicial Power…………………………………SASAKI Masaya(1)

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Excavated Written Materials and New Approaches in Comparative History(Ⅱ)
Trends
Recent Studies on Petitions in Hellenistic Egypt:
  From the Records of Daily Negotiations……………………………ISHIDA Mai(17)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
GOTŌ Atsushi, Politics and Diplomacy of Tokugawa Shogunate
  during the Opening of Japan…………………………………FUKUOKA Mariko(26)
Jordan SAND (trans. by AMANAI Daiki), Life Spaces in Imperial Japan
                   ………………FUJIHARA Tatsushi(30)

Critical Reviews on the Papers Presented at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session……………………………FUSHIMI Takeshi, SHIODE Hiroyuki(33)
Ancient History Section……………………………………YANAGISAWA Nana(37)
Medieval History Section………………………………………ICHIZAWA Tetsu(39)
Early Modern History Section………………………………………KIKUCHI Isao(42)
Modern History Section……………………NAGASHIMA Reo,YAMAMOTO Issei(45)
Contemporary History Section……………NUMAJIRI Akinobu, KITAMURA Yōko(48)
Joint Section ………………………………………ITO Ryūta, YANADA Wataru(50)
Special Section…………………………ŌKADO Masakatsu, OKUMURA Hiroshi(53)

Announcement: Rekiken Symposium “Looking for New Horizons of
  Contemporary Historical Studies: Revisiting Historical Studies in Japan
  from 2001 to 2015”……………………………………………………………(59)

Index. Nos.953–965(January–December 2017) …………………………………(60)

<Summary>
Conversion-inducing Policy of the Ministry of Justice and Control of Knowledge Information in the Early Showa Period: The Process of Control of “Reading” and “Writing” by Judicial Power
SASAKI Masaya

   In this paper, I examine the Ministry of Justice and the various forces under its command in the early Showa period, focusing on actions taken against so-called “thought criminals.” I seek to clarify the manner in which internal manipulations took place by looking at the two basic activities : “reading” and “writing.”
   First, I will outline how prison chaplains sought to convert “thought criminals” from Marxism to a religious perspective by making them read religious texts. However, their approach, which absolutized religion, did not receive broad support within the Ministry of Justice.
   Next, I will show how manipulations were carried out in a range of locations through the activity of writing. First, the documents “thought criminals” were required to submit to courts and prisons had their contents determined by the authorities. Second, some “thought criminals” were forced to write detailed accounts of their experiences of religious conversion after they left prison, which would serve as political texts promoting religious absolutism. Third, SANO Manabu and NABEYAMA Sadachika were permitted to write and publicize statements about their conversion on the premise of having all “thought criminals” in the nation read them.
   Through these analyses, it can be concluded that, by using the acts of “writing” and “reading” as methods of control, the Ministry of Justice attempted to have “thought criminals” ideologically convert in a “voluntary” manner.


No.964 November 2017

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Excavated Written Materials and New Approaches in Comparative History (I)

Preface……………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
Documentary Characteristics of Ancient Japanese Wooden Tablets:
  From the Perspective of Discarding, Function, and Form…………ICHI Hiroki(2)
The Transition from Wooden-Bamboo Tablets and Silk to Paper and
  Stone in Ancient China……………………………………………SEKIO Shirō(14)
Characteristics, Meanings, and Problems Concerning Chinese Epitaphs
  of the Sui and Tang Periods……………………………………IWAMI Kiyohiro(25)
The Relationship between the Cuneiform Akkadian Texts, “Late Babylonian Chronicles”
  and “Babylonian Astronomical Diaries”…………………MITSUMA Yasuyuki(35)
How to Reconstruct and Contextualise a Papyrus Archive: Remarks on
  the Abinnaeus Archive and the Roman Garrison at Fourth-Century Dionysias
                   ……………TAKAHASHI Ryōsuke(46)
Trends
Recent Studies on Chinese Wooden-Bamboo Tablets………ISHIHARA Ryōhei(58)
Round-table Discussion
Excavated Written Materials and New Perspectives of Historical Studies
  ……………MIKAMI Yoshitaka, SUEYASU Ando, TAKAHASHI Ryōsuke(68)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(77)

Announcement: Statement to Require Withdrawal of Governor KOIKE’s Decision
  not to Present a Message to “The Memorial Ceremony
  for the Korean Victims of the Massacre in the Great Kantō Earthquake”…(78)

<Summary>
Documentary Characteristics of Ancient Japanese Wooden Tablets: From the Perspective of Discarding, Function, and Form
ICHI Hiroki

   This article examines documentary characteristics of ancient Japanese wooden tablets from the three perspectives: (1) their discarding, (2) function, and (3) form. Most ancient Japanese wooden tablets existing now were discarded as trash. They are written materials as well as excavated archaeological materials, and were used in parallel with paper for transcription. The discarding theory discusses why, how, and where the wooden tablets were discarded. The function theory discusses the functions of the wooden tablets by clarifying its life cycle (the processes of making, using, and discarding), taking the people who used the tablets into consideration. The form theory searches for the reasons why the wooden tablet was used in the same periods in which paper had already become popular, based on the nature of wood itself.


The Transition from Wooden-Bamboo Tablets and Silk to Paper and Stone in Ancient China
SEKIO Shiro

   This paper examines the process through which paper replaced wooden-bamboo tablets and silk as the main writing materials in ancient China. Starting in the Later Han period, there was a rapid increase in official documents made for communication within local governments, leading to a high demand for wooden-bamboo tablets. This situation continued into the following Three Kingdoms period. In the Zoumalou Wujian, a large volume of wooden-bamboo tablets found and excavated in Changsha city in Hunan Province, there were many bai documents, bie documents, and jun-jiao tablets. All of these circulated within Linxiang-houguo, a principality that once existed there. Contracts, which were the basis of bie documents, and bai documents began to be written on paper only in the fifth century as proved by paper texts excavated in Turfan. On the other hand, silk coffin epitaphs and wooden name cards buried in tombs were replaced not by paper but by stone tablets. The same text of the epitaph on tombstones made in the later period was written on silk and wooden name cards from the latter half of the third century to the first half of the fifth century. The two centuries from the latter half of the third century to the first half of the fifth century were a period in which wooden-bamboo tablets and silk were replaced by paper above ground and stone tablets below ground.


Characteristics, Meanings, and Problems Concerning Chinese Epitaphs of the Sui and Tang Periods
IWAMI Kiyohiro

   Since the end of the 20th century, picture collections of rubbings of epitaphs as well as collections of the text of the epitaphs have been published in China. They are valuable materials for historical studies of the Sui and Tang periods. Chinese epitaphs were not messages to the gods of the afterlife; names and life stories were inscribed on the tombstone for those in the distant future to understand who was buried there. That said, they were basically passages to honor the deceased and send that person to the next world. For this reason, what is written there cannot be credited as it stands. Rather, the very information that a certain person existed in the past can have a historical value. In terms of China in the Sui and Tang periods, information concerning deceased foreigners such as Turkish and Sogdian peoples presented in this paper are particularly valuable. Another problem is the use of the epitaphs discovered by grave robbers. Recently in China, many these epitaphs have been published. We must be cautious about their place of excavation and the route through which they were collected.


The Relationship between the Cuneiform Akkadian Texts, “Late Babylonian Chronicles” and “Babylonian Astronomical Diaries”
MITSUMA Yasuyuki

   This paper examines the relationship between the cuneiform Akkadian texts, “Late Babylonian Chronicles” and “Babylonian Astronomical Diaries.” These groups of texts were both written on clay tablets and compiled in Babylon. Long historical accounts began to appear in the diaries from the mid-fourth century BC. The oldest of the “Late Babylonian Chronicles” is a record of the same period. Previous studies thought that the chronicles used the historical accounts contained in the diaries as their sources. However, we should consider another type of the relationship between the chronicles and the diaries. Recent studies have established the existence of the “Preliminary Diaries,” each tablet of which contains primary observational records of the sky and the river level (of the Euphrates) for a short period but lacks any historical accounts. Compilers of the diaries required short historical accounts covering one or two months, when they developed the “Preliminary Diaries” into “Short Diaries,” each tablet of which contains the records of the sky and the river level, the list of commodity prices, and the historical accounts for two months or less. The “Short Diaries” were finally compiled into “Standard / Longer Diaries,” each tablet of which covers half a year or a third of a year. This paper clarifies that some of the “Late Babylonian Chronicles,” each of which covers only one month, were used as the sources of the “Short Diaries.”


How to Reconstruct and Contextualise a Papyrus Archive: Remarks on the Abinnaeus Archive and the Roman Garrison at Fourth-Century Dionysias
TAKAHASHI Ryosuke

   This paper illustrates how historical studies based on documentary papyri from Roman Egypt can be conducted, taking as an example the archive of Flavius Abinnaeus, a military officer stationed at fourth-century AD Dionysias. Papyri from the archive show some characteristics common among Greek papyri in general: they were dug up without any scientific archaeological record, sold separately by a local antique dealer, acquired by European agents, and have been stored in more than one institution with unpublished materials. These factors make it difficult to reconstruct the archive with certainty. However, continuous scholarly attention has improved our understanding of the archive. In addition to scrutiny of the archive itself, it is important for historical research to interpret the materials in their context. This paper suggests that, in order to evaluate the function and importance of the Roman garrison led by Abinnaeus, it is essential to consider the situation of the Western desert: Dionysias seems to be largely understood as a node of the network of trading routes and defensive forts in the desert.


No.963 October 2017

Extra Edition
Special Edition
The Annual Meeting of the Society in May 2017
Absurdities of Frontier Regions

Plenary Session
Absurdities of Frontier Regions
  ……………TOYOOKA Yasufumi, SUZUKI Hideaki, YOSHIMURA Takayuki(2)

Ancient History Section
The Ruling Structure of the State and its Formation in Ancient Japan
          ……………NAKA Daisuke, KITAMURA Yasuhiro(35)

Medieval History Section
Authority and Order in Medieval Japan………ISHIHARA Hiiro, TANIGUCHI Yūta(57)

Early Modern History Section
Natural Resouces and Political and Social Activities of the People in Early Modern Japan
           ……………HAGA Kazuki, NAKAMURA Shingo(78)

Modern History Section
Practice of the Ordinary People and Transformation of Daily Life
           ……………ISHIHARA Shun, MITSUI Takashi(100)

Contemporary History Section
Urban “Development” and Transformation of the Political Space in Post-WWII Japan
          ……………MOTOOKA Takuya, MIYATA Ichirō(127)

Joint Section
A Comparative History of “Linkages”: Commercial Networks and Human Ties
  in Pre-modern Europe……HASEGAWA Takashi, KASHIWAKURA Tomohide(152)

Special Section
History for Citizens living in Local Communities
  ……………SAITŌ Yoshiyuki, TAWADA Masayasu, ŌSAWA Shin(173)



No.962 October 2017

Special Issue:
  The Future of the Constitution of Japan from Historical Perspectives:
    Constitutionalism on the Edge of a Precipice
Preface………………………………………………………… the Editorial Board (1)
Articles
From the “Establishment of a Peace Nation” to “the Promulgation
  of the Peace Constitution”: Between the Imperial Rescript of September 4,
  1945, and Imperial Assent on November 3, 1946 ………TAKAMI Katsutoshi (2)
Question of Constitutional Reform in Post-War Japan
  and the Historical Significance of the Current Revision Project
  of ABE Administration ……………………………………WATANABE Osamu (13)
Constitutionalism in the Historical Context of Modern Turkey:
  From the Perspective of “Restoration Points of History”…… SASAKI Shin (24)
Comments
Constitutionalism in Japan and “Restoration Points of History”…… AOI Miho (33)

Articles
Forging Peasants into Imperial Subjects: Village-Teacher Training Policies
  in the Russian Empire…………………………………………AOSHIMA Yōko (37)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
MAEDA Ryōsuke, The Dawn of National Politics: The Meiji State
  after the Establishment ofthe Imperial Diet……………… SHIODE Hiroyuki (54)
FUKUSHIMA Taiga, Emperors and Society in Qin and Han Dynasties of China
                      ……………MEGURO Kyōko(57)
WADA Haruki, On the De-Stalinization of Stalinism, 1953-56……KAWAMOTO Kazuko (60)

<Summary>
From the “Establishment of a Peace Nation” to the “Promulgation of the Peace
Constitution”: Between the Imperial Rescript of September 4, 1945, and Imperial Assent
on November 3, 1946
TAKAMI Katsutoshi

   This paper examines the involvement of the Emperor Hirohito in the process leading to the promulgation of the Constitution of Japan from the Emperor’s own perspective, based on volumes 9 and 10 of the Showa Tenno Jitsuroku (Veritable Records of Emperor Showa). In this article I focus on the idea of the “Establishment of a Peace Nation” that appeared in the Imperial Rescript for the opening of the 88th Imperial Diet (on September 4, 1945), and examine the progress of this idea until the “Promulgation of the Peace Constitution” (November 3, 1946), symbolized by Article 9. From the Emperor’s perspective, under the Meiji Constitution in which the Emperor was responsible for all constitutional amendments, the Emperor had the cabinet form a constitutional reform proposal to implement the ideal of a “Peace Nation” to conform with the Potsdam Declaration in cooperation with GHQ. After drawing up a new constitution through deliberations in the Imperial Diet, the Emperor sought to position himself as the symbol of this “Peace Constitution.” However, as the Emperor also held ultimate responsibility for leading Japan into the war, he could not fulfill the role of a symbol of peace during his reign under the new constitution.


Question of Constitutional Reform in Post-War Japan and the Historical Significance
of the Current Reform Project of ABE Administration
WATANABE Osamu

   Firstly, this paper traces the trajectory of the Constitution of Japan since its enactment in 1946, and demonstrates that there were two major efforts at constitutional revision in the postwar era, but these efforts were abandoned in the face of national popular movements opposing the reforms. In addition, this paper will locate the sources of strength that enabled these movements to halt right-wing schemes for constitutional revision, and show how thwarting these attempt at revision of the constitution affected the history of post-war Japan.
   Secondly, this paper will explain the aims of Prime Minister ABE’s current plans for constitutional revision and highlight the historical significance of these plans which seek to overturn the course of 70-years of postwar history. ABE’s move for constitutional revision is the third and the strongest in the postwar era. By passing the series of Peace and Security Legislation Acts in September 2015, the ABE administration has successfully abolished a series of safeguards against the use of force by the Japanese Self Defense Forces, such as the prohibition of use of arms by forces deployed overseas. Similar attempts have been made by a succession of cabinets since the early 1990s, and now the ABE administration seeks to venture into the revision of Article 9 of the Constitution. In searching for the reasons of these efforts, this paper shows the contradictions and difficulties at the heart of ABE’s program from the pro-Constitutional viewpoints.


Constitutionalism in the Historical Context of Modern Turkey: From the Perspective
of “Restoration Points of History”
SASAKI Shin

   Turkey held a national referendum on constitutional revision in 2017, and as a result will now revise the constitution in order to move toward a fully-fledged presidential system. Through an overview of the history of constitutions and constitutional government from the Ottoman period to the present Turkish Republic, and through tracing the course of constitutionalism in the history of modern Turkey, this paper will provide some suggestions for reflecting on such questions from a perspective of global history. Under the Ottoman Empire, a constitutional tradition of limiting the power of the ruler had formed by the early modern era. On the basis of this tradition, constitutional government developed in the Ottoman Empire in the latter half of the nineteenth century. From then until the present, Turkey’s modern history has been characterized by successive efforts to return to the basic principles of constitutionalism in times of political crises. I will explain the use of “restoration points of history” as a metaphor for this phenomenon of historical regression, and argue that the tradition of constitutionalism in Turkish history is currently confronting the danger of constitutional revision.


Forging Peasants into Imperial Subjects: Village-Teacher Training Policies in the Russian Empire
AOSHIMA Yoko

   This paper examines the process of creating a system to discipline peasants into loyal subjects of the Russian Empire, by elucidating the change in village-teacher training policies in the 1860s and 1870s. After the Emancipation Reform of 1861, the government recognized the need to spread literacy in rural areas, while isolating peasants from urban influences. This policy, however, placed little value on the cultural inculcation of the peasants, and valued literacy education for its immediate practical benefits only for the peasants. Therefore, the teachers’ seminary to train village teachers did not receive any allotment from the state budget. Meanwhile, the first teachers’ seminary was established in the Northwestern Provinces (present Belarus), where the government sought to instill orthodox peasants (Belarusians) with Russian culture after the Uprising of 1861, to combat the Polish cultural dominance in the region. At the beginning of the 1870s, the village-teachers’ training system in the Northwestern Provinces was transplanted into the Internal Provinces, where the need to discipline subjects culturally started to be recognized in the context of the rise of Prussia. As a result, a empire-wide system to cultivate people into loyal imperial subjects, based on Orthodox Christian belief and Russian language, was undertaken.


No.961 September 2017

Articles
On the Debate over the Imposition of Taxes on the Imperial Property
  in Modern Japan: 1890–1920……………………………………KATŌ Yūsuke (1)

SERIES: History since 3.11 (10)
Proposals
Rescue Activities of Damaged Historical Materials in Kumamoto Prefecture
                    ……………INABA Tsuguharu(18)
How We Are Taking Advantage of the Lessons of the Great Hanshin and
  Awaji Earthquake regarding Support for Handicapped Victims ?
                    ……………NOZAKI Yasunobu(22)
The Great East Japan Earthquake and Publishing of Books
                    ……………HIJIKATA Masashi(26)
Historical Materials and Exhibitions
Taiwan and Japan: The History of Earthquakes
  through Modern and Contemporary Period……………………KUBO Mariko(30)
Current Topics
Where is “Shin-Godzilla” Now?……………………………………ŌGUSHI Junji(33)
Damaged Cultural Properties in Miyagi Prefecture:
  Open Symposium held by the Miyagi Prefecture
  Liaison Conference for Preservation of Damaged Cultural Properties
                      ……………AMANO Masashi(38)
Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(42)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
IJŪIN Yōko, Studies on Court Ladies in Ancient Japan………WATANABE Ikuko(44)
YANG Tao, Intellectuals, Media, Nationalism in Modern China…ISHIJIMA Noriyuki(47)
HIRANO Chikako, French Colonialism and Recognition of History……IKEDA Ryō(50)
HASHIMOTO Nobuya, Politics of Memory:
  Conflicts over Recognition of History in Europe………SHIOKAWA Nobuaki(54)

The Society’s Report
Report on the 2017 General Assembly…………………………The Committee(58)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(65)


<Summary>
On the Debate over the Imposition of Taxes on the Imperial Property in Modern Japan: 1890–1920
KATO Yusuke

   From 1890, a controversy over taxation of the imperial property arose between the government and the Imperial Household Ministry. While the government took the position that, with the exception of Imperial Hereditary Estates, the imperial property was “private” property which ought to be regulated by law, and therefore subject to taxation, the Imperial Household Ministry regarded the imperial property as “state” property, and therefore not subject to taxation.
   This conflict was settled after 1903 by a reform of the imperial household system, led by the Imperial Household Research Committee. The Committee took the position that the imperial household was a part of the state apparatus. The Committee therefore interpreted the functions of the Imperial Household and the property which served as guarantee of their execution were “matters of state,” and thus the imperial property should be placed outside the purview of taxation.
   The original draft of the Imperial Household Property Ordinance stipulated the granting of “subsidies” to local governments which contained imperial estates within their jurisdiction. However, this provision was eventually deleted, because the Imperial Household Research Committee revised the term “subsidies” as “imperial grants”, a term which invoked the “emperor’s moral virtues,” which was deemed a subject unfit for regulation by mundane legal provisions. However, faced with mounting complaints from local governments which had imperial estates within their boudaries, the Imperial Household Ministry began to provide “imperial grants” as a customary practice after 1920.


No.960 August 2017

Articles
The Logic for Recruitment of the Executive Candidates for Local Officials during
  the Second Empire in France: An Analysis of Notice Individuelle
  in the Conseillers de Préfecture, the Rhône Department………OKAMOTO Taku(1)

Trends
Recent Studies of the Social History of West Germany:
  The Debate on “The Long 60’s”………………………………ASHIBE Akira(15)

Views and Reviews
Nakamura Masanori in the Trans-Pacific and Transwar History of Japan
                     ……………Andrew GORDON(23)

Series: Dialogue between Historians and Archivists (2)
Proposals
Three Minunderstandings regarding Archives and Archivists………AOKI Yūichi(29)
The Present Situation and Future of Releasing of Diplomatic Papers
                      ……………INOUE Masaya(32)
Visiting Archives
The National Archives in Formosa and Its Political and Social Position:
  Politics, Public Administration, Citizens and Historical Studies……KAWASHIMA Shin(35)
Hunting Treasure in a Labyrinth: The National Archives
  of the United States of America………………………………ARAKI Keiko(39)
Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(41)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ENDŌ Midori, Female Monarchs and Abdication in Ancient Japan……SATŌ Nagato(45)
SATŌ Yūsuke, Fiscal Concerns in Relations between the Imperial Court
  and the Edo Shogunate in Late Premodern Japan……NISHIMURA Shitarō(48)
KATŌ Naoto, Studies on Documents In the Qing Dynasty……UEDA Hiroyuki(51)
FUKAZAWA Yasuhiro, The Fear of Abd el-Krim………………YASHIMA Yukari(54)
WADA Mitsuhiro, Early Modern America in Documents and Monuments
                   ……………WANIBUCHI Shūichi(57)
NIHIDA Makoto & UMEZAKI Tōru (eds.), “1968” as Global History……NODA Shōgo(60)

Society’s Announcement: Resolution in the Opposition to the
  Crime of Conspiracy Bill/Resolution in the Opposition to the
  Unconditional Use of the Imperial Rescript on Education in Classrooms………(65)



<Summary>
The Logic for Recruitment of the Executive Candidates for Local Officials during the Second Empire in France: An Analysis of Notice Individuelle in the Conseillers de Préfecture, the Rhône Department
OKAMOTO Taku

   This article discusses how executive candidates of local government, conseillers de préfecture, who were essential to local administration, were recruited during the Second Empire, when the administrative system of modern France considerably expanded and became more complicated.
   To this end, the author firstly examines the nature of conseiller de préfecture, and finds that since the 1865 law this public office was used to train executive candidates in local government. It is assumed that this change was related to the new career path of auditeur, who was the executive candidate of central government, in the Conseil d’État.
   Secondly, the author demonstrates that one’s career, i.e. experience was considered as the most important qualification in recruiting executive candidates in local government. This practice aimed at providing conseiller de préfecture with members who had enough experience of local administration.
   Finally, the existing studies have argued that the professionalization of conseiller de préfecture started only after the Second Empire. However, the emphasis on expertise and work experience in the recruitment process shows that the professionalization of conseiller de préfecture in the Rhône department had already started during the Second Empire. This means that the professionalization in the recruitment of conseiller de préfecture developed differently in each department despite the unified law of 1865.


No.959 July 2017

SPECIAL ISSUE: Myth and Mythification from a Historical Perspective (Ⅱ)

Articles
History Compilation and Ancestor Veneration in Late Early
  Modern Japan………………………………………………KISHIMOTO Satoru(1)
From Deification to Oblivion: Changes in Popular Conceptions of
  NOGI Shizuko “The Wife of the God of War”in the Media
                  ……………KATAYAMA Yoshitaka(13)
Mysterious Women Causing the Downfall of Political Regimes
  in the Royal Chronicles of Early Modern Southeast Asia
                    ……………HIROSUE Masashi(25)
“Printing Socialism,” or the Making of Chinggis Khan
  as a National Hero in Socialist Mongolia…………………SHIMAMURA Ippei (36)
America Portrayed in Black and White: The Birth of a Nation
  and the Creation of the Color Line in the Early Twentieth
  Century United States………………………………………ŌMORI Kazuteru(52)
Views and Reviews
On Mytho-history: A consideration on the Case of Dalit in India………AWAYA Toshie(62)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YAMAMOTO Kazuyuki, Freedom, Equality and Colonialism:
  The Making of the Colonial Education System in Formosa………KITAMURA Kae(69)
MINAMI Yūzo, The Third Reich and the Right Wing Movements in France
                     ……………FUKAZAWA Tamiji(72)
NAGASHIMA Reo, The United States of America and Guam:
  Colonialism, Racism and Native People……………………………ARAI Ryū(76)

<Summary>
History Compilation and Ancestor Veneration in Late Early Modern Japan
KISHIMOTO Satoru

   In this paper, I take up ancestor veneration to examine the historical significance of the co-existence of two irreconcilable trends, genealogical investigation and ancestral deification, in late early modern Japan. I begin by focusing on how the ideas underlying the compilation of Shogunate history and local gazetteers promoted not only historical investigation but also a search for and preservation of historical materials. Recording ancestors’ accomplishments with utmost care became the criterion for being “loyal to one’s ancestors.”
   At the same time, in Choshu Domain, when a genealogical history of its founding ancestor was compiled in order to settle controversies over historical perception between the main and subsidiary fiefs, emphasis was laid on deifying the founding ancestor and worshiping other ancestors as a way of promoting unity within the domain. Also in Satsuma Domain, to legitimate the argument that the founding ancestor, SHIMAZU Tadahisa, had been an illegitimate son of MINAMOTO no Yoritomo, they sought not only to cultivate relations with the Tokugawa clan but also to systematically promote veneration and worship of ancestors.
   The ancestor veneration and worship served to stimulate the existing master–servant relationship and became a precondition for the political reforms of late early modern Japan.


From Deification to Oblivion: Changes in Popular Conceptions of NOGI Shizuko “The Wife of the God of War” in the Media
KATAYAMA Yoshitaka

   This article analyzes the historical process of deification and oblivion of NOGI Shizuko, “The God of War” Nogi Maresuke’s wife by examining media history. Although there has been much previous academic research on the life and image of Nogi Maresuke, there have been little on his wife.
   Media deified NOGI Shizuko after she immolated herself on the death of the Meiji Emperor in 1912. Biographers praised her for her virtue, especially her simple life, modesty, kind-heartedness, and resolution. Conservatives looked up to her as a model for Japanese women, and they insisted that feminists have to obey their husbands just as NOGI Shizuko did.
   However, NOGI Shizuko’s image was changed drastically from 1929 to 1940: she came to be regarded as an ordinary woman as people familiar with her admitted that she was quite disturbed by her son’s death in battle. So, she became a symbol of maternal love during this period.
   After the Asia Pacific War, Nogi Shizuko was gradually forgotten. The idea that a wife follows the lead set by her husband became anachronistic after 1945.


Mysterious Women Causing the Downfall of Political Regimes in the Royal Chronicles of Early Modern Southeast Asia
HIROSUE Masashi

   At a time when merchants from East and West were visiting early modern Southeast Asia in search of forest, mineral and spice products, the women of the region became actively involved in the sale and production of foodstuffs, spices, textiles, pottery and raw silk. Foreign visitors generally described these women as playing leading roles in local markets and mentioned that some cohabited with foreign merchants in order to develop their business. High-ranking women at the region’s royal courts, including royal family members, also played important roles in trade.
   There were also women who occasionally were able to develop commercial activities that extended beyond the control of their rulers, resulting in their appearing highly mysterious and attractive to these monarchs. The royal chronicles of Southeast Asia often attribute the downfall of certain kingdoms to the excessive passion on the part of their rulers for such women, who are invariably depicted as extremely beautiful. Although these stories do not refer specifically to any economic attributes of these women, they do suggest an underlying moral that the violation of women’s activities by rulers will inevitably lead to the destruction of their kingdoms.


“Printing Socialism,” or the Making of Chinggis Khan as a National Hero in Socialist Mongolia
SHIMAMURA Ippei

   I explore how Mongols in Mongolia proper (Outer Mongolia) formalized their nationalism through an examination of both the compilation process and the contents of The History of the Mongolian People’s Republic (1st edition, 1954-55; 2nd and revised edition, 1966; 3rd edition, 1984), which was a Soviet-Mongol joint project. Chinggis Khan has now been formalized as a resource of Mongolian nationalism: this was facilitated by what I call “printing socialism”. In other words, I argue that most people in Mongolia had actually forgotten Chinggis by the beginning of the 20th century because of a strong Buddhist influence. They only began to acquire knowledge of Chinggis due to the development of printing technology, and above all through the demonized image of him by Soviet writers and historians. Although “printing socialism” was aimed at suppressing Mongolian nationalism by defaming Chinggis, Mongolian intellectuals interpreted ironically the demonic image presented by Soviet communists and re-constructed the “human” image of Chinggis by examining not only Russian sources but also Chinese historical materials, and by studying western academic literature on Chinggis and his Empire. On the other hand, people got to learn of Chinggis and his greatness precisely through reading such negative media materials, because tabooed images valorized him as a rarity.


America Portrayed in Black and White: The Birth of a Nation and the Creation of the Color Line in the Early Twentieth Century United States
OMORI Kazuteru

   This essay attempts to elucidate how the United States was reborn as a white republic in the first few decades of the twentieth century, not only in the already-segregated South but also in the North facing mass immigration from southern and eastern Europe, by examining immigrants’ and African Americans’ reactions to the 1915 motion picture The Birth of a Nation.
   I argue that it was not because racial differences were easy to perceive but because they were elusive that new immigrants desperately tried to cross the color line and become white. Viewing The Birth of a Nation, a white supremacist historical drama that glorified the Ku Klux Klan in the Reconstruction South, made them realize that unless and until they acted white enough they could readily be regarded as “colored” and grouped together with the blackfaced villains in the movie.
   The myth of “white America,” however, had an adverse effect on those in the dominant race who fared badly and were in no position to dominate. Their frustrations and anger soon turned into hatred, which has clouded the “Divided States” ever since.


No.958 JUNE 2017

Special Issue: Myth and Mythification from a Historical Perspective (I)
Preface…………………………………………………………the Editorial Board (1)
Articles
TOYOTOMI Hideyoshi’s Land of the Gods Proclamation:
  The Basic Character of the Order Banishing “Bateren” (Portuguese Jesuits)
  and Hideyoshi’s Religious Policy…………………………………SHIMIZU Yūko(2)
The Concept of Uymam in Ainu Oral Literature…………………SAKATA Minako(14)
A Social History of Founding Myth of the Nation in Modern Japan
                   ……………FURUKAWA Takahisa(27)
The Creation of the Myth of “The Great SUN Yatsen”……YOKOYAMA Hiroaki(37)
Memories of the “Conquest of Istanbul” in the Ottoman Empire and the
  Republic of Turkey:1453-2016………………………OGASAWARA Hiroyuki(47)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ŌSAWA Masaaki, Voices of Local Bureaucrats in Southern Sung……UMEMURA Naoki(59)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(63)


<Summary>
TOYOTOMI Hideyoshi’s Land of the Gods Proclamation:The Basic Character of the Order Banishing “Bateren” (Portuguese Jesuits) and Hideyoshi’s Religious Policy
SHIMIZU Yuko

   This paper aims to address the issue of TOYOTOMI Hideyoshi’s June 19, 1587 proclamation that Japan is the Land of the Gods, and clarify the proclamation’s political functions, starting with the order for banishing “baterens” (Portuguese Jesuits). Recently, KANDA Chisato has argued that the proclamation reflects the teaching of Tendō, which was a widespread trend of religious thought in the period, and that the claim to exclusivity and Japanese predominance cannot be directly observed in Hideyoshi’s proclamation, I find this line of argument questionable. The reason for this is that, Hideyoshi made religions be subjected to his political purposes by ignoring its spiritual authority, and it cannot be thought that the proclamation was influenced by one particular religion.
   In my opinion, on June 18, Hideyoshi announced to the country an order regulating Christianity. The next day, there were incidents of compelling a shift of Hideyoshi’s policy regarding Chistianity, i.e. from a policy of controlling to one of banishing. The policies on Christianity described above were linked to religious reorganization measures that were taken by Hideyoshi in order to harness the various internal religious forces to keep the population under his control.
   Although the proclamation of the Land of the Gods at the beginning of the order banishing Portuguese Jesuits appeared as political rhetoric in order to cover up the autocratic nature of the administration, afterwards, the Land of the Gods idea permeated early modern society as a xenophobic ideology, and may have served a function as the justification for the shogunate system.


The Concept of Uymam in Ainu Oral Literature
SAKATA Minako

   Uymam is the Ainu word for trade, and it is one of the recurring motifs expressed frequently in Ainu oral literature . At the same time, it is a historical term in the history of Northern Japan, and has been understood to mean the same thing as omemie – to have an audience with a dignitary.
   Uymam in Ainu oral literature is an activity originating in Ainu cultural deities, passed down through the generations; it is performed to symbolize the position of the Ainu chief, and it indicates an activity that establishes and maintains friendly relations between the Ainu chief and the lords of the wajin (the Japanese). Relations with the Japanese lords were important because in the internal logic of Ainu society, those relations were concerned with the status of the Ainu chief. It had nothing to do with allegiance to the wajin. This relationship resembled the relationship between the Ainu and their gods, and just as the gods would visit Ainu chiefs who had a good heart, Ainu chiefs would visit the lords who had a good heart. Uymam takes as its true nature a visit paid not to a person with the highest social position, but to anyone with a good heart. This means that Uymam is as distant as possible from the general idea of omemie as a courtesy paid to a dominant superior.


A Social History of Founding Myth of the Nation in Modern Japan
FURUKAWA Takahisa

   The founding myth of the nation formed the basis of the legitimization of the state in the period from the Meiji Restoration to the promulgation of the Constitution of Great Japan Empire. However, misgivings about having made a basis of such factually questionable things continued to eat away at the nation. This has been expressed in reality in the confusion in elementary schooling since the 1920s about how to manage the founding myth of the nation in history lessons, and in social trends around the celebration ceremonies of the 2600th Anniversary of the country in 1940.
   Until the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), there were some rational movements that tried to make use of the founding myth of the nation to maintain parliamentarism, and promote economic development and international cooperation, accepting the myth as fiction. However, after the war, the Japanese state took the factually questionable founding myth as reality, and trained its subjects to submit to the state on the basis of the myth. However, the intentions of the state did not reach their fruition.
   The sequence of events detailed above vividly shows that actions with limited legitimacy were taken by the Japanese state after the 1930s, such that eventually the Japanese state had no choice but to impose the founding myth of the nation on its subjects.


The Creation of the Myth of “The Great SUN Yatsen”
YOKOYAMA Hiroaki

   Dr. SUN Yatsen’s revolution was a succession of failures. In order to maintain his incompetent revolutionary force, SUN Yatsen made free use of a wide range of realistic strategies. SUN Yatsen experimented with cooperating with the outside forces of world powers and military cliques, and could not escape his dependency on them.
   However, after his death, SUN Yatsen’s Kuomintang (KMT) successors achieved SUN’s dearest wish and unified China. The KMT promoted the transformation of their founder SUN Yatsen into an idol, hero, and myth, in order to strengthen their political power and orthodoxy. Here, I discuss the following points: 1. Deification by the KMT (Renaming Zhongshan county, establishing the grand Zhongshan mausoleum, bestowing the title Father of the Country) 2. Idolization of SUN Yatsen by the KMT leadership (HU Hanmin, WAN Jingwei, DAI Jitao, and SOONG Chingling) 3. Self-idolization by SUN Yatsen (equating SUN Yatsen with the competent ZHUGE Liang, and the common people with the incompetent Adou) 4. Criticism and praise of SUN Yatsen by the Communist Party (QU Qiubai’s criticism of SUN Yatsen’s argument that only the saints and sages are sovereign ignoring the ordinary people, and MAO Zedong’s re-honoring of SUN Yatsen).


Memories of the “Conquest of Istanbul” in the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey
OGASAWARA Hiroyuki

   This paper aims to clarify how the event known as the “Conquest of Istanbul” (also known as the Fall of Constantinople, May 29, 1453) by the Ottoman ruler Mehmet II has been subsequently valued and used in the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Turkey. The conquest of Istanbul was not an object of unreserved admiration by the Ottoman rulers at the time, but it did gradually come to be depicted as a great act. At the turn of the 19th century, the popularity of Mehmet II increased, and festivals were begun to commemorate the conquest in the closing years of the empire. After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, although the legacy of the empire was repressed, nevertheless a certain value was retained for Mehmet II and the conquest of Istanbul. In 1953, a large-scale commemoration was held for the 500th anniversary, under a pro-Islam administration. Since then, this trend has continued to the present day; although there are tensions between the secular school and the pro-Islam school, the conquest of Istanbul has been treated largely as a great legacy of the empire by the administration of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), which was founded in 2002.


No.957 May 2017

Articles
The Establishment of the Canton Christian College and Chinese Local Elites
                         ……………DOI Ayumu(1) 

Views and Reviews
Trends and Challenges in Studies on Early Modern and Modern Western Europe
  in Japan: Reading Three Recent Works………………………SASAKI Makoto(17)

Current Topics
Some Considerations on the Report towards Reforming the Educational Guidelines
  for High Schools of the Central Council for Education…………KUBO Tōru (25)
“Cuba as an Unifinshied Revolution”: In Search of a RegimeSuitable
  for “Humanitarian Society” ……………………………………GOTŌ Masako(30)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ENDŌ Yuriko, The Society of the South Ōu in the Sengoku Period
                  ………………KUROSHIMA Satoru(35)
MIYAMA Jun-ichi, Society in the Boshin Civil Strife Period
                   ………………NAKURA Tetsuzō(38)
TAKASHIMA Syūichi, Land Consolidation in Suburban Areas
  and Local Society……………………………………………NAGAE Masakazu(42)
CHONG Yong-hwan, “Reconciliation” to Forget…………………ŌKOSHI Aiko(44)
KURODA Yūga, The Real Image of the Reconquista………UCHIMURA Syunta(48)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Society in May 2017…(52)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(63)

Society’s Announcements: The General Meeting of the Historical Science Society
  of Japan for the Year 2017……………………………………………………(65)

<Summary>
The Establishment of Canton Christian College and Chinese Local Elites
DOI Ayumu

   The goal of this study is to enquire into the relationship between the American Presbyterian Mission (APM) and local communities in Guangdong province during the latter half of the nineteenth century. The first chapter outlines the missionary work carried out by the APM from the 1860s onwards. The author attaches particular significance to the development of medical education for the Chinese youth by the missionaries, and considers it a key factor that encouraged debate surrounding the establishment of an institution of higher learning. The second chapter focuses on the decline and reemergence of this debate. The author demonstrates that while an upsurge in the anti-foreign movement in Foshan led to the debateʼs initial decline, B. C. Henry, a missionary of the APM who engaged in missionary work in inner China, was the catalyst for its reintroduction at the beginning of the 1880s. The third chapter analyzes the petitions delivered by the local elites to establish Canton Christian College and elucidates the fact that the submission of such petitions can be attributed to Qing Chinaʼs defeat in the Sino-French War and the intercourse between the local elites and the Christian missionaries.
   Through this study, the author concludes that the establishment of the College was the fruit of a “co-operative relationship” between the Christian missionaries and the local elites.

No.956 April 2017

Special Issue: New Aspects of History Textbook Issue
Preface ……………………………………………………… the Editorial Board (1)
Articles
How the New Required Course “General History”
  Should Be Taught in High Schools………………………KIMIJIMA Kazuhiko(2)
The New Textbook Screening Standards and the Textbooks
  of “Japanese History” for High Schools……………………HARADA Keiichi(12)
Examining the Depictions of Pre-modern Periods in the History Textbooks
  for Junior High Schools from Perspective of World History
  ………YAMADA Kōta, UMEMURA Naoki, NAKADA Kōsuke & SUDA Makiko(20)
Current Topics
On the Introduction of a State-authored Textbook of
  “The History of Korea” …………………………………………IKE Susumu(30)
History Textbooks and Daily History Classes……………………YAMADA Kōta(34)

Views and Reviews
Between the Critique of Nation State and the Land Question:
  Revisiting the Image of Modern History of Makihara Norio……MATSUZAWA Yūsaku(40)

Current Topics
Revisiting “The Inheritance of A-bomb Survivors’ Experience”:
  Using Memory as a Guide ……………………………………NAONO Shōko(44)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
NAKATSUKA Akira,The Legacy of YAMABE Kentarō: Pioneer on
  Japanese Studies of the Japanese Invasion of Korea…KASUYA Ken-ichi(53)
OGAWA Mariko, Germs and the State : Hygiene, Science and
  Politics in the Victorian Era …………………………NAGASHIMA Takeshi(56)
NAGATA Tomonari, The Transition to Democracy from the
  Franco Regime ……………………………………………NAKATSUKA Jirō(59)

Recent publications……………………………………………………………(62)

Society’s Announcements
The 2017 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society ofJapan………(65)
Announcement on the Changing of our Publisher……………………………(66)

<Summary>
How the New Required Course “General History” Should Be Taught in High Schools
KIMIJIMA Kazuhiko

   This study explores the appropriate content of textbooks to be used in teaching the new required course “General History” in Japanese high schools. The curriculum guidelines for this new course are scheduled to be released in 2017. Therefore, this paper merely represents a “draft proposal” offered by an individual. The creation of this new subject was influenced by the proposal by the Science Council of Japanʼs Historical Studies Committee to introduce “Basic History” as a new subject to counter the problem which came to light in 2006, in which high schools were allowing students to graduate without completing the required subject of “World History.” Another influence was as the feedback from experimental research schools accredited by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Replacing the current subject of “World History,” “General History” will be a required 2-credit subject integrating “Japanese History A” and “World History A” into a modern and contemporary history course. Accordingly, the course content cannot be merely a conventional “chronological history,” but will need to focus on “thematic learning.” In this paper I propose themes for textbooks that will foster a problem-solving approach, and cultivate the capacity to think historically. This study offers a “chronological thematic history,” coursing back and forth between Japanese History on the one hand, and World History East Asian History on the other. As all high school students will be learning this subject, it offers proposals designed to dispel their aversion to History as a school subject.


The New Textbook Screening Standards and the Textbooks of “Japanese History” for High Schools
HARADA Keiichi

   Official textbook screenings in Japan have been encroaching upon the very contents of the textbooks. The results of the 2015 were the worst ever, leading Japan “one step closer to state-issued textbooks.” These screenings repudiated the quantification of, firstly, the March 1 Independence Movement casualties in Korea in 1919, and secondly, the Korean and Chinese victims massacred during the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 by the army and vigilante groups. One of the textbooks even depicted these massacres as the consequence of the earthquake. Thirdly, the screening obliterated the casualties of the Nanjing Massacre victims. In continuity with textbooks in current use (approved in 2007), the above quantification was not only averted, but the screening officials also tenaciously required textbook authors to add phrases such as: “There is no commonly accepted view….,” or “The numbers are unclear.”
   Avoiding stating numbers of victims can lead students to think that these incident happened “by chance” and imbue them with a sort of “legitimacy.” Such “ambiguity” must be avoided.
   The new Textbook Sereening Standards established in 2014 are nothing but state intervention in textbook publishing. Self-restraint or cowering before them would be tantamount to negating all that the post-war historical studies have nutured. The Nanjing Massacre, “comfort women”and the Tokyo Trial (The International Military Tribunal for the Far East) are the three critical issues for those who do not accept “the defeat” in 1945, and want to force on the Japanese people the idea that “armed forces and wars” are common sense, and the image of “righteous Imperial Army”. While facing these challenges, we must not lose courage.


Examining the Depictions of Pre-modern Periods in the History Textbooks for Junior High Schools from Perspective of World History
YAMADA Kota, UMEMURA Naoki, NAKADA Kosuke and SUDA Makiko

   Amid the ongoing controversy over the introduction of a new required history course in high schools in Japan, a re-examination of the history curriculum is needed not only from the standpoint of continuity between high school and university, but also the entire junior high school high school university spectrum. Additionally, a comprehensive understanding of history essentially requires a sound understanding of pre-modern history. For these two reasons, this paper attempts to ascertain the current situation and problems of the teaching of History in schools, via a comparative analysis of the eight history textbooks approved for junior high schools in 2014, focusing on their chapters about pre-modern periods from the perspective of world history. Specifically, this study first examines how the teaching of History in junior high schools measured up to the prevailing curriculum guidelines. Subsequently, the manner in which the terms “country (kuni)” and “Japan” are described in all of their chapters on pre-modern periods is analyzed on a comparative basis. An examination of their narratives of pre-modern periods from the historical viewpoints of China, Europe, and East Asia then follows. In the textbooks scrutinized, the engagement of various regions of the world with Japan is generally depicted only in fragments. Consequently, the difficulty of discerning any connections transcending geographical boundaries and periods, is a problem pointed out by this study.


No.955 March 2017

Article
SOEDA Azembō’s Social Activism: His Role within the Urban Lower
  Classes and Taishō Democracy………………………NOGAWA Yasuharu(1)

Trends
Recent Studies on ODA Nobunaga………………………………HIRAI Kazusa(18)

Views and Reviews
Discussing Parliament in China: Some Considerations on FUKAMACHI
  Hideo(ed.), A Hundred Years' History of Chinese Parliamentarianism :
  Who Has Been Represented, by Whom?…………………SEKI Tomohide(26)

Current Topics
The Outcome of the Brexit Referendum and its Effects………YATANI Mai(33)

Series : History since 3.11 (9)
Proposals
The Importance of Universities as Regional Bases of
  History and Culture: Considering the Attempts in
  Disaster-affected Areas in Japan………………………OKUMURA Hiroshi(40)
Invisible Trauma Makes History………………………………ARIZUKA Ryōji(44)
Histoical Materials and Exhibitions
Excavating the Japanese Archipelago 2016: Special Exhibition 1
  “Culture Power for Reconstruction”; Special Exhibition 2
  “Excavating the History of Reconstruction”…………MIZOGUCHI Yūki(50)
Message from Rikuzen-Takata: On the Exhibition
  “Restorationg Treasures of Our Native Soil”………………SAIGAN Mai(53)
Recent Publications………………………………………………………(56)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KATŌ Chikako, National Integration and Gender in
  Modern Japan …………………………………………HIMEOKA Toshiko(60)
Recent Publications………………………………………………………(61)

<Summary>
SOEDA Azemboʼs Social Activism: His Role within the Urban Lower Classes and Taisho Democracy
NOGAWA Yasuharu

   This paper analyzes SOEDA Azembo, generally known as a famous enka-shi (an Japanese-style popular song musician), focusing on his role as a social activist and attempts to show that his activities allowed him to become a type of “folk intellectual”.
   Azembo based his activism on the urban lower society. Living among the urban lower classes, he took as the themes for his enka ballads the living conditions of the people below the lower middle class, and built up a sense of community that would later develop into organized social movements. While his songs caricatured the poor for living “uncaringly” (nonki), unaware and uncritical of the situation in which they found themselves, he revealed that this lifestyle also contained an earnest aspiration towards life, and satirized those academics, philanthropists and city administration officials who were unable to understand this aspiration.
   While Azemboʼs activities primarily intended to include the urban people of the lower classes into the Taisho Democracy movement, but there was also an aspect in his work which created a culture of resistance, criticizing the intellectuals who led this movement.

No.954 February 2017

Series : Dialogue between Historians and Archivists (1)
Introduction to the Series “Dialogue between Historians and Archivists”
                 ……………the Editorial Board (1)
Proposals
Some Considerations on the Public Records and
  Archives Management Act…………………………………SATŌ Katsumi(2)
What Historians Think of the Actual Situation of
  Public Records and Archives Management ?…………………KATŌ Yōko(7)
Book Reviews
SAKAGUCHI Takahiro, Archives and Public Records Management……SEBATA Hajime(14)
Visiting Archives
On Use and Release of Documents in the Russian Archives……FUMOTO Shin-ichi(17)
Wandering through the Public Archives in Germany………IOKIBE Kaoru(19)
Recent Publications………………………………………………………(23)


Views and Reviews
Toward an Epistemological History: The History
  of YASUMARU Yoshio…………………………………NARITA Ryūichi(27)

Current Topics
The Rhapsody of “Abdication” and the Symbolic Monarchy………KAWANISHI Hideya(37)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HORIKOSHI Yūichi,The Power Structure of the Toyotomi Government……IKE Susumu(44)
OZEKI Manabu, Consumption in Rural Villages
  in Japan before World War II………………………MITSUZONO Isamu(47)
NUMAJIRI Akinobu, Formation of Urban Areas from
  the Perspective of Rural Villages ……………TAKAYANAGI Tomohiko (49)
TSUKASE Susumu, A Study on History of Manchuria……IIZUKA Yasushi(52)
KOBAYASHI Maiko, Kingship in Early Modern Scotland……TAKEZAWA Hiroyuki(55)
SASAKI Makoto, Wars and the Arts in the Reign of Louis XIV……HAYASHIDA Shin-ichi(58)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………(62)

<Summary>
Series: Dialogue between Historians and Archivists

   The appropriate storage, management, and public availability of official documents are essential to the “citizensʼ right to know.” However, the systemization of these aspects was particularly late in Japan compared to the major nations of Europe and the Americas, as well as other Asian nations such as China. A Freedom of Information Act was passed in 2001, but we had to wait a further ten years beyond that, until 2011, for the Public Records and Archives Management Act to be put into effect. Then, on the pretext of security, the Act on the Protection of Specially Designated Secrets was approved and established by the Diet in December 2013, and there was an inevitable rolling back of access to information. In March 2016, the first reports of the Information Oversight Screening Panel were released by the Board of Oversight and Review of Specially Designated Secrets of each houses of the Diet to check the designation and cancellation of the governmentʼs “specially designated secrets.” These reports confirmed that there were many problems with implementing the law, including significant barriers to the cancellation of designated state secrets.
   Given these circumstances, the Rekishigaku Kenkyu (Journal of Historical Studies) begins a series of proposals by historians and archivists about issues with and plans for improvement to the preservation and management of archives and the present situation of making information available to the public. Through dialogues between those who preserve and manage archives, and provide information, and those who use that information, the new series aims to contribute to improve laws and systems related to further disclosing of archives, which is essential not only for historical studies but also for the general guarantee of all citizensʼ rights to access information.

No.953 January 2017

Articles
The Anti-liberal Turn of Nationalizing Policy in Interwar Hungary: The Failure of
  the Levente System (Compulsory Out-of-School Physical Education) and
  Its Transformation ………………………………………………ANEGAWA Yudai (1)

Trends
Recent Studies on the History of Cultural Exchange of Kanseki (Premodern Chinese
  Texts): Their Acceptance in Medieval Japan ………………KAWAMOTO Shinji (19)

Views and Reviews
What Does One Think after Awakening from a Dream? : Reading Impressions of
  The Leading Edge ofHistory of Common People in Japan and South Korea:
  Searching for a New History of Common People ……………… SAWAI Keiichi (28)

Current Topics
The World at the Crossroa dsand the "Law of War": Revisiting the Middle East, Japan,
  and the Pacifist Constitution from the Viewpoint of Contemporary History
                      ………………KURITA Yoshiko (35)
Historical Significance of President Obama's Visit to Hiroshima …… NISHIZAKI Fumiko (43)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ISHIHARA Hiiro, The Shogunal Family and the Imperial Family in the Muromachi Period
  in Japan ………………………………………………………HISAMIZU Toshikazu (51)
HOZAWA Naohide, Buddhist Institutions and Information in Early Modern Japan
                      ………………Ohashi Yukihiro (54)
MITSUZONO Isamu, The Inception of the Japanese Model of Mass-consumption Society
                      ………………TAKEDA Haruhito (57)
TAKAYAMA Hiroshi, The Medieval Kingdom of Sicily …………… TAKAHASHI Akihiro (60)

Recent Publications ………………………………………………………………………(63)

<Summary>
The Anti-liberal Turn of Nationalizing Policy in Interwar Hungary: The Failure of
the Levente System (Compulsory Out-of-School Physical Education) and Its Transformation
ANEGAWA Yudai

   This article inquires the reasons for the anti-liberal turn of nationalizing policy in interwar Hungary, by examining the “militarization” of the Levente system, which was based on compulsory out-of-school physical education. The Levente system was begun in 1921 as a liberal nationalizing policy to promote civic moral and constitutionalist education, but, from around 1928, it became a tool of authoritarian governance involving security measures and surveillance. Most studies have explained this turn as a result of increasing anti-liberal initiatives by the ultra-right and militarist factions in Hungary during 1930s.
   However, by examining the process by which the Levente system was implemented in various areas, it is clear that the change came about for very different reasons. Local authorities first involved security forces in implementing the system in order to overcome obstacles to the liberal nationalizing policy. However, this solution raised opposition by the anti-establishment activists to the Levente system by 1927 at the latest. Through this process, the central authorities came to recognize the utility of Levente system as a part of the national security and surveillance policy.
   Ironically, the anti-liberal turn of the Levente system was caused by efforts to accomplish a liberal nationalizing policy. Authoritarianism in Eastern Europeʼs interwar period was not a derailment from, but a variant of the development of liberalism in the region.