The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Aoki-Shoten (Aoki Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.952 December 2016

SPECIAL ISSUE: The Life Cycle of Historical Materials: Authority, Power and Accessibility (Ⅱ)

Articles
Are There Actually Scare Historical Materials
Related to Women?……………………………………KURUSHIMA Noriko (1)

Towards an Understanding of Medicals Archives and Medical
History in Japan:Ethics, Stigma, and Personal Health
Information…………………………………………………HIROKAWA Waka(13)

The “History of Historical Material” Relating to Document Born
at the Council of Frankfurt in 794 and Document Utilization
in the Sovereign Acts of the Carolingian Era………………TSUDA Takuro(25)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KOBAYASHI Noburu, The Development of a
Monetary Economy in Early Meiji Japan………………………ITŌ Akihiro(37)
AOKI Atsushi, The World of Civil Law in Song China
……………………OGAWA Yoshiyuki(39)
NAKATEGAWA Yoshio, Liberty and Society in Acient Greece
……………HASHIBA Yuzuru(41)

Critical Reviews on the Papers Presented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session…………………………………OSA Shizue,KIDŌ Yoshiyuki(45)
Ancient History Section……………………………………YOSHIE Takashi (49)
Medieval History Section………………TAMURA Yoshinori SAKURAI Eiji(50)
Early Modern History Section………………………YOKOYAMA Yoshinori (53)
Modern History Section…………MARUYAMA Yūki,SUZUKI Kazufumi (56)
Contemporary History Section………………………… IKEGAMI Daisuke(59)
Joint Section ………SANO Daiki,TAKAHASHI Yū,SHIBATA Takanori (61)
Special Section………………………………OGAWA Kazunari,MIURA Tōru (65)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(71)

Society’s Announcement…………………………………………………………(80)

Index. Nos.940–952 (January–December 2016) ………………………………(72)

<Summary>
Are There Actually Scare Historical Materials Related to Women
KURUSHIMA Noriko

  In this paper, focused on the records of pre-modern Japan, we explore the question “Are historical materials related to women actually scarce,” and examine various factors and conditions regarding the creation and preservation of these historical materials, particularly from the perspective of academic researchers.
  First, we re-examine whether there have actually been situations in which the corresponding records were not created or preserved during the generation, storage, and disposal process of historical materials. Taking recent studies on Ancient Japan as an example, the results do not provide any direct explanation; rather, we have confirmed that the volume of the historical materials related to women increase or decrease depending on historians’ viewpoints, i.e. how historians interpret the historical materials. In addition, taking into account that historians need to be free from various biases such as perspectives based only on modern and contemporary history, we examine ancient and medieval documents written by women of the Imperial Court. Finally, we emphasize that more historical materials related to women may be discovered by using a solid research perspective and making a careful reading of historical materials, and issue a warning about the inadequacy of the gender perspective in the studies being conducted in present-day Japanese history circles.

Towards an Understanding of Medical Archives and Medical History in Japan:
Ethics, Stigma, and Personal Health Information
HIROKAWA Waka

  In Japan, since the 1990s, the development of a new type of medical history research has revealed several issues regarding the use of medical archives. First, it has become necessary to research records pertaining to the actual conditions of medical practice. However, the second issue is that there are enormous barriers to accessing medical records. In order to propose a solution to this problem, in this paper I analyze both the laws that protect personal information (“hard law”) and self-imposed regulations that govern the medical field (“soft law”), such as research ethics and guidelines. Next, I examine the ethical procedures that surround how the personal information of deceased individuals is handled. As there are no clear laws or regulations protecting the personal information of deceased individuals, it is difficult to determine uniform criteria for how to handle such information in historical studies. Historians and archivists ought to refer to individual cases and make judgments based on their own sense of professional ethics. Moreover, they should refrain from becoming complicit in intensifying the stigma of a given disease through excessive scrutiny. I suggest that if researchers can produce rigorously empirical research using the personal information contained in the medical records they can presently access, they could prove the importance of medical history, and thus progressively gain further access to more medical records.


The “History of Historical Materials” Relating to Document Born at the Council of Frankfurt in 794 and Document Utilization in the Sovereign Acts of the Carolingian Era
TSUDA Takuro

  This paper focuses on the historical record that have been referred to as the “Frankfurt edict,” to elucidate document utilization in the sovereign acts of the Carolingian era. Previous studies of this historical material regarded the document as important “edict” issued by Charlemagne in 794, with systematic replication and propagation carried out under the direction of his court. However, this historical material has been regarded as “edict” only since the beginning of the early modern period; an examination of the context of the existing contemporary situations reveals that it was no more than by-product of the Council of Frankfurt and shows that calling the document “edict” could lead to a critical misunderstanding. These findings challenge the prevailing view that Charlemagne promulgated many “edict” and systematically replicated and propagated them.


No.951 November 2016

SPECIAL ISSUE: The Life Cycle of Historical Materials: Authority, Power and Accessibility(Ⅰ)

Preface………………………………………………………the Editorial Board ( 1 )
Articles
An Inquiry into the Socio-economic Basis of a Society under Private
Document Principle in Early Modern Japan: The Case of Fudesha
(Document Creators) in Early Modern Amakusa………TOMIZEN Kazutoshi(2)
Julian the Apostate: Epistolography and Tradition…………TANAKA Hajime (12)
Oral History Sources Based on Personal Narratives:
Power Relationships, Authorities, and Accessibility during
the Process of Creating and Sharing Data …………………SAKAI Junko(28)
Toward the Release of the Former Confidential Documents:
the Actualities of Some Archives in Russia,
China and Vietnam…………………………………………KURIHARA Hirohide(40)
A Revolutionary Weapon or Just Another Bomb? :
USSBS and an Early Postwar Evaluation of the
Atomic Bomb……………………………………………SHIGESAWA Atsuko(52)

<Summary>
An Inquiry into the Socio-economic Basis of a Society under Private Document Principle in Early Modern Japan: The Case of Fudesha (Document Creators) in Early Modern Amakusa
TOMIZEN Kazutoshi

  In this paper, I examine fudesha (document creators) in early modern Amakusa, who dealt with village documents under the ojoya and shoya village headmen, and I consider the socio-economic basis of a society under private document principle in early modern Japan.
The fudesha were at the center of village document-related paperwork and carried out a variety of tasks in the gunchu kaisho (domain exchange), kumi (entities of grouped villages) and villages of Tomioka district. As a reward, the fudesha received a stipend sufficent to cover household expenses. In addition, they assisted illiterate or semi-literate peasants through the creation of pledged-land acts and deeds. Thus, they were indispensable to the local administration and social control through private document principle in Amakusa.
In the early 19th century, lords attempted to abolish the fudesha, and make the village headmen perform the work of creating village documents in vain. So, reliance on the fudesha skilled in business or handwriting continued thereafter.
  Finally, I discuss three types of the professionals who mediated between the lord and the village through document creation: 1) the trader contract type; 2) the village or ward official type; 3) the authority type.

Julian the Apostate: Epistolography and Tradition
TANAKA Hajime

  The Roman Emperor Julian was an energetic reformer and prolific writer. Contemporary criticism was divided between praise and censure. Without any formal damnatio memoriae on him, these two types of evaluation were handed down to posterity with different emphases and additional legends. This paper, after reviewing the reception of Julianʼs images in later ages, examines Julianʼs letters which have been maintained in two disparate traditions: the letters in Latin excerpted in the Codes and the letters in Greek included in letter collections. Investigating some Latin and Greek letters which have been regarded as two versions of the same content, this paper makes it clear that these are completely different texts. Latin law codes recorded Julianʼs text almost verbatim though religiously problematic contents had been edited out. On the other hand, regarding Julianʼs Greek letters in the mediaeval manuscripts, examining the order of the letters organized in the modern editions of J. Bidez and W. C. Wright reveals that the modern editions are too much occupied in the reconstruction of a “historical” Julian. Some manuscripts in later ages actually give us a glimpse into how the Julianʼs images transformed in the history.

Oral History Sources Based on Personal Narratives: Power Relationships, Authorities, and Accessibility during the Process of Creating and Sharing Data
SAKAI Junko

  It is essential for historical research to show sources and to share raw data with readers in order to secure objectivity of the research. Personal narratives of individuals are invaluable as historical sources, as they could show hidden voices that have been oppressed by cultural norms of the society. However, despite the importance of the openness of data, the raw materials of oral history based on in-depth personal narratives and inter-subjectivity between narrator and interviewer may not be openly shown to the audience. This is necessary because we need to protect narrators and researchers from the tracking of unnecessary curiosity about personal information.
  It seems to be impossible to find ways that solve this contradiction between the openness of historical data and the privacy embedded in the oral history sources. In the current digital age, is oral history now an old-fashioned research method inherited from the analogue age when researchers exchanged their ideas within a limited academic community? Or, can we go further in the development of oral history for a better society? How can oral history contribute to a more democratic and more hopeful historical understanding? We need further discussions for creating some consensus on this issue within our diversified cultures.

Toward the Release of the Former Confidential Documents: the Actualities of Some Archives in Russia, China and Vietnam
KURIHARA Hirohide

  Today, Russia, China and Vietnam politically share a similar feature in their political structure: the existence of a presidency or party leadership which exercises strong control over various kinds of information, including access to original documents in public archives.
  Through recent research by the author in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, the Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, the Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Peopleʼs Republic of China and the Vietnamese National Archives Center 3, this article shows some aspects of the current situation regarding the accessibility to the historical documents in these countries as follows: 1) in Russia the governmentʼs effort to establish an institutional system for releasement of the former confidential documents has been going on, and the state archives are highly accessible; 2) in China the attempt by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to build an archive with advanced accessibility (2004-2012) has been suspended for more than three years; 3) in Vietnam gradual legislation toward the release of confidential documents has been under way.

A Revolutionary Weapon or Just Another Bomb?: USSBS and an Early Postwar Evaluation of the Atomic Bomb
SHIGESAWA Atsuko

  When Robert P. Patterson, U.S. War Secretary, visited Hiroshima five months after his country dropped the first atomic bomb ever used in war on the city, he downplayed its effects and depicted the new weapon as just another bomb. A similar trend can also be seen in the findings of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS), a presidential study commission that went to Japan immediately after the end of the war. Why did they make such an evaluation? Why did their views contradict the official narrative of the atomic bomb that displays it as revolutionary and decisive in bringing Japanʼs surrender? We draw upon primary sources to prove that Patterson and USSBS avoided referring to the atomic bomb as something revolutionary at the time because they feared that the U.S. general public might want to go back to the isolationism and refuse to support another war. We also attempt to look into the question of why USSBS reports had been classified for almost 30 years after they were published and had generally been ignored.


No.950 October 2016

Extra Edition

Special Edition
The Annual Meeting of the Society in May 2016
Power over the Movement of Persons and Sexuality

Plenary Session
Power over the Movement of Persons and Sexuality
…………SHIMIZU Kazuhiro, TAKEMOTO Niina , MATSUMOTO Yūko (2)

Ancient History Section
The Transformation of Rule in Ancient Japan…………………………KON Masahide(32)

Medieval History Section
Wealth and Currency in the Transitional Societies in the 12th and the 16th
Century in Japan ……………………………MORITA Hayato, KAWATO Takashi(53)

Early Modern History Section
Politics and Society in the Face of “Opening of the Country” in Early Modern Japan
     …………………GOTO Atsushi , MITSUMATSU Makoto(73)

Modern History Section
Transformation of Social Awareness in the Interwar Period
…………………………………ONO Naoko, KAMITA Seiji(95)

Contemporary History Section
Formation and Transformation of the Military-Social Contact Zone
   ………………………AKETAGAWA Toru, NAGASHIMA Reo (130)

Joint Section
Rupture and Succession of Political Communication in the
Mediterranean World in the 3rd to the 6th Century
………NAGUMO Taisuke, KIKUCHI Shigeto, KAMEYA Manabu (161)

Special Section
How Should Historical Studies Connect with Society ?
     ……KATAOKA Nobuyuki, YOSHIDA Kōichi, HIRAKAWA Minami (194)

No.949 October 2016

Special Issue: “Hondo” (Mainland) of Japan and the World from Okinawan Perspective
Preface …………………………………………………………… the Editorial Board ( 1 )

Articles
The Position of Early Modern Ryūkyū: The Gaze from Japan and China,
and Ryūkyū Self-Awareness ……………………………………DANA Masayuki(3)
The Historical Experience of Modern Okinawa and Changing Historical Images
                       ……………TAKAESU Masaya(11)
Lineages of “Island-Wide” Movements in Contemporary
History of Okinawa……………………………………… SAKURAZAWA Makoto(20)

Comments
Okinawa’s Self-Awareness and Iniciative………………………KOMATSU Hirosi(30)

Articles
The Kwantung Army and the Manchukuo Imperial Army………MATSUNO Seiya(30)

Views and Reviews
Beyond “The Great Divergence”: Some Considerations on Kenneth Pomeranz’s Arguments…………………………………………………MURAKAMI Ei(49)
How European History Should Be Written, How 20th Century History
Should be Drawn? : Some Critical Reviews on
Mark Mazower’s Works………………………………SHINOHARA Taku(55)

<Summary>
The Position of Early Modern Ryukyu: The Gaze from Japan and China, and Ryukyu Self-Awareness
DANA Masayuki

  How did early modern Ryukyu mark its history, and what kins of relationships did Ryukyu have with Japan and China in that period? How Japan and China view Ryukyu, and how did Ryukyu regard its own position? The answers to these questions become clearer through symbolic incidents and situations, and this made Ryukyu rethink its own position, and deepen its self-awareness. One of such landmark incidents was the Shimazu Invasion of 1609, which triggered Ryukyu’s entrance to the modern age and the kingdom forced to change its world view from that of old Ryukyu. Later, during the dynasty change in China, Ryukyu witnessed the collapse of the Ming dynasty, while Satsuma Domain and the Tokugawa Shogunate government tried to cut off Ryukyu’s relationship with China. Haneji Choshu and Sai On, officials of the Ryukyu kingdom, were looking for a clearer definition of Ryukyu self-awareness, and searched for the appropriate distance from both Japan and China. The arrival of foreign ships at the end of the shogunate era led to questions about the position and relationship of the kingdom with regard to Japan. Ryukyu established its own identity based on its historical experience.


The Historical Experience of Modern Okinawa and Changing Historical Images
TAKAESU Masaya

  In this paper, first, I outline the correlation between the political events of the so-called “Okinawa problem” since 1995, and research on the modern history of Okinawa. Second, I provide a general outline of the modern history of Okinawa positioned in the multi-layered political context of Modern Japan or East Asia taking into consideration the main idea of this special issue that “simplistic dichotomy of Mainland versus Okinawa” should be avoided.
  Based on the current state of affairs and historical changes during the modern period (historical experiences), I will overview changes of “historical images of Modern Okinawa” analyzing how historical images have been influenced by current circumstances, in other words, how those historical images have been created as “historical narratives”. Through this paper, I raise a question regarding the significance of enriching historical images without falling into a simplistic dichotomy of the Mainland versus Okinawa in addressing the Okinawa problem.


The Historical Experience of Modern Okinawa and Lineages of “Island-Wide” Movements
SAKURAZAWA Makoto




  This paper explores four themes regarding the formation of Shimagurumi (Island-wide movement), during the occupation under American forces. The first theme is plans for economic development. Since the 1950s, a consistent economic theme has been how to bring about a transition from a base-dependent economy to an independent economy. In the 1950’s, this meant economic independence from the U.S., whereas in the 1960’, this changed to economic independence from Japan. The second theme is attitudes towards military bases. The island-wide protests of 1956 were a restrained protest against oppressive American rule, rather than a protest against the bases themselves. The reversion movement of the 1960’s also became an island-wide issue, even though attitudes towards military bases had not yet coalesced. The third theme is the issues of “belonging” and Okinawan identity. During the period of peace treaty negotiations before the reversion of Okinawa, both supporters of Okinawan independence and supporters of reversion to Japan, shared the assumption that they were both Okinawan and Japanese, and were only divided over which was the better choice for the Okinawans themselves. The restoration movement itself was essentially a movement to defend the basic human rights of the islanders. The fourth theme is attitudes towards the Battle of Okinawa. Attitudes towards this battle were determined by the "military rationale” dominated by the Japanese side. In response to this, a “rationale of Okinawan residents” was formed and consolidated as an island-wide consensus during the period of negotiations about the reversion of Okinawa to Japanese rule.


The Kwantung Army and the Manchukuo Imperial Army
MATSUNO Seiya

  The Manchukuo Imperial Army was comprised of the soldiers of former military cliques. However, they were dominated by the military advisers and instructors dispatched by the Kwantung Army. Officers and men of the Kwantung Army despised the Manchukuo Imperial Army. In addition, the military advisers and instructors did not trust the troops of the Manchukuo Imperial Army and regarded them as barbarians. They did not accept the Manchukuo Imperial Army as an equal of the Imperial Japanese Army because of this ethnic difference. They were convinced that the Japanese were superior.
  The reason why the Manchukuo Imperial Army was needed in Manchukuo are as follows. As Manchukuo society was very unstable and dangerous, the Kwantung Army was afraid that the military cliques would participate in anti-Manchukuo and anti-Japanese guerrilla movements. Therefore, they intended to include soldiers of the former military cliques in the Manchukuo Imperial Army in order to prevent a deterioration of security and social order. To use the Manchukuo Imperial Army for a battle was of secondary importance.



No.948 September 2016

Articles
Ceremonies for the Ancient Sages and Ancestor Memorials:
Schools and Shrines to the Sages in the Late Southern Song Dynasty
                …………………………UMEMURA Naoki(1)
Current Topics 
The Iran Nuclear Agreement and Sanctions Relief: Their Significance,
Background and Aftermath ……………………MATSUNAGA Yasuyuki(17)
SERIES: History since 3.11 (8)
Proposals
Historians’ Mission after “3. 11” and the Kumamoto
Earthquake ……………………………………………OKADA Tomohiro(22)
When the “Useless” is of “Use:” History and Preservation
as a Form of Psychosocial Support after a Disaster……………J.F. Morris (25)
Historical Materials and Exhibitions
Recording History by Photographs……………………………AKAGI Shūji(31) 
Book Reviews
ISHIBASHI Katsuhiko, The Nankai Trough Great Earthquakes:
History, Science and Society…………………………EBARA Masaharu(34)
Recent Publications ………………………………………………………………(37)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
MIYACHI Masato,”Before Daylight” as History………NAKURA Tetsuzō(39)
UCHIYAMA Kazuyuki,Former Feudal Lords and Society
in the Meiji Era …………………………………………HIGUCHI Takehiko(43)
NISHINARITA Yutaka, The Worker Recruiters in Modern Japan
………………………………………………………SHIMADA Katsuhiko(45)
NATSUI Haruki, Landlord System in Kangnam in the Era
of Republic of China…………………………………YANAGISAWA Kazuya(49)
FUKUSHI Jun, Commercial and Industrial Enterprises in
Canada and British Imperial Economy, 1846-1906…………KIBATA Yōichi(52)

The Society’s Report
Report on the 2016 General Assembly………………… The Committee(55)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(62)
Announcement:
A Joint Statement from Japanese Historians and History Educators
on Recent Developments in the Japanese Military’s “Comfort
Women” Issue…………………………………………………15 Associations(63)


<Summary>
Ceremonies for the Ancient Sages and Ancestor Memorials: Schools and Shrines to the Sages in the Late Southern Song Dynasty
UMEMURA Naoki

  In this paper, I examine how shrines dedicated to the former sages in local government schools underwent changes in the latter half of the Southern Song Dynasty, focusing especially on the reign of Emperor Lizong. During this period Neo-Confucianism became state orthodoxy, and shrines that enshrined orthodox heirs of Confucianism such as Zhou Dunyi rapidly increased in number. Furthermore, many shrines dedicated those considered as “famous officials” (名宦 - míng huàn) or “local sages” (郷賢 - xiāng xián) later began to be built within the school grounds.
  What happened behind these changes? Taking as my starting point Wei Liaoweng, who left many inscriptions on these shrines, I shall closely examine the theory of ceremonies for the former sages, in order to identify in what manner they were associated with the theory of ancestor memorial ceremonies. Furthermore, by investigating the Aixuan Shrine in Fujian and the rice fields pertaining to it, as well as examples of shrines to the sages in Quzhou, we observe that the descendants of former sages in respective regions influenced the extent of the ceremonies that worshipped those sages. Moreover, I demonstrate that this became an important impetus for a diverse range of former sages to be worshiped within the schools. By conducting this analysis, I clarify how the latter half of the Southern Song Dynasty was an important period of transition for the government schools. These schools had close relationships with their local communities and were already becoming places dedicated to various sages as in the Ming Dynasty.





No.947 August 2016

SPECIAL ISSUE: History of “Inexistence”: Self-determination and Right of Choice (Ⅱ)

Articles
From Komyo-en to Oku Komyo-en: Losing "Autonomy" in a Wartime
  Hansen's Disease Sanatorium…………………………MATSUOKA Hiroyuki(1)
Inexistence of Henoko District Residents in the Futenma Air Station
  Relocation Issue………………………………………KUMAMOTO Hiroyuki(12)
Questioning the Inexistence of Radical Feminism in Colonial
  Korea…………………………………………………………SONG Youn-ok(24)
Enforced Invisibility and the Resistance of the Anabaptists to the
  Imperial Princes: Control of Free Speech and Support Networks
  during the Siege of Münster, 1534-35……………NAGAMOTO Tetsuya(36)

Current Topics
War against Terrorism and the Palestine Question………ARAI Shin-ichi(48)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ISHII Kanji, The Historical Structure of Japan in the
  Capitalist Era…………………………………………YANAGISAWA Asobu(57)
AOKI Toshio, A Social History of Rural Education
  in 20th Century Mexico…………………………………MATSUHISA Reiko(60)


<Summary>
From Komyo-en to Oku Komyo-en: Losing "Autonomy" in a Wartime Hansenʼs Disease    Sanatorium
MATSUOKA Hiroyuki

  Using diaries and meeting memoranda in the period between 1939 to 1941, this article studies the process of the loss of resident autonomy when Komyo-en, a Hansenʼs disease sanatorium run by twelve provinces in the west of Japan, was nationalized in July, 1941. As the war worsened and the shortage of goods and governmental control became more severe, the Sotojima Residentsʼ Association, which had had a high degree of autonomy, became unable to advocate on behalf of the residents; they were subject to labor recruitment and room management by the authorities of the institution. The re-allocation of resources created divisions between the residents, and the philosophy of autonomy underpinning the Residentsʼ Association is based on the hard lessons of this time.


Inexistence of Henoko District Residents in the Futenma Air Station Relocation Issue
KUMAMOTO Hiroyuki

  In the Futenma Air Station Relocation Issue, the residents of the Henoko district of Nago City, where the Futenma Replacement Facility (FRF) is planned to be constructed, are trying to set conditions to accept the construction, despite harboring the intention to oppose it. Camp Schwab, a US Marine Corps base, has been located in that district since 1959, and the district residents have maintained a close relationship with the base. The Anti-military Base Movement, which stands firm against the construction of FRF in Henoko, is critical of this attitude of the district residents, while the Japanese government has worked hard to prevent them from advocating opposition to the construction by satisfying the conditions put forth by the district residents. The public opinion tends to consider issues regarding US military bases as only Okinawan, not as their own. Therefore, the residents of Henoko are isolated and invisible in spite of being a party immediately concerned. To make them visible, it is essential to treat the Futenma Air Station Relocation Issue not as a military problem but as a matter of livelihood for the district residents. As a first step in this direction, exploring the history of the district will help us to understand the present-day decision made by its residents.


Questioning the Inexistence of Radical Feminism in Colonial Korea
SONG Youn-ok

  The “Geunwoohoi” formed in 1927, rallied the strength of Korean women beyond divisions of ideology, religion, and locality. However, due to overt coercion by police authorities immediately after its formation, women in the Christian group hastily withdrew from the association. It was only in 1929 that a plan of action was finally created by the remaining members who had not succumbed to pressure from the colonial authorities. The plan included demands for the repeal of legal sexual discrimination, freedom of marriage and divorce, the abolition of human trafficking and licensed prostitution, economic protection for female farmers, the abolition of wage discrimination against female workers, guaranteed maternity leave. However, even if regional branches submitted concrete demands to the main branch, the authorities banned the organization from holding a national convention, and in 1931, the movement effectively dissolved. The fact that the only remaining documents pertaining to the “Geunwoohoi” are police records, is a silent testimony to the harsh conditions to which the organization was submitted. The history of radical Korean feminism has been made invisible by colonialism and war, and the Cold War after World War II.


Enforced Invisibility and the Resistance of the Anabaptists to the Imperial Princes: Control of Free Speech and Support Networks during the Siege of Münster, 1534-35
NAGAMOTO Tetsuya

  Secular governments in the early modern age prohibited Anabaptists from professing their faith. Therefore, the Anabaptists had to take steps in order to protect their own belief. In the German city of Münster, the Anabaptist gained control of the city government in February 1534, which led to a war between the imperial princes and the Anabaptists. In this article I analyze how the princes and the Anabaptist justified their own acts, and what measures the princes took against the Anabaptist and how the Anabaptist resisted the princes.
  The imperial princes regarded the Anabaptists as rebels who threatened the peace of the Empire and thereby justified military attacks against them. For the Anabaptists, the church and the secular rulers were ungodly and resistance to the princes was therefore legitimate. Since the worldviews and concepts of legitimate rule of both sides were radically different, they could not settle their differences by negotiation. The two sides took to a war of siege, which the bishop of Münster won after fighting across the city walls. The bishop was able to rely on support from the other imperial princes, whereas the Anabaptist could not count on the help of other Anabaptists who lived outside the city. The outcome of the war depended decisively on the availability of support from outside.





No.946 July 2016

SPECIAL ISSUE: History of “Inexistence”: Self-determination and Right of Choice (I)

Preface………………………………………………………………the Editorial Board ( 1 )
Articles
Murder Trials and Women under the Qing Dynasty in China:
The Yang Naiwu Case …………………………………………GOMI Tomoko(2)

Making the Korean Empire "Invisible": Reasons for Ignoring the Role
of Korea in the Russo-Japanese War……………………………KIM Moonja (12)

The Results of Fief Distribution: Colonization Policy of the Republic
of Venice and Reactions of Native Greeks
in Late Medieval Crete………………………………… TAKADA Ryōta(23)

The “Inexistence” of Religious Minorities in Medieval and
Early Modern Spain: In Connection with Eschatology and
Messianic Belief …………………………………………SEKI Tetsuyuki(33)

Implications of and Issues with Research in Ethnic History of Russia:
Bashkir History Research and M. K. Liubavskii………TOYOKAWA Kōichi(44)

“Blacks” in France during the Period of Slavery:From One
“Something Invisible” to Another “Something Invisible”……HIRANO Chikako(55)

“Invisibility” as a Contested Terrain: Inter-racial and Intra-racial Position
of West Indians in Brooklyn, New York since the Late 1960s
…… MURATA Katsuyuki(66)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………………(77)


<Summary>
Murder Trials and Women under the Qing Dynasty in China: The Yang Naiwu Case
GOMI Tomoko

  This paper discusses the position of women in murder trials during the Qing Dynasty through a case study of a false accusation of killing a husband. During the Qing Dynasty, it was stipulated that when there was an adult man in her household, a woman could only appeal to court by using the man as her attorney. However, in the case of the suspicious death of one Ge Pinlian, it was Shen Yu-shi, mother of the victim, who reported the incident, filed for an autopsy, and further filed a legal suit. Although Shen Yu-shi was currently domiciled with her remarried husband and a son-in-law, she was not reproached for directly filing a case as a woman. Ge Bi-shi, the wife of the victim, became a suspect and was subject to investigation. Compared to another suspect, Yang Naiwu, who was an educated man, Ge Bi-shi was highly disadvantaged. It is most likely that Ge Bi-shi, who did not understand Mandarin, had difficulty in comprehending the speech of government officials, and, she could only give testimony in the local dialect translated by an interpreter. Although Ge Bi-shi herself was illiterate, we can know her situation to some extent from the affidavit. The older sister and the wife of Yang Naiwu filed a suit in Beijing in an attempt to clear him of the groundless accusations of Shen Yu-shi. The suit was filed under their names through male attorneys. The two women did not need to fear punishment, because the attorneys would be punished if their suit was deemed to be false. Their complaint was widely reported in newspapers and actually led to Yangʼs acquittal.


Making the Korean Empire “Invisible”: Reasons for Ignoring the Role of Korea in the Russo-Japanese War
KIM Moonja

  Research in Japan on the Russo–Japanese War has been made the role of the Empire of Korea “invisible.” This paper points out three reasons why this has occurred.
The first reason is that most historical materials that scholars have used were prepared by contemporary Japanese policymakers who promoted turning Korea into a protectorate, and were incapable of seeing the realities prevailing in Korea. As an example, this paper shows the inaccuracy of the common belief that Russia rejected Koreaʼs request to be guaranteed neutrality towards both sides in the war. This interpretation is based on a report by Kurino Shin-ichiro, who was the Japanese minister to Russia.
  The second reason lies in an inadequate critique of historical materials. This paper shows that the entries in the Konoe Atsumaro Nikki (The Diary of Konoe Atsumaro) regarding the supposed Japan–Korea national defense alliance after the Boxer Rebellion are factually inaccurate, and merely represent a conspiracy perpetrated by the Toa Dobunkai, a Pan-Asianist association, and the Japan legation in Korea.
  As the third reason, this paper points out that the dearth of historical sources from the Korean side is a result of Japanʼs colonial rule. For example, the letters of the Korean minister to Russia, Lee Bum Chin, confiscated by Japan, are still kept buried in the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.


The Results of Fief Distribution: Colonization Policy of the Republic of Venice and Reactions of Native Greeks in Late Medieval Crete
TAKADA Ryota

  Medieval society in Western Europe started to expand outwards in the 12th century. In the frontier laid between Roman-Catholic Christendom and the outside world, the West promoted the implementation of a feudal system.
  At the start of its rule of Crete, Venice concluded feudal contracts with its citizens, and sent them to the island as emigrants. Venice aimed to dominate the entire territory of the island through a web of feudal relationships with citizens of Venice, but did not take into account the native Greeks.
  However, in reality, fief distribution was implemented only in the hinterland of the city of Candia. In this agrarian area, the Venetian colonial government and Greek natives kept peaceful relations, but in the mountain regions where fief distribution was never carried out, conflict endured between the two groups.
  From the information of actual management of fiefs recorded in the cadasters (Catasticum), it is clear that liquiditiy of fief ownership was high, and that management of individual fiefs was based on pre-existing Byzantine customs.
  Venice intended to enforce a feudal system in Crete as an ideal institution of rule, but the ideal proved very far from the realities of colonial control.


The “Inexistence” of Religious Minorities in Medieval and Early Modern Spain: In Connection with Eschatology and Messianic Belief
SEKI Tetsuyuki

  In medieval and early modern Spain, religious minorities were either forced to convert to Christianity or exiled; in other words, they were made to “cease to exist” in their own birthplace, due to a combination of various factors, such as the rise of “absolute monarchy,” and eschatological and messianic beliefs prevalent in Spanish society during this period. The Spanish Empire was a mosaic of peoples with various languages, religions, and ethnicities. The social and political integration of this empire held together on the basic premise of religious integration through Catholicism, of which either the conversion or the expulsion of religious minorities was a natural consequence. However, it proved difficult for minorities to assimilate into the majority society, and members of the minorities were targeted by the Inquisition for their pagan customs.
  The expulsion of religious minorities was closely related to eschatological and messianic beliefs, which were accepted by both Christians and religious minorities from the second half of the 15th to the early 17th century. Following the Dutch Independence War, in order to revive the Spanish Empire from the shock of “Godʼs rage,” and facilitate its “religious purification,” it was necessary to expel the heretical Marranos and Moriscos.


Implications of and Issues with Research in Ethnic History of Russia: Bashkir History Research and M. K. Liubavskii
TOYOKAWA Koichi

  What are the implications of and difficulties in studying the history of foreign countries? They lie in the overwhelmingly large and difficult challenges faced by a historian who describes the history of a given country, not to mention the complexity of the history of that country itself. Those who attempt to describe the history of Russia are especially subjected to these kinds of constraints.
  For example, in connection with the history of ethnic groups, there are over 200 ethnic groups in Russia, each with its own distinctive history. The relationship with the Russian nation also complicates the history of these ethnic groups. The politics of subordination and the wars after such groups were subsumed into the Russian state have made things all the more complicated.
  Historians studying Russian ethnic groups also face many difficulties, because it is impossible for them to escape the constraints of contemporary political circumstances. Some historians, who lived during the Soviet era, were subjected to severe oppression while others were forced to “cooperate” with the policy of the government or driven out of their homeland. Such situations in the academia of history have affected not only the historians themselves but also the subjects they deal with.
  This paper looks at the issues of the history of the Bashkir ethnic group as well as M. K. Liubavskii, who experienced arrest and banishment during the Soviet era. It also attempts to consider the implications and difficulties in studying the ethnic history of Russia.


“Blacks” in France during the Period of Slavery: From One “Something Invisible” to Another “Something Invisible”
HIRANO Chikako

  During the period of slavery, France supposedly maintained the principle of freeing slaves who set foot on French soil. This principle was also incorporated in the 1848 décret for the abolition of slavery. This paper will examine how this principle was framed as well as how the French governments, during the period of slavery, tried to treat the people collectively referred to as “Blacks” who came to their country. What needs to be reiterated at this point is that, in the case of France, Black slavery existed in its distant overseas colonies rather than on the home soil. In other words, it was presupposed that there were no Black slaves in France. Moreover, even though some French people today are descendants of slaves, their past—the history of slavery and the slave trade—is not sufficiently taught in schools. This paper is an attempt to describe the history of these people whose existence and unique history have been made invisible.


“Invisibility” as a Contested Terrain: Inter-racial and Intra-racial Position of West Indians in Brooklyn, New York, since the Late 1960s
MURATA Katsuyuki

  This paper will look into and analyze the inter-racial and intra-racial relations concerning the West Indian population in Brooklyn, New York since the late 1960s from the viewpoint of “invisibility.” The enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 prompted an influx of Black immigrants from the West Indies to the United States. Many of such immigrants headed for New York—Brooklyn in particular—and rapidly added to the diversity of Black residents in the area. Being Blacks as well as immigrants, how did these people understand their “invisibility”? How did ethnic diversity relate to racial solidarity from their perspective? I focus on Crown Heights, one of the areas in Central Brooklyn with many West Indian residents, and add my analysis to the ambiguity of “invisibility” imposed on them.




No.945 JUNE 2016

Article:
On the Ribald Music for the Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty: The Justification
  of New Tunings in Ancient China ……………………………TOGAWA Takayuki(1)

Current Topics
On the Results of the Trial of the Libel Suit Against
a Diet Member………………………………………………YOSHIMI Yoshiaki(15)

Symposium on the Act on the Protection of Specially Designated Secrets (SDS)
Revisiting the Act on the Protection of Specially Designated Secrets (SDS)
from the Perspective of Historical Science : The Present Situation and
Questions after its Enforcement ……………………………SEBATA Hajime(22)
Secrets and Disclosure : From an Archivist’s View Point
………………………………OGAWA Chiyoko(28)
What the Movement for Disclosure of Documents of the Japan-ROK
Talks Achieved …………………………………………YOSHIZAWA Fumitoshi(40)

Book Review
ANDÔ Masato, KUBO Tōru & YOSHIDA Yutaka (eds.),Preservation
and Disclosure of Official Documents and Historians
…KANEDA Toshimasa(48)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
LEE Byongho, The Development of BaekcheTemples
and Ancient Japan………………………………OGASAWARA Yoshihiko(51)
OKAMOTO Takashi, HAKODA Keiko & AOYAMA Harutoshi, The Era of
Journals of Diplomatic Missions Abroad :Diplomacy in
Late Qing Dynasty in China …………………………………MORI Mayuko(53)
IWAI Jun, The Puritan Revolution as World History
………………………KOBAYASHI Maiko(57)
FUJITA Fumiko, U.S. Cultural Diplomacy and Japan in the Cold War Era
………………………………… IKAWA Mitsuo(60)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(63)


<Summary>
On the Ribald Music for the Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty: The Justification of New Tunings in Ancient China
TOGAWA Takayuki

  In Ancient China, the tunings in the ceremonial music, which were decided by the length of the shadow of a gnomon (an upright stick set up on the ground) on the summer solstice, put politics and society in order.
  There were two different kinds of tunings in the ceremonial music in the Southern dynasties of Ancient China. In this paper, I examine three points concerning new tunings from the viewpoint of how they justified the scales (the Liang fachi 梁法尺 and the Song shichi 宋氏尺), on which the tunings depended.
  First, the Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty regarded the tuning of the Liang fachi as ribald and rejected it for the Song shichi after conquering the Chen Dynasty. Second, the Liu Song Dynasty took the shadow of an 8 chi 尺 gnomon in a sun clock (based on the Song shichi) which attained a length of 1 chi 5 cun 寸 when it was measured at the summer solstice, to be the standard for the center of the Kingdom. The Dynasty changed lengths of shadows of the rest of the 24 solar terms 二十四節気 in proportion to the length of shadow on the summer solstice. Third, the Wu biao fa 五表法, which was able to make any place the center of the land, was invented in the reign of Emperor Wu of the Liang in order to make the thought and institutions peculiar to Jiangnan appear to be part of ancient Chinese tradition by professing a return to the Zhou Dynasty.





No.944 May 2016

Articles
Prosecution System in China in the Early 1930s………… KUBO Mariko(1) 

Current Topics
Space, Desert and Ocean:Questioning History through Patricio Guzmán’s “Nostalgia for the Light” and “The Pearl Button” ……… GOTO Yûsuke(19)
“Rediscovery” of “Jews in Hohenems”: A Note on a Visit to a Jewish
Museum in West Austria ……………………… MASUTANI Hideki(27)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KOMIYAMA Toshikazu, Creation of the Tokugawa Hereditary Daimyō and the Bakuhan Regime
……………………………… KASAYA Kazuhiko(33)
MORISHITA Yoshiyuki, The Czech Housing Policy and Social History in the First Half of the 20th
Century …………………………KÔSAKA Naoki(36)
KITAMURA Atsushi, The Weimar Republic's Plan for the Political Integration of
Europe …………………………………………FUKUDA Hiroshi(39)
MATSUNUMA Miho, “French Citizens” in the Colonies… HIRANO Chikako(42)
NAKANO Kôtarô, The Formation of National Order in 20th Century
America ……………………………………………MATSUMOTO Yûko(45)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Society in May 2016…(50)

Recent Publications…………………………………………………………………(61)

Society’s Announcements: The General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan for
the Year 2016…………………………………………………(63)

<Summary>
Prosecution System in China in the Early 1930s
KUBO Mariko

  This article analyzes the operation of the criminal prosecution system in China in the first half of 1930ʼs. It clarifies the background of behind the reform of the system that was carried out at that period, and shows the significance of the introduction of a criminal prosecution system into China. In the criminal cases of the time, a process that can be called “private prosecution” made up for deficiencies in the role of the public prosecutors and played an important role in bringing prosecution cases to a conclusion. On the other hand, the public prosecutors had wide powers and they played an important role, not only as prosecutors, but as criminal investigators. The new prosecution system took root in China since its introduction in the late Qing dynasty. The changes were very important to prevent meaningless suits and enforce fair prosecution, and they brought about advances both in guaranteeing human rights and in expediting the trial process. Furthermore, it may be said that the influence of State on criminal justice at the local level was greatly increased by having a state organ, established under national legislation, carrying out criminal prosecutions.



No.943 April 2016

Special Issue: XXII International Congress of Historical Studies Jinan 2015

Introduction
International Congress of Historical Sciences in Jinan, China: An Overview
………… OZAWA Hiroaki(1)
International Congress of Historical Sciences and China : The Process to Host the XXII Meeting and its Preparation
………… KAWASHIMA Makoto(4)
Major Themes
Revolutions in World History: Comparisons and Connections
   ………MITANI Hiroshi(9)
Specialized Themes
Commodifying Home Labor: Domestic Work Over Time
……………………………………………………… ASADA Shinji(12)
Music and State ………………………………………HANZAWA Asahiko(18)
Joint Session
New Approaches to the History of Diplomatic Practices
……………………………………KOHIYAMA Rui(24)
Historiography and Comparative Perspectives on Natural Disasters 
………………………………… KATO Chikako(27)
Reconstruction of Community after the 1906 Big Earthquake in San Francisco: A Comparison
of Chinese and Japanese Immigrants ……………………UEDA Kiwako(33)
Round Tables
Women’s History at the Cutting Edge. Gender Analysis and Beyond
…………………………………NAKAMATSU Yûko(39)
The International Affiliated Organizations (The International Committee for the History of the Second World War) Cultural Reflections on World War II; World War II in Asia: Problems and Legacy
…………………KENMOCHI Hisaki(44)

Current Topics
On the Restoration of Diplomatic Relations between the United
States of America and Cuba: A Retrospective Consideration on President Obama’s Diplomacy …………………………………KAMI Hideaki(50)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HONJO Masanori, A Study on the Agriculrure Policies of
The Tokugawa Shogunate in Early Modern Japan …HIRANO Tetsuya(57)
KOMATSU Kenji, Structure of Late Early Modern
Society in Japan and the Village-based
System of Tribute Levy      ……………SHIRAKAWABE Tatsuo(61)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………………………(64)
Society’s Announcements: The 2016 General Meeting
of the Historical Science Society of Japan………………………………(65)



No.942 March 2016

Article:
The Kenka Chōji of the Toyotomi Regime and Society in the Kinai Region and
its Surrounding Provinces……………………………………………TANI Tetsuya(1)

Current Topics
Politics and Pedagogy of the Asia-Pacific War: A View from Scholars of Japan
Teaching in the United States……………………Jordan SAND, Franziska SERAPHIM(17)

History since 3.11 (7)
Proposals
Robert Jungk’s Understanding of History and his Criticism of
“The Nuclear State” : Some Notes on the Republication of
the Japanese Translation of his Book ………………………………………WAKAO Yūji(28)
Five Years Have Passed since the Atomic Accidents: The Current State of Agriculture
 and Rural Villages in Fukushima Prefecture…………………………… KOYAMA Ryōta(32)
Some Reflections on the Experience of the“Seismic Disaster”………………OHIRA Satoshi(37)
Histrical Materials and Exhibitions
Three Exhibitions on the Great East Japan Earthquake at Tokyo National Museum,
Tokyo Metropolitan Central Library and Museum of Meiji University…………UNO Junko(41)
Recent Publications…………………………………………………………………………………(43)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KIMURA Shigemitsu, On the Formation of the Peasantry in Medieval
Japan …………………………………………………………………………SUZUKI Tetsuo(46)
FUJIMOTO Takeshi, Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty and “Monarchical
Dictatorship” …………………………………………………………MIYAZAKI Kiyoaki(49)
MURAKAMI Masakazu, Theater and Society during the Qing Dynasty
in China ………………………………………………………………… ISOBE Akira(52)
MAYUZUMI Akitsu, Western Europe, Russia, the Ottoman Empire and the
Question of Wallachia and Moldavia…………………………………MATSUI Masako(56)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………………………(61)

Society’s Announcement:A Resolution calling for a fair judgment in the trial of the libel against Yoshiaki Yoshimi

<Summary>
he Kenka Choji of the Toyotomi Regime and Society in the Kinai Region and its Surrounding Provinces
TANI Tetsuya

  This paper re-examines Fujiki Hisashi’s interpretation of the Kenka Choji Rei supposedly issued under the regime of Toyotomi Hideyoshi in the last two decades of the 16th century, in order to clarify the flexibility of the policies and laws of the this regime. This so-called edict supposedly outlawed fights and violence with weapons as means for commoners to settle disputes.
  To start, we examine in detail the dispute over irrigation water between Naruo and Kawarabayashi villages. Fujiki’s interpretation is based on his reading of the documents relating to this dispute. A closer reading of the documents reveals that they not all related to a single incident, but in fact covered various disputes in different locations and times. Since the lords of this region had all been dispatched to Hideyoshi’s invasion of Korea and were absent, disputes between villages intensified in the Kinai Region and its surrounding provinces. The strict response of Toyotomi Hidetsugu, who had been entrusted with charge of the government during the Hideyoshi’s absence, resulted in the “Total Ban on Private Fights”(Tenka Kotogotoku Kenka Choji).
  Then we extract the principles of Kenka Choji by examinining cases of rulings on commoners disputes under the Toyotomi regime. Compared to other laws and decrees issued by the regime, those principles cannot be considered as statute laws, but should rather be deemed as slogans suggesting the underlying principles of the regime’s policies. As the use of force by the peasantry already tended to be suppressed by lords in the Kinai Region and its surrounding provinces during the Sengoku Period (late 15th to late 16th century), the establishment of Kenka Choji as a legal norm under the Toyotomi Regime was a precursor to the application of the later policy of “Punishing both Parties to a Quarrel” (Kenka Ryoseibai) to villages during the Toyotomi Period.


No.941 February 2016

Special Issue: Confessionalization and Prohibition of Christianity:
Interchange between Japan and Europe and Formation of Religious Order

Preface ………………………………………………………………Editorial Board (1)
Articles
Religion and Politics in Early Modern Japan and Europe:
A Comparative Perspective……………………………………………ODORI Tomoji(3)
Heretical Religious Activities and Religious Attributes in Early Modern Japan:
A Case Study of the Underground Christians
 and the Hidden Buddhist Nenbutsu Sect …………………………OHASHI Yukihiro(13)
Returned Missionaries and “The Records related to the Martyrs”:
Activities of Jesuit Provincial Procurators………………………KISAKI Takayoshi(22)
Confessionalization in Southern German-speaking Europe and
Depictions of Japanese Christians in the Early Modern Period:
The Influence of Presenting Confessional Norms in Dramas and
the Depiction of Others in These Works…………………………………OBA Haruka(33)
Hidden Christianity: Followers and Their Beliefs……………… NAKAZONO Shigeo(43)


Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SUGIYAMA Kazuya, The Policy of the Muromachi Shogunate
Towards East Japan ……………………………………………UEDA Shipei(52)
KITAGAWA Kenzo, The Movement for Recording
Everyday Life as Postwar Japan History…………KURASHIKI Nobuko(55)
KURITA Yoshiko, The Future of the Revolution in the Middle East
………………………KATO Hiroshi(58)

<Summary>
Religion and Politics in Early Modern Japan and Europe: A Comparative Perspective
ODORI Tomoji

  In the early modern Period, state rulers both in Japan and Europe tried to bring the religious life of their subjects under their strict control. In Japanese history of this period, we can perceive a social process similar to the “confessionalization” conducted by the European early-modern states after the Reformation. Christian (Kirishitan) feudal lords made efforts to christianize their territories on the basis of the advice and suggestions from European Catholic missionaries. However, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a new ruler of the emerging central state, prohibited the Christianization or the Catholic confessionalization politics of the local lords and declared that Japan had to be “multi-confessional,” permitting, however, only conformist religions. Christianity and deviant popular Buddhist confessions were suppressed severely, although underground religious activities never ceased. During the early modern period, Hidden Christians (Kakure Kirishitan) established their own beliefs and practices different from those of European Catholics. They were nonresistant, revengeless and willing to die a martyr's death, teaching their followers forgiveness for their enemies, just like European Anabaptists. This is a case of so-called “micro-confessionalization” in Japan. Obviously there are “parallels” between Japanese and European early modern religious history in many respects.


Heretical Religious Activities and Religious Attributes in Early Modern Japan: A Case Study of the Underground Christians and the Hidden Buddhist Nenbutsu Sect
OHASHI Yukihiro

  The purpose of this paper is to think about the characteristics of the early modern age by considering the meaning of the division of the religious sects in the Edo Period of Japan. In this paper, we focus on the wide range of diversity displayed in the various attributes that people have. We focus in particular on peopleʼs religious attributes, while keeping in mind their secular ones.
  On the whole, compared to the medieval age, the early modern age was marked by a deepening in categorization into religious sects. However, in reality, the personal religious attributes of any person were usually multi-layered. This is true especially of those who practiced heretical religious activities such as the Underground Christianity and the hidden Buddhist nenbutsu sect analyzed in this paper, where a gap existed between the external and the internal religious attributes of adherents.
  The Tokugawa regime of early modern Japan required all Japanese people to register their religious affiliation at a Buddhist temple belonging to an officially certified sect. The stance taken by the rulers was that even if a certain person had a heretical internal religious affiliation, if that personʼs external affiliation was not ʻevil (heretical)ʼ then the state would not intrude upon that personʼs internal affiliation. This official stance was grounded in a contrasting belief in a clearly defined category of ʻheresyʼ and a very vaguely defined category of ʻorthodox.ʼ In early modern Japan, ʻheretical religionʼ unambiguously signified Christianity, but it was unclear which or what religious sects were ʻorthodox.ʼ It was in this situation of ambiguity that multi-layered religious affiliations were able to prevail in early modern Japan.


Returned Missionaries and “The Records related to the Martyrs”: Activities of Jesuit Provincial Procurators
KISAKI Takayoshi

  This paper analyzes the Jesuitsʼ administration of remote provinces, which formed an important part of European policy towards East Asia at the end of the 'Christian Century' (1549~c.1650). Examining textual records brought back to Europe from Asia, this paper will elucidate the authorship, background and content of publications related to martyrs.
  Many Jesuit “Provincial Procurators” were involved in the process of compiling the Records related to the Martyrs. These procurators had stayed in Asia as executives of their provinces, and thus were familiar with the situation prevailing there. On returning to Europe, they published information on missionary achievements for the general public as well as publicizing their activities amongst royalty and the aristocracy in order to procure funding for further activities. As representatives of their provinces, the future of their provinces and the Church in Asia depended on them.
  We further examine a Memorial written in 1646. This is an internal document that reveals a confrontation between the Japan Province and the China Vice-Province in the 1640ʼs over the attribution of the Macau College. The Provincial Procurators not only produced reports advantageous to the general cause of Christianity and the Jesuit Order, but they also tried to advance the interest of their own province. By looking at their various activities, we can see that the European strategy for Asia was not determined necessarily from a broad perspective, and that in some cases it was established by conflicting personal objectives of key individuals such as the Procurators.


Confessionalization in Southern German-speaking Europe and Japanese Christians in the Early Modern Period: The Influence of Presenting Confessional Norms in Dramas and the Depiction of “Others”
OBA Haruka

  Confessionalization has been linked to education. The norms and practices of each confession were taught to the next generation through institutions such as churches and schools. For example, the Reformed Church prohibited not only the depiction of holy persons in dramas and arts, but also the presentation of drama per se. On the other hand, the Jesuits used school dramas largely for teaching the doctrine of the Catholic Church to their schoolboys, the actors of the drama, and the audience. For this purpose, Japanese Christians, and even the ruling class of Japan, were often depicted in these Jesuit dramas staged in the southern German-speaking Europe in the late 16th century and the first decades of the 17th century. In these dramas, the Japanese were presented under the same modus as the Europeans, and some traditions in Japan were depicted according to the reports from missionaries there. Peter Burschel referred to the confessionalization of the depicting and receiving modus of “others,” which mean peoples outside Europe. Based on the results of experiment, this statement is meaningful. However, the depiction of Japanese in the dramas could influence not only the Europeans, but also the people outside of Europe in an indirect way.


Hidden Christianity: Followers and Their Beliefs
NAKAZONO Shigeo

  This paper argues against the usual view that Hidden Christianity from 17th to 19th century Japan was a combination of Catholicism and local religions and beliefs. Christianity, Buddhism, Shinto all independently existed within the minds of individual followers of Hidden Christianity. I compare their religious customs and missionary reports to show that the elements of Christian belief were faithfully passed down through the generations. Furthermore, I argue that differences between various Hidden Christian lineages were a result of temporal and geographical diversity and that Hidden Christianity's magical aspects and faith in worldly benefits derived from religious practices and were not changes effected by believers: rather, they arose from missionaries' policy of tailoring Christian beliefs to fit all of the everyday religious needs of followers.


No.940 January 2016

SPECIAL ISSUE: “Canon” in History: Process of Reinterpretation and Reorganization of the Community (Ⅲ)

Articles
The Gods Do Not Remain Silent:The Hirata School Divine Spirit Incident
                   …………………… MITSUMATSU Makoto(1)

Modern Education for Girls in Islamic Indonesian Society in the Early 20th Century :
An Interpretation of the “Canon” and Changes and Reorganization in a Community
                   ………………………… HATTORI Mina(13)
Notes and Suggestions 
The 1898 Coup d’Etat, and Emperor Gaungxu’s Policy of Engaging
Foreign Advisors and ‘Union of Nations’ Policy …………………MIYAKO Fumihiro(24)

Trends
New Trends in Korean Socio-economic History in the Joseon Dynasty
…………………SUKAWA Hidenori(35)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ARIZUKA Ryouji, The Battle of Okinawa and Wounds in the Heart:
From the Perspective of Trauma Therapy …………………………NAKAMURA Eri(49)
ISHIJIMA Noriyuki, Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese People
……………………………… YAKUBO Noriyoshi(52)
FUJII Masao, The Birth of the State in Medieval Czech
…………………………YOKOKAWA Daisuke(56)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………………… (60)


<Summary>
The Gods Do Not Remain Silent:The Hirata School Divine Spirit Incident
MITSUMATSU Makoto

  The scholars of the Hirata Kokugaku School, who had entered the inner circle of the newly established Meiji government, were all arrested and purged in the coup that occurred in March 1871, because of their conservatism and xenophobic attitude. The reasons behind their conflict with the government mainstream faction and their subsequent downfall have been explained as follows: disagreement over the conspiracy to invade the Korean Peninsula, their opposition to relocating the Emperor in Tokyo and conducting the Great Thanksgiving Festival (Daiju0000014d-Sai) there, the assassination of Hirosawa Saneomi, an internal debate on the “World of Darkness (Yomi-no-kuni),” and an incident surrounding a spirit medium called Haru in Maebashi City. In this paper, we introduce an outline of the Spirit Medium Incident, which has been the least examined of all the above causes, and we sort out the existing confusion surrounding the image of the disciples of Hirata Atsutane. Our findings elucidate that their belief in the existence of divine spirits was the impetus for their actions in the political process of the Meiji Restoration.


Modern Education for Girls in Islamic Indonesian Society in the Early 20th Century : An Interpretation of the “Canon” and Changes and Reorganization in a Community
HATTORI Mina

  This study explores how modern education for girls in Islamic Indonesian society developed during the early 20th century. In addition, we examine the interpretations of the Islamic “canon” by different people, and the changes and reorganization that occurred in a community due to these different interpretations. We focus on West Sumatra, which led the Islamic reform movement during the first half of the 20th century in then Dutch East Asia.
  Our findings revealed the following four points:
(1) Modern education for girls in West Sumatra caused a competitive relationship not only between Western and Islamic views of gender, but also between Islamic education and education imposed by the colonial government.
(2) These competitive relationships led to diverse interpretations of the “canon” of Islam.
(3) The development of a new social structure led to the birth of a new justification for girls’ education, which provided women with a rationale to assume active roles in a society.
(4) The introduction of physical education and gymnastics for girls faced difficulties because of the differences between the Western and Islamic values. However, the Scout Movement became an exception in which women’s physical training was justified due to the growing nationalist movement which emphasized physical training.


Emperor Gaungxu’ Policy of Engaging Foreign Advisors and ‘Union of Nations’ Policy just before the 1898 Coup d’Etat
MIYAKO Fumihiro

  Prior to the Coup d’Etat of 1898, Emperor Gaungxu of the Qing Dynasty and his reformist faction planned to engage foreign advisors who would be granted the power to participate in the Emperor’s decision-making process. The Empress Dowager Cixi was strongly opposed to this plan from the outset, and when it was expanded to include the policy of “union of nations,” she decided to intervene.
  The idea for the plan to engage foreign advisors has been commonly attributed to the British missionary Timothy Richard. But, this interpretation is incorrect. It is true that Richard had consistently proposed inviting foreign advisors prior to 1898. However, the contents of Richard’s proposal were different from the plan that emerged immediately prior to the coup of 1898.
  Furthermore, the “union of nations” policy has formerly been interpreted in the modern sense of a merging of nations. However, for Emperor Gaungxu and his faction, the term did not signify a merging of sovereign nations, but rather simply a policy of close cooperation with Britain, the United States and Japan in order to contain Russia. It goes without saying that a proposal by Richard to merge the Quing with Britain, the United States and Japan never existed.