The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Aoki-Shoten (Aoki Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.939 December 2015

SPECIAL ISSUE: “Canon” in History: Process of Reinterpretation and Reorganization of the Community (Ⅱ)

Articles
The Okinawa Reversion Movement and the Constitution of Japan: A Study on the Lawsuit Requesting Application of the Constitution to Okinawa………SAKURAZAWA Makoto(1)

A Study of the Documents in Archaic Script(古文尚書 Gu Wen Shang Shu)in Han China: The "Great Oath" Chapter in Modern Script (今文太誓 Jin Wen Tai Shi) and the Documents Classic in Archaic Script(『古文尚書』) ………………HOSHINA Sueko(13)

Views and Reviews
In Search of a History from Ordinary People’s Perspective:
On the New History Textbook for Junior High School
Published by Manabisha ………………………………KANO Masanao(24)

Critical Reviews on the Papers Presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session………………………NUMAJIRI Akinobu,IIJIMA Wataru (30)
Ancient History Section………………………………………………KAWAJIRI Akio (34)
Medieval History Section……………………………………………KONDŌ Shigekazu(36)
Early Modern History Section………………………………………TAKANO Nobuharu (39)
Modern History Section……………………………UDAGAWA Kōta,KIM Hyunsoo (41)
Contemporary History Section………………………………………… GOTŌ Harumi(45)
Joint Section ………………………KONTANI Yuki,ODA Sōki,KUBO Shin-ichi (47)
Special Section……………………………YASUMURA Naoki,HIDAKA Tomohiko (51)

Society’s Announcement:Commentary on the Prime Minister’s
Statement on the 70th Anniversary of the End of WWII………………(57)

Index. Nos.927–939 (January–December 2015) ……………………………………(61)

<Summary>
The Okinawa Reversion Movement and the Constitution of Japan: A Study on the Lawsuit Requesting Application of the Constitution to Okinawa

SAKURAZAWA Makoto

This paper examines the relationship between the Okinawa Reversion Movement and the Constitution of Japan, focusing on the lawsuit that sought the application of the Constitution to Okinawa.
The movement for Okinawa’s reversion to Japan in the early 1960s was carried out as a suprapartisan movement to protect human rights. The Movement’s call to “revert to the Constitution of Japan” primarily indicated an expectation of the guarantee of basic human rights. The purpose of filing the lawsuit in 1965 was to contend that the U.S. occupation of Okinawa was a violation of international law and to have the Constitution of Japan applied to Okinawa. However, as reversion to Japanese sovereignty approached, the reversion movement began seeking “the removal of U.S. military bases.” In accordance with this, the policy behind the lawsuit also changed and the call to “revert to the Constitution of Japan” began to mean a return to peace under the Constitution.
There was no consistency in the Japanese government’s explanations regarding the validity of the Constitution in Okinawa. However, the lawsuit that sought to apply the Constitution to Okinawa was not able to have a significant impact on the Japanese mainland. As the opposition between conservatives and reformists penetrated into Okinawan politics and society, discussion over the Constitution came to be confined to pacifism.


A Study of the Documents in Archaic Script (古文尚書Gu Wen Shang Shu) in Han China: The “Great Oath” Chapter in Modern Script (今文太誓Jin Wen Tai Shi) and the Documents Classic in Archaic Script (『古文尚書』)

HOSHINA Sueko

This article examines issues in the transmission of the Documents in Archaic Script and the text of the Documents Classic in Han China.
As the original text of the Documents Classic was lost on the occasion of the Qin Burning of the Books, in the Han era only 29 chapters were saved as the Fu Sheng’s (伏生) edition of the Documents Classic in Modern Script (『今文尚書』 Jin Wen Shang Shu). In the middle of the Former Han, a purported version of the “Great Oath” chapter in Modern Script was discovered and added into the Document Classic, but in reality this chapter was not genuine. Nevertheless, the Han Dynasty authorized the canonization of the Fu Sheng edition of the Documents Classic in Modern Script, including the forged “Great Oath” chapter in Modern Script.
In contrast, the Documents in Archaic Script was also discovered from within the wall of Confucius’ residence, but this text was left unused in the Imperial Library (秘書mishu). At the end of the Former Han, Liu Xin (劉u00006b46) demanded that study of the Documents in Archaic Script taught in the Imperial Academy (太学Tai xue ) should be based on the edition held in the Imperial Library. However, in the Later Han era study of the Documents in Archaic Script was based not on the text held in the Imperial Library, but on a transcription of the Documents Classic in Modern Script back into archaic script.
In the Eastern Jin era the Forged Documents in Archaic Script (『偽古文尚書』Wei Gu Wen Shang Shu) was “discovered” and was taken to be genuine. As a result, the text of the Documents in Archaic Script descended from Former Han was lost.







No.938 November 2015

Special Issue:“Canon”in the History: Process of Reinterpretation and Reorganization of the Community (I)
Preface ……………………………………………………………………… the Editorial Board ( 1 )

Articles
The Proclamation of the Constitution and the Consolidation of the History
of the Meiji Restoration: The Formation of a National History and the Two
“Enemies of the Emperor”…………………………………KOKAZE Hidemasa(2)

Changing Narratives of the Official History of Tonghak = Cheondogyo:
Orthodoxy in Religious Theory and the Leadership of the Nationalist Movement
                ………………………………CHO Kyeungdal(16)

Archive Inscriptions and Archive Papyri in the Roman Empire:
On the Authenticity of Public Documents and their Utilization by Provincials.
               …………………………………SHIUCHI Kazuoki(27)

“Living State” and “Monster”: Conceptions of the Organic State
in Early Modern England  ……………………………………………IWAI Jun(37)

Looking at the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen from Haiti
               …………………………………………HAMA Tadao(50)

Trends
“Canon” in Research on Late 16th Century Japan: Recent Research
concerning “All under Heaven” and “Peace Edicts”……………TAKEI Fumihide(61)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HAMAGUCHI Seiji,A Study in Political History of
the Hosokawa Keichō Lineage in Kyōtoy………………YAMADA Yasuhiro(71)
NAKANOME Tōru,
Youth and Nationalism in the Meiji Period…………………ARIYAMA Teruo(74)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………………(77)

<Summary>
The Proclamation of the Constitution and the Consolidation of the History of Meiji Restoration: The Formation of a National History and the Two “Enemies of the Emperor”

KOKAZE Hidemasa
.This paper discusses the formation of the school of emperor-centered history, by tracing the process in which the history of the Meiji Restoration was compiled following the Proclamation of the Constitution in 1889.
Once the Constitution was established, the Great Powers demanded the compilation of a history that explain the necessity of a constitution. The compilation of the history of the Restoration would be an important enterprise in terms of consolidating the imperial system, but it was not politically possible for the “Meiji oligarchy,” dominated as it was by cliques from the winning side in the War of Restoration (1868-1869), to undertake the project.
In place of the Meiji Government, influential figures outside the government came to decide the style of Restoration history. In the 1890s, books such as Kyoto Shugoshoku Shimatsu were written to exonerate the losers’ side in the Restoration War, but from 1900, a “fair and honest” history of the Restoration started being drawn up free from bias to any particular faction, and this included books which dealt specifically with both winners and losers in the war. Following suit, the government started compiling a national history, and then Restoration history gradually settled on a course wherein historical materials would be collected and edited so as to ensure a “fair” history.
However much these historical narratives varied in content and detail, they were all unanimous in advocating the loyality of their protagonists to the imperial throne. Consequently, this led to a movement to condem anyone deemed to be anti-imperial loyalists, resulting in the creation of two “enemies of the emperor;” Ii Naosuke and Ashikaga Takauji.
Under the new Meiji Constitution, the emperor’s position was defined as “divine” and therefore absolute. This meant that subsequent narratives of “national history” would be constructed within the framework of the imperial mythology.

Changing Narratives of the Official History of Tonghak = Cheondogyo: Orthodoxy in Religious Theory and the Leadership of the Nationalist Movement

CHO Kyeungdal

The aim of this paper is to clarify how the orthodoxy of theTonghak (Eastern Learning) = Cheondogyo (the Heavenly Way) was formed, by tracing the changes in the official history of the sect. Tonghak = Cheondogyo played an important role not only in the Kabo Peasant War, but also in the Sam-il Movement. In addition, under the subsequent Cultural Policy (Bunka Seiji), it lay at the center of the nationalist movement. Initially, the official history of the sect denied any connection between the leadership of the sect and the Kabo Peasant War. Cheon Bongjun and others, who initiated the Kabo Peasant War, were excluded as heretics. However, it was subsequently argued that an alliance was made with the “heretic” Cheon Bongjun faction in order to take the reins of the nationalist movement following the Sam-il Movement. In order to secure the orthodox status of the nationalist movement, Cheondogyo incorporated into its official history heretical forces towards whom it had once been hostile, and insisted on the justifiability of doing so from a nationalist as well as religious perspective. This was nothing other than a forgery of official history.

Archive Inscriptions and Archive Papyri in the Roman Empire: On the Authenticity of Public Documents and their Utilization by Provincials.

SHIUCHI Kazuoki

This paper discusses the issue of “canon” in the time of the Roman Empire from two perspectives: the authenticity of public documents issued by Rome, and the utilization of such documents by provincials.
To this end, the paper first examines archive inscriptions, which were produced in various cities in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. It focuses in particular on archive inscriptions discovered in the Asia Minor cities of Aphrodisias and Rhodiapolis. Archive inscriptions refer to cases where a series of public documents issued by Rome were inscribed successively into the surface of a large wall.
The paper next examines the efforts made by Rome to maintain the authenticity of the public documents it issued.
It then focuses on a papyrus discovered in Egypt called the “Petition of Dionysia.” This papyrus includes a numbered archive of public documents issued by the governor of Egypt dispatched from Rome.
It is hoped that this discussion will clarify some part of the process by which the authenticity of Roman public documents was facilitated by provincials’ approval of Roman rule.


“Living State” and “Monster”:Conceptions of the Organic State in Early Modern England

IWAI Jun

This paper aims to examine three characteristics of the ideas of the organic State in Early Modern England. Firstly, instead of being exclusively concerned with the role of the sovereign, the idea of the organic State focused on the diverse roles played by subjects in forming the State, and explained the State as an organic union between sovereign and subjects. This view was prevalent in the 16th and early 17th centuries, and it came to gain the status of canon. The historical context of this change was the development of medical science, wherein the theory of blood circulation clarified how the parts of the body are dynamically connected. Secondly, during the Puritan Revolution, the idea of the organic State was set forth, in which the state can become ill as a result of political or religious degeneracies, and this view was used as an indictment of “heretical” religion that had departed from orthodoxy. In line with this thinking, States or sects that were infected with this disease were often portrayed as “monsters” on the one hand, while Puritans sometimes retaliated by calling into question the traditional canon. However, the late 17th century saw the emergence of an idea of the organic Sate wherein those who were different should not be treated as “monsters,” but should instead be directed toward civilization through protection and nurturing, thereby avoiding the dialectical antagonism inherent in earlier conceptions of the organic State. In this paper, William Petty is presented as a key proponent of this view. Petty advocated a phased development theory, in which States advance from an immature stage toward the stage of achieving an adult body, and developed a theory of colonization in which civilized states protect and nurture “immature” states. Petty’s opinion reflects the reorganization and dissipation of confusion surrounding the “canon” defining the organic State.


Looking at the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen from Haiti

HAMA Tadao

During the French Revolution, in August 1791, a massive slave uprising took place in Saint-Domingue, a French colony in the Caribbean Sea since 1697. This was the beginning of the Haitian Revolution. Through the twelve-year struggles, Haitian people realized slave emancipation as early as in 1793, defeated the elite troops sent by Napoleon, and finally achieved independence in 1804. Therefore, Haiti became the very first black republic in history.
By analyzing the French Revolution in view of Haiti andor the Haitian Revolution, I clarify the historical meanings of the “canon” of the French Revolution: the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen.
The Declaration registered on UNESCO’s World Heritage Memory has been regarded as universal-worthy document. But from the 1970s, its universality has been questioned. I reveal that the application of the Declaration was limited to adult, white, French males; in other words, women, children, non-whites (particulary blacks) and foreigners were excluded from the enjoyment of liberty and human rights. I also point out that the Declaration became the “canon” of colonialism, and was quoted to justify colonial subjugation and territorial expansion in the 19th century.







No.937 October 2015

No.937 October 2015
Extra Edition

The Annual Meeting of the Society in May 2015
Empire/Imperialism and Environment

Plenary Session
Empire/Imperialism and Environment………UEDA Makoto, MIZUNO Shôko , FUJIWARA Tatsushi(2)

Ancient History Section
The Logic of Rule in the Ancient Japan……………………SOGAWA Yôichi, SATÔ Masatoshi(32)

Medieval History Section
The Legal Order and State Institutions in Medieval Japan…………NISHITA Tomohiro, MATSUZONO Jun-ichirô(53)

Early Modern History Section
State, Society and Political Culture of Japan in the 18th Century………KOSEKI Yuichirô ,YOSHIMURA Masami (73)

Modern History Section
The 70th Anniversary of the End of the War……KAWANISHI Hideya, ÔTA Osamu, SATÔ Ryô(95)

Contemporary History Section
International Politics concerning “Refugees” and “Humanitarianism”……………………TATE Hazuki, PARK Jung Jin, SAHARA Ayako(130)

Joint Section
Church Synods as a Stage for Division and Integration……OOTANI Satoshi, FUJISAKI Mamoru, HASHIKAWA Hiroyuki (161)

Special Section
Reconsidering History Education in aTime of Crisis……MITANI Hiroshi, TAKAZAWA Norie, FUKUDA Kazuhisa, SAITÔ Kazuharu (194)






No.936 October 2015

Special Issue: Rethinking Historical Materials and History Education: Meaning of Two Recent Publications, World History through Documents (2006-2013) and 20 Lectures on World History Using Historical Materials (2014)

Preface ……………………………………………………………………… the Editorial Board (1)
Articles
Problems and Possibilities of University – High School Collaboration in History Education:
 A Report on a Class on “Introduction toLatin American History” ………SUZUKI Shigeru(2)
An Attempt at World History Education in High School through
 Reading World History through Documents  ……………………………YONEYAMA Hirofumi(14)
Comments
Teaching History Using Historical Materials: A Critical Appraisal …… MATSUMOTO Michitaka(23)
The Role of Historical Materials and their Use in History Education ………… Saitô Kazuharu(27)
The Double Helix of History Education and History Research……………… YASUMURA Naoki(30)
A Student’s Experience of Learning World History in a Class Reading
 World History through Documents ……………………………………………… Ôzawa Sôta(33)

Current Topics
The Case of Charlie Hebdo and France: Reconsidering
Contemporary Society through Media Coverage ………………………………HIRANO Chikako(36)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
MURAISHI Masayuki, Contract Society and Documents in Medieval Japan … YUASA Haruhisa(45)
MIYAKE Masahiro, The Political Order of Daimyo Families
  in Early Modern Japan ……………………………………………………… TAKANO Nobuharu(47)
KOBAYASHI Takamichi, Rule and Documents in Son Dynasty China……………… ITÔ Kazuma(50)
ODANAKA Naoki, Studies in Socio-political History in
 Nineteenth-century France………………………………………………… MAKIHARA Shigeru(54)
OKADA Taihei, “Benevolence” and Contours of ColoniaLism……………… NAKANO Yumiko(57)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………………………(61)

<Summary>
Problems and Possibilities of University ― High School Collaboration in History Education: A Report on a Class on “Introduction to Latin American History”
SUZUKI Shigeru

Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (TUFS), a national institution specializing in teaching foreign languages and Area Studies, has made “World History” obligatory material for the entrance examination for most of our intake quota. Nevertheless, new students know little about the history of Latin America, at best knowing only a few key words. As one student commented, in the class on “World History” at high school, facts and names concerning Latin America “appeared for only just a moment.” In this article, I present my experiences teaching “Introduction to Latin American History,” mainly to the first-year students of Spanish and Portuguese courses at TUFS in 2014, and discus problems and possibilities of university-high school collaboration in history education. One of my experiments to make up for the lack of student exposure to Latin American history at high schools iinvolves using historical documents compiled in World History through Documents, vol.7, edited by the Historical Science Society of Japan (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 2007). These documents, besides caricatures and motion pictures, are very good ways of providing students with concrete images and may serve as effective materials to bring them to think about the history of areas “unfamiliar” to Japanese students such as Latin America.


An Attempt at World History Education in High School through reading World History through Documents
YONEYAMA Hirofumi

Teaching “World History” in high schools is currently facing a range of problems due to contradictory goals and demands. On the one hand are institutional problems of the Japanese education system, such as an increase in the use of historical terms in textbooks, a teacher-led classroom style, and a study method centered on the rote memorization of names and terms. On the other hand, in the present context of the increased globalization, students are required to develop their abilities to learn about domestic and foreign problems by reading and understanding primary sources and scholarly interpretations by themselves, to make judgments based on their own analysis, and to independently address problems and act upon their own judgements. Under such circumstances, I try to teach “World History” using the historical materials published in World History through Documents, 12 vols. edited by the Historical Science Society of Japan (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2006-2013). This study method, in which students interpret the historical materials and understand the facts contained within them for themselves, is highly effective for students to acquire historical awareness and to think historically without relying on other people\u000002bcs opinions. In this paper, I introduce my teaching practice and consider the possibilities for the study of “World History” through the reading and comprehension of historical materials.





No.935 September 2015

Articles
The Rivalry between Chancellor Jia Sidao and the Imperial Clan and Consort
 Family in the Late Southern Song Dynasty—From
  Chen Zhu’s “Ben Tang Ji”…………………………MIYAZAKI Toshiaki (1)

Current Topics 
The Exclusion of North Korean-related High Schools from the National Tuition
 Exemption Program: What Lies Behind it All ………TANAKA Hiroshi(18)

SERIES: History since 3.11 (6)
Proposals
Historical Narrative as an Effort Not to
 “Nullify Something that Actually Happened”…………TOMOZAWA Yuki( 29)
Historical Materials and Exhibitions
From the Frontline of Conservation of Documents
in Fukushima: Based on Four Years’ Experience …………ABE Kôichi(33)
Historical Materials as a Form of Support for Local Society:
From the Kanagawa Documents Network………………TAWADA Masayasu(36) 
The Meaning of Twenty Years of Document Conservation Activity:
A Report on “The National Meeting of the
Material Preservation Networks” …………………KAWAUCHI Atushi(39)
Recent Publications …………………………………………………………(43)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KOCHI Haruhito, The Japanese Missions to Tang-dynasty
China in the History of International
 Interchanges in East Asia………………………KAWAKAMI Mayuko(46)
MASUYA Tomoko, The Pictorial Arts in Islamic
Handwritten Copies……………………………………………OKU Mihoko(49)
YAMAMOTO Tadashi&HOSOKAWA Michihisa(eds.), What is the
Commonwealth: Softpower in the Post-Imperial Era……OGAWA Hiroyuki(52)

The Society’s Report
Report on the 2015 General Assembly……………… The Committee (57)

Announcement
Joint Statement by Associations of History Scholars and Educators in Japan
on the “Comfort Women” Issue……16 Associations(63)

<Summary>
The Rivalry between Chancellor Jia Sidao and the Imperial Clan and Consort Family in the Late Southern Song Dynasty: From Chen Zhu's “Ben Tang Ji”
MIYAZAKI Toshiaki

Relying primarily on the “Ben Tang Ji” of Chen Zhu, a district magistrate who lived during the late Southern Song Dynasty, this paper examines the relationship between Chancellor Jia Sidao and the imperial clan and consort families. Around 1270 AD, three lawsuits were initiated in the Sheng district of Shaoxing prefecture involving the powers of Fu Wang of the imperial clan and the Quan consort family. Chen Zhu, unable to restrain the immense power of the imperial clan and consort family, sent a letter to circuit officials requesting that Chancellor Jia Sidao act as intermediary. The imperial and consort families both held their economic bases in Shaoxing and were related through their mutual interests in the region. It was particularly difficult for Jia Sidao to constrain Fu Wang. On the other hand, Jia Sidao also maintained a residence and strong connections in Shaoxing. When the imperial and the consort families intervened in the three lawsuits and Chen Zhu requested Jia Sidao's assistance, the conflict between the Chancellor and the families intensified. This paper examines the activities of the imperial clan and consort family in Shaoxing during the late Southern Song Dynasty, and explicates the internal workings of the rivalry between Jia Sidao and the imperial clan and consort family.




No.934 August 2015

Special Issue: Pacifism in Postwar Japan 
Preface …………………………………………………Editorial Board(1)

Articles
The “Right of Collective Self-Defense” and the Abe Administration’s
 Failure to Heed the Lessons of World History………………YUI Daizaburo(2)
The “Arrival of Peace” Indefinitely Postponed:
  Okinawa under American Occupation………………TORIYAMA Atsushi(10)
Seeking a Borderland Revival: Japan’s
 Premodern History…………………………………………MURAI Shosuke(20)
Comments
Pacifism and Postwar Japan’s Wars …………………CHONG Youg-Hwan(29)
Pacifism and Postwar Japanese History from an
   Okinawan Perspective……………………………………MINOWA Akiko(32)
Positionality in Premodern Historical Research: Facing up
  to the Reality ………………………………………SHIMOMURA Shutaro(35)

Views and Reviews
Japan in an Asian Context: Reflections on Seventy
 Years of Postwar Japanese History………………………KIBATA Yoichi(39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, all of the texts that have been reviewed are written in Japanese)
UEDA Nagao, Imperial Mausoleums and Society in the Late
Tokugawa and Early Meiji Periods……………………INOUE Tomokatsu(45)
YOSHII Ken-ichi (ed.), Social Transformation along
the Southern Manchurian Railroad ………………………OHNO Taikan(48)
SAWADA Kayo, The Politics of Reproduction in
Postwar Okinawa ……………………………………………TAMA Yasuko(51)
NIIMURA Yoko, The Origins of the Opium War: Huang Jue-zi and His
Network…………………………………………………………TOYOOKA Yasufumi(55)
HOSOKAWA Michihisa, Canadian Autonomy and the North Atlantic
World: Anglo-US Relations and Ethnicity…………HASHIKAWA Kenryu(58)

<Summary>

The “Right of Collective Self-Defense” and the Abe Administration’s Failure to Heed the Lessons of World History
YUI Daizaburo

Citing Chinese military expansion and intensifying Chinese intervention in the South China and East China Seas, the Abe administration is currently attempting to reinterpret the Japanese constitution in order to enable Japan to exercise the right of collective self-defense. Article 51 of the United Nations Charter originally defined “collective self-defense” as a provisional measure permitted “until the Security Council ha[d] taken the steps necessary to maintain international peace and security.” However, as the Cold War intensified, this article was reinterpreted, eventually transforming into a provision that affirmed permanent military alliances or “hostile security.” The concept of security emerged in the aftermath of World War I, a conflict during which 15,000,000 individuals perished. Like social security, it was conceived as a means of safeguarding the lives of individual citizens. As the 1925 Locarno Treaties indicate, security was seen as an inclusive measure enabling nations to take precautions against both existing and potential enemies. Despite these efforts to promote international security, World War II resulted in nearly 50,000,000 deaths. That experience prompted a wave of Cold War-era initiatives, such as the 1975 Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, which were designed to promote peaceful relations between countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain. Considered in light of these facts, the current move to strengthen classical military alliances can only be described as an act that ignores the lessons of world history.


The “Arrival of Peace” Indefinitely Postponed: Okinawa under American Occupation
TORIYAMA Jun

The end of World War II did not immediately bring peace to Okinawa. For decades after the War’s conclusion, the presence of American bases continued to disrupt the livelihoods of many Okinawans. Therefore, for Okinawa, the “arrival of peace” meant the withdrawal of the US military and the ability to at last resume one’s former way of life. At the same time, the “arrival of peace” created a range of complex problems for Okinawan society, including the issue of how to address the needs of the “rural migrants” who had been temporarily absorbed into the bases’ workforce and would lose their jobs once the US military left.
Although the “arrival of peace” was ultimately postponed, most of the “rural migrants” who found employment at the bases eventually lost their jobs. Furthermore, in the mid-1960s, the Japanese government abandoned a policy promoting domestic sugar production. As a result, the sugar industry suddenly stopped expanding and scores of impoverished peasants abandoned their villages. This outflow of population from rural villages served to further intensify Okinawa’s already serious “rural migrant” problem. In order to accurately reassess these historical events, it is essential to reconsider the issue of the “arrival of peace” in Okinawa.


Seeking a Borderland Revival: Japan’s Premodern History
MURAI Shosuke

When examining the various territorial disputes in which Japan is currently involved, one quickly notices that parties on both sides employ documents from the distant past in an effort to lay unique claim to disputed territories. In such instances, historical documents are interpreted arbitrarily and frequently used to supply information they do not contain. Historical scholarship eschews this sort of self-serving and counter-factual interpretation. Instead, historians attempt to extract the maximum amount of valid information permitted by a document’s historical context. Accordingly, when interpreting historical documents related to the territories currently under dispute, it is essential to do impartially and to remember that those documents were produced in a pre-modern era in which there existed borderlands that were not under the authority of a particular nation-state. If documents are interpreted objectively and in the proper historical context, disputing parties can then bring cases to the International Court of Justice and present their arguments. Judgments offered in these cases will, in turn, help to reform the existing system of international law. Ultimately, the development of a system of joint administration for disputed territories coupled with efforts to restrain unbridled nationalism will facilitate the development of these borderlands’ latent and abundant potential.




No.933 July 2015

Special Issue: Discourses and Practices on “Relief”: Analysis from Historical Examples (II)
Articles
Education Projects by Popular Religion in Modern China:
The Case of National Studies by Tongshanshe………………………KOMUKAI Sakurako(1)
Mixed Dynamism of Relief in the Late Ottoman Empire:
The Historical Actualities of Fundraising Campaigns………………………SASAKI Shin(13)
Aspects of “Self-Reliance” in Daily Life for the Blind: Opinions on the
Shift in Nursing Care Staff from Patients to Hired Staff………………NISHIURA Naoko(23)

Articles
Rent Resistances by Tenant Farmers and the New Military
Government of Suzhou in 1911–12……………………………………WASHIO Hiroyuki(36)
Views and Reviews
Methodological Issues in the Formation Process of “World History”
  Education: A Response to the Comments by KOYAMA Yukinobu……IBARAKI Satoshi(49)
Current Topics
Suspension and Publication of A New Chronicle of Hikone
 City, Vol. 4, Modern History……………………………………………OKADA Tomohiro(56)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
TAKAHASHI Masaaki, The Heike Clan and the Rokuhara Bakufu Government
                          ………………………………ENDÔ Motorô(64)
YOSHIMURA Toyoo, Administration and Regional Societies
  in Early Modern Japan ……………………………………………WATANABE Takashi(67)

YAMAUCHI Masayuki, An Introduction to the History of International
 Relations in the Middle East: The Turkish Revolution and Soviet Russia (1918-1923)
                          ………………………………KOMATSU Hisao(71)
Forum
Logic in Criticism of “Social History” ………………………………TOCHIKAWA Ichirô(75)


<Summary>

Education Projects by Popular Religion in Modern China: The Case of National Studies by Tongshanshe
KOMUKAI Sakurako

 This article describes the educational practices of one popular religion in China known as Tongshanshe (Society of Goodness). It analyzes the educational philosophy of a believer named Yang Jing-dong through his archival records. Yang was actively involved in National Studies education conducted by Tongshanshe Around 1920, Tongshanshe aimed to promote an organized system of National Studies education, and instructions were issued to branches nationwide to establish special schools to serve that goal. Amid the increase in public debate concerning National Studies, intellectuals in Kunming recognized the need for National Studies, and adopted the educational projects of Tongshanshe.
 According to Yang's educational theory, National Studies meant restoring a society with Confucian ethics and thereby bringing salvation to humanity and the world. Yang's assertion of National Studies as the foundation of a modern school system was a part of the trend after the First World War to reassess Eastern culture. Tongshanshe's involvement in National Studies education was made possible because the society's idea of salvation supported the nationalism among Chinese intellectuals; this reveals an awareness for radical social reform among such intellectuals. Behind this awareness was a social situation in which soldiers and local government officials, who had fought in the frontline against the warring factions in the 1910s, joined Tongshanshe out of disappointment with war.


Mixed Dynamism of Relief in the Late Ottoman Empire: The Historical Actualities of Fundraising Campaigns
SASAKI Shin

  This article seeks to examine some aspects of relief provision in the Ottoman Empire of the late 19th century and to analyze the complexity of discourses and practices surrounding such relief provision.
  First, I introduce my concept which may be called “the mixed dynamism of relief,” and which was developed by fine-tuning the concept of “the mixed economy of welfare,” from the field of British history. From this viewpoint I summarize the recent trends in the study of relief in the late Ottoman Empire and point out that few studies have looked at mutual aid while most existing research has focused on official aid.
  Second, in order to examine examples of mutual aid provided in the late Ottoman Empire, I focus on two fundraising campaigns that were started by Ottoman newspapers. One was the campaign organized after the Hocapaşa Conflagration broke out in Istanbul in 1865, and the other was the campaign organized at the outbreak of the Cretan Revolt (1866–1869). Through these events, newspapers acquired their own historical actualities, in which a new form of relief was discussed and put into practice. It is these actualities that added a more dynamic character to the mixed dynamism of relief of the late Ottoman Empire.


Aspects of “Self-Reliance” in Daily Life for the Blind: Opinions on the Shift in Nursing Care Staff from Patients to Hired Staff
NISHIURA Naoko

  When Hansen's disease hospitals were first established in Japan, patients played the role of primary attendants. However, from the 1950s to around 1970, Tama Zensho-en began to hire staff as attendants, first in the sick wards and then in the ward for the disabled. Because those with serious impairments caused by Hansen's disease, especially those who had lost their eyesight, required daily assistance and care, they expressed a variety of opinions about staff nurses and nursing care. Some sought to create a “familial” atmosphere, or a family-like connection; others sought the expertise of staff to expand their activities of daily life. Still others voiced their opposition to forced “autonomy.” However, underpinning these issues were the experience of indebtedness and sense of inferiority caused by the attendance and nursing by the patient; the blind patients tried to expand their daily life activities through their own devices and created new ways of independent living. Despite some gender differences in the degree of independence, requests made to nursing staff revealed the importance of independence among patients.


Rent Resistances by Tenant Farmers and the New Military Government of Suzhou in 1911–12
WASHIO Hiroyuki

 This article discusses rent resistances by tenant farmers in Suzhou (蘇州) which began during the Xinhai Revolution (辛亥革命) and continued into the Republic of China's first year (1912). The new military government formed in Suzhou after the Xinhai Revolution was in immediate need of financing. Similarly, how to levy land tax and rent was one of the most pressing issues in the local extraordinary assemblies. By analyzing how the Suzhou military government levied the new land taxes while tenant farmers' resistance continued, this article discusses the government's attempts to maintain public order and to form a political constitution in Suzhou. It is found that the role of local civil administrators (minzhengzhang 民政長), which replaced prefectural (zhou-xian 州県) administrators in the Qing (清) period, was crucial in keeping the public order. Public order in Suzhou began to deteriorate in the absence of Cheng Dequan (程德全), who had newly assumed the position of Suzhou's military governor (jun-dudu 軍都督). During this time, civil administrators paid attention to the issue of how to successfully keep pubic order and govern society while considering reducing tenant farmers' rents and granting the gentry's wishes.



No.932 JUNE 2015

Special Issue: Discourses and Practices on “Relief”: Analysis from Historical Examples

Preface………………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)

Articles
The Emergence and Spread of Religious Teachings on Charitable Giving
 in Medieval Japan ……………………………………………………KIKUCHI Hiroki(2)
Regimen Sanitatis or Health Handbook, Public Health,
and Assistance in Medieval Europe ……………………………YAMABE Noriko S.(14)
Humanitarianism and the South African War …………………………ÔSAWA Hiroaki(24)
Imperial Reverence, Charity, and Imperial Virtue: The Practice and Doctrine of Charitable
“Relief” in the Late Meiji Period………………………………SHIMAZONO Susumu(36)

Trends
"Nation Building" in European Integration: The Background of
  Catalonia's "Independence Question"……………………………YASHIMA Yukari(48)
The Scottish Question: Its History and Background ……………………TOMITA Rie(55)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………………(60)

<Summary>

The Emergence and Spread of Religious Teachings on Charitable Giving in Medieval Japan
KIKUCHI Hiroki

  Within the body of research that has been accumulated on charitable giving, this article focuses on the research of Yokoi Kiyoshi in particular. This is because it is the actual elucidation of the provision of aid—what Yokoi termed “the narrow precipice” that lies between simple charity and the harsh realities of life at the bottom rungs of society—that is crucial. This article examines the awareness of this issue as a three-stage process, in which teachings on charitable giving emerge, circulate, and take root. Section one considers the gap between religious ascetics and aid recipients with respect to teachings on charitable giving, and finds that these teachings actually emerged in the interrelationship between the charitable giving ideologies of the founders of the sects—namely, the aid-givers—and the recipients of the aid. Section two examines the spread of these teachings in medieval society using gāthā (verses) seen on itabi (stone slab memorial markers offered to the deceased) as the study material. This section looks at the Shokaiko Shingi (prescribed prayers for the dead) by considering how gāthā became a fixed feature of itabi through the intricate association between them. Section three considers the etiquette of Nyohokyo Kuyo (a Buddhist rite of transcribing scripture at a memorial service) as the material to study how such teachings on charitable giving became established among regional society. Nyohokyo Kuyo originated in the Heian period as a ritual for royalty desiring wealth and power. Gradually, during the Kamakura period, it also became established in regional society through the activity of priests in funeral services and memorial rites. In this way, teachings on charitable giving and the actual provision of aid in medieval Japanese society are inseparably linked, and research from both perspectives is essential.


Regimen Sanitatis or Health Handbook, Public Health, and Assistance in Medieval Europe
YAMABE Noriko S.

  In medieval Europe, Christian charity to the poor, which was supposed to affect the salvation of individuals, took the form of donations directed to hospitals and other institutions associated with churches. Churches linked the benefactors and many people who needed aid, such as the poor, the sick, the old, abandoned children, widows and pilgrims. In the late Middle Ages, hospitals became secularized and specialized so that officially hired physicians and surgeons could be seen working in medical hospitals.
Medicine in the Middle Ages followed classical theories of medicine based on Greco-Roman tradition and Islamic medicine. Since one of their most important roles was to demonstrate how to live a healthy life, they compiled health handbooks.
  Health handbooks usually began with an examination of air, one of the common factors for people in preserving health. It was argued that air must be kept pure, without being mixed with vapors or any poisonous smell. Air should be removed from the substances that caused the odor. Thus, when pestilence broke out, countermeasures focused on preventing contagions—through quarantine—and air pollution. These policies, though not effective as ways of therapeutics, led to the development of public health and civic assistance.


Humanitarianism and the South African War
OSAWA Hiroaki

  This article examines the ‘protection' of non-white people in the British Empire particularly in relation to humanitarianism that emerged during the South African War period as a ‘milieu of history'. Humanitarianism assumed a wide variety of discourses and practices during the war. On the one hand, humanitarians were seriously divided over the legitimacy of the war. While a section of humanitarians defended the war as a battle to rescue non-white people from oppression by the Boers, others criticised it on the ground that Britons' treatment of non-white people was no less severe. Meanwhile, as the war progressed, humanitarians' attention was gradually drawn to the question of non-white labour in the Transvaal gold mines. Here, they attacked mining capitalists and sought to protect non-white workers from exploitation by the mine owners. In advocating the interest of non-white labourers, humanitarians often employed the discourse of capital and labour, which apparently reflected contemporary trends of social thoughts in fin-de-siècle Britain. In this sense, the discourses and practices of humanitarianism were largely shaped in relation to various ideas and beliefs that were prevailing concurrently in the same historical context.
  Despite their criticism of particular imperial policies or specific economic interests, however, humanitarians did not deny Britain's imperial rule per se. On the contrary, they earnestly believed in the virtue of the empire, entrusting the British government with the duty to protect non-white people from colonial violence and exploitation. Consequently, humanitarianism did not undermine the foundations of the British Empire; rather it strengthened them.


Imperial Reverence, Charity, and Imperial Virtue: The Practice and Doctrine of Charitable “Relief” in the Late Meiji Period
SHIMAZONO Susumu

 The place that reverence for the Emperor occupies in the spiritual culture of modern Japan is enormous. Veneration for the eternal lineage of the Emperor was cultivated in schools and the military. Thus the influence of State Shinto cannot be sufficiently understood by focusing only on Shinto shrines; imperial reverence had spread beyond the framework of State Shinto. In this article, I examine the connection between charitable “relief” and “mercy” projects that the Emperor and Imperial Household carried out and reverence for the Emperor. “Charity” from the Emperor and Imperial Household gradually became an important channel through which to cultivate imperial reverence. It took the form of social-welfare assistance for the poor, the isolated, and victims of natural disasters, as well as for others like the diseased poor. Then a doctrine took shape that framed such assistance as an expression of the love and affection of the Emperor and the Imperial Household for the people. In this article I clarify the circumstances under which reverence for the Emperor was promoted in the area of charity in the late Meiji period, and then discuss the immense role played by the Saiseichokugo (Imperial Rescript on Saving Lives) and the response to it. I also examine how this was related to discourses on the “imperial virtue” of the Meiji Emperor and the Empress Haruko (Empress Shoken).





No.931 May 2015

Articles
The “Nationalization” of Political Consciousness in Upper Hungary in
 the Early 20th Century: The Case of the Slovak National
 Movement in Ružomberok……………………………………………IDE Takumi(1)

Views and Reviews
A Critical Appraisal of the Legacy of NINOMIYA HIROYUKI's
  Historiography: Post-war Historiography, Political Culture, and Gender
                 ……………………………………NAKAMATU Yûko(20)
New Approaches to Contemporary History from the Perspective of
 Research on the First World War: YAMAMURO Shin-ichi et al.(eds.),WWI as
  the Start of Contemporary History …………………YOSHIZAWA Seiichirô(29)

Current Topics
The Nishimatsu Yasuno Reconciliation Project on Chinese
  Forced Labor and Its Meaning: On Publication of
 the Report on Reconciliation…………………………………SUGIHARA Tôru(35)
Politics of History and Memory Turn into Conflict: Globalization
 of Historical Consciousness in
 Central/Eastern Europe and Russia……………………HASHIMOTO Nobuya(41)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Society in May 2015………(49)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(61)

Society’s Announcements: The General Meeting of the
Historical Science Society of Japan for the Year 2015………………………(63)


<Summary>

The “Nationalization” of Political Consciousness in Upper Hungary in the Early 20th Century: The Case of the Slovak National Movement in Ružomberok
IDE Takumi

 In this article, I investigate the “nationalization” of popular political consciousness by the Slovak national movement in Upper Hungary in the early 20th Century. The fundamental premise of this article is that “national identity” is defined as a means of perceiving the social world through the framework of “national categories” and “nationalization” as the wide diffusion of this “national identity”.
 In Chapter II, I investigate the “nationalization” of political consciousness, which is found in discourse of the periodicals of the Slovak national movement. The rhetoric of the leading nationalists in these periodicals consisted of national categories and had the general reading public as an intended audience. In turn, the readers informed these periodicals of their local political circumstances through correspondence that was written in similar rhetoric. The “nationalization” of political consciousness is seen in the discourse formed by such mutual interaction of nationalists and their readers.
 In Chapter III, I trace the path of political conflict in the local municipality of Ružomberok in an attempt to analyze local conflicts from diversified perspectives. I try to comprehend more concretely the acceptance of national categories by those that supported the Slovak national movement, that is, the “nationalization” of their political consciousness. This approach reveals that the “nationalization” of political consciousness involves multiple factors and that we should not understand it as the spread of the sense of belonging to a particular “nation.”


No.930 April 2015

Articles
The Six-Power Consortium and Japan: Shina Hozen Argument
 among Diplomatic and Financial Circles………………………KUBOTA Yuji(1)
Trends
The Records of War Crimes Trials in the National Archives of Japan: The
Formation Process of the Depository and Its Potential as a Source
on BC Class War Crimes Trials …………OE Hiroyo/KANEDA Toshimasa(19)
Current Topics
Historical Perspectives of the “Umbrella Movement” in Hong Kong
         ……………………………………………NAKAMURA Motoya(34)
“Historical Consciousness” in Japan and Korea and Research of
 Japanese History in Korea ………………………………………IKE Susumu(40)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
MIKAMI Yoshitaka, Writing and Provincial
  Society in Ancient Japan …………………………………OHASHI Nobuya(48)
CHONG Yong-Hwan, Obstacles to the Independence of Korea:
 Five Years’ History of Koreans in Japan after the Liberation
     ………………………………………………………………OTA Osamu(52)
SUZUKI Ikuko, The Body in Representations of the French
 Revolution: Gender and Patrimony over Two Hundred Years
 ……………………………………………………………………TAIRA Masato(55)
MORI Takashi, A History of "Householding Tasks" in the U.S.
    ……………………………………………………………ARUGA Natsuki(59)
Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(63)
Society’s Announcements: The 2015 General Meeting
 of the Historical Science Society of Japan……………………………………(65)

<Summary>

The Six-Power Consortium and Japan: Shina Hozen Argument among Diplomatic and Financial Circles
KUBOTA Yuji

This article examines the historical significance of the Six-Power Consortium in modern Japan's policies toward China through an analysis of the “stabilizing China” (Shina Hozen) argument among diplomatic and financial circles in Japan.
As a result of the revision of the Russo-Japanese Entente and the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, the Japanese government started to consider its rights and interests in Manchuria not as an economic issue but as a diplomatic one. Therefore it concluded that its rights and interests in Manchuria were outside of the scope of loans handled by the Four-Power Consortium and decided not to participate in the Consortium. The outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution, however, prompted the Four-Power Consortium to become involved in internal issues in China. The British government and the Four-Power Consortium were compelled to accept Japan as a participant in the Consortium, and the Six-Power Consortium was organized as a result.
While conflicts were deepening within the Six-Power Consortium over the dispatch of advisors to the Chinese government and the exclusion of industrial loans, the Japanese government, acting as a “coordinator,” made efforts to ensure the prompt granting of reorganization loans. What motivated it was the intention to stabilize the Yuan Shikai administration and to acquire new concessions in China proper (Shina Hozen). At the time of the Xinhai Revolution, when the Japanese government was faced with the dual problems of insufficient specie following the Russo-Japanese War and popular opposition to the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, the “stabilizing China” (Shina Hozen) argument was an important ideological background of its policies toward China.


No.929 March 2015

Articles
A Social History of Social Standing and Community
Welfare in Modern Japan: Welfare Activities by the Wealthy
in Akita City in the Early 20th Century………………………OKAWA Hiromu(1)

Trends
Current Trends and Future Tasks in "Regional" Economic History:
  Cases in Modern Japanese Economic History……TAKAYANAGI Tomohiko(21)

New Developments in Research on "Deportation" and "Settlement":
Settlements along the Czech "Border Area"
after WWII…………………………………………… MORISHITA Yoshiyuki(29)

SERIES: History since 3.11 (5)
Proposals
Increasing Support for Preserving Memory and History and Role of Historians:
Twenty Years since the Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake, Four
Years since the Great East Japan Earthquake…………OKUMURA Hiroshi(39)
On Passing on the Memory of the Massacre of Koreans after the Great
 Kanto Earthquake………………………………………… KOZONO Takaaki(43)
Historical Materials and Exhibitions
On Confronting the "Constriction" of Imagination concerning Earthquakes
  ……………………………HARAYAMA Kosuke(48)
Looking Closely at the Enduring Memory: The Exhibition on Tanesashi
 Coast by ICANOF in Hachinohe City…………………YAMAMOTO Tadahito(52) 
Recent Publications …………………………………………………………(55)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
NAKAGOMI Ritsuko, Taxation and Fiscal Structure and Zuryo in
  the Heian Period…………………………………………KATSUYAMA Seiji(58)
Recent Publications…………………………………………………………(62)

<Summary>

A Social History of Social Standing and Community Welfare in Modern Japan: Welfare Activities by the Wealthy in Akita City in the Early 20th Century
OKAWA Hiromu

In this article, I clarify how welfare activities by wealthy individuals were connected with gaining or reproducing social standing in Akita City at the beginning of the 20th century. In Akita City of the day, community welfare activities such as disaster relief and poor relief by wealthy individuals played a role in sustaining the daily lives of local residents. In turn, for persons of property, contributing to these activities became one of the important elements that influenced their social standing. Local newspapers played an indirect yet important role in maintaining this welfare system by evaluating the local families of standing according to their contribution or otherwise to important events in this welfare system. Before the days of implementation of social policies by the government, the urban wealthy people thus assumed the role of providing community welfare―whether voluntarily or urged by social pressure―in order to gain or to reproduce popularity and social standing.

No.928 February 2015

Special Issue: Contracts and Transaction Practices in Medieval Japan :
Current Trends in Economic History

Preface ………………………………………………………Editorial Board(1)

Articles
Credit Transactions and the Shoen System in Medieval Japan
             ………………………………………… SATO Yasuhiro(2)
"Setting up" Loss Certificates……………………………… KANNO Fumio(11)
Documents and Credit in Medieval Japan…………………… HONGO Keiko(22)
Monetary Economy and Credit Transactions in Late Medieval Japan:
 From the Perspective of Anonymity ……………………KAWATO Takashi(30)
Commercial Practices and Credit Transactions in Sino-Japanese
  Trade during the Muromachi Period………………………… Csaba OLAH(39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YASUDA Tsuneo (ed.), Marginal People: Affinities in Postwar Japan,
Vol. 4 of The History of Postwar Japanese Society……YASUOKA Ken-ichi(49)
KOBAYASHI Motohiro, Drug Operations by Resident
 Japanese in Modern China………………………… KURAHASHI Masanao(53)
NONOSE Koji, The Reformation and Serfdom……………MORITA Yasukazu(55)

Recent Publications…………………………………………………………(59)

<Summary>

Credit Transactions and the Shoen System in Medieval Japan
SATO Yasuhiro

Credit transactions in the manorial (shoen) system were based on annual land tax (nengu) that was periodically collected from the peasants and routinely sent from the various outlying regions to the central government. This article deals with transactions known as kaezeni in which money received was reimbursed at a different location and transactions known as advanced payments (raino) in which annual land tax was paid prior to the specified deadline.
Documents used in kaezeni transactions included kaebumi and saifu. Saifu recorded the name of the payer as the addresser or addressee, while kaebumi only recorded the name of the payer somewhere within the text. In the sense of clarifying payment instructions, saifu was superior. Kaebumi was also used as a secondary document when sending a saifu.
When the shoen proprietor demanded advanced payments, managers or peasants were the ones who responded. They paid the amount to be paid in advance from their own assets and were reimbursed from the annual land tax in the amount of the advance payment with the addition of interest. When preparations for rice planting began in January or February, the shoen proprietor would also at times mandate advanced payments for the New Year's rice planting ceremony.


“Setting up” Loss Certificates
KANNO Fumio

Using land deeds as material, the author of this article has examined the concept of documentation that existed in medieval Japan as well as the process by which this concept became established. This article examines how loss certificates (funshitsujo), which were prepared when land deeds were lost, were established. There were two predecessors of the medieval funshitsujo, which became established in the 12th century. One of them was known as petition (ge) requesting official confirmation. The ge, a typical petition document of ancient Japan, was used to request the regional or higher-ranking official to acknowledge and document the loss. In this respect, the emergence of the funshitsujo can be seen as an expression of the downward penetration of the document-based principle that began with the Ritsuryo system. The other predecessor of the funshitsujo is the event record (jihotsu-nikki). This is a special record that is evident only in the 10th-11th centuries. The format of the jihotsu-nikki was adopted for use in documents that functioned as funshitsujo, leading to the establishment of the funshitsu-nikki (loss record). Given this, the formation of the document-based principle can also be seen as a movement extending outward from rural areas, unlike the document-based principle of ancient Japan. In the 12th century, as the jihotsu-nikki disappeared, the medieval funshitsujo, with a format that can be considered an integration of the ge and funshitsu-nikki, became established. The preparation of funshitsujo in the medieval era is expressed in particular by the verb tateru (“to set up”). This has a strong relationship to the process of the establishment of the funshitsujo.


Documents and Credit in Medieval Japan
HONGO Keiko

The simplest form of transactions is face-to-face cash transactions in the marketplace. These are characterized by the lack of a need for credit as well as by anonymity. Documents to grant rights or to demand payment issued by a higher-ranking person to a lower-ranking person can also maintain a high level of anonymity. That is because the actual addressee or affiliation is not necessarily clearly indicated. These documents guaranteed credit because they adhered to traditional formats and procedures that had been established under the Imperial Court administration. In medieval Japan, documents were managed with extreme flexibility and their use was generalized over a broad range of social strata. For example, while multiple documents were systematically exchanged, a single document could also fulfill a multiplicity of roles. Though literacy among the people of medieval Japan cannot be considered widespread, they recognized the documents themselves and the rights contained therein as an integrated whole and assumed a conscientious posture toward contracts. The strong sensitivity toward documents was a major pillar that supported the society and economy of medieval Japan.


Monetary Economy and Credit Transactions in Late Medieval Japan: From the Perspective of Anonymity

KAWATO Takashi

This article discusses currency circulation and credit transactions in the late medieval era of Japan.
In prior research, it has been understood that the order of currency had deteriorated during the late medieval era; and that “bad coins” (akusen) became a social problem is one such example. This article, however, points out that, in view of the market rate of rice, it cannot be said that the credibility of coins had deteriorated. The demand for coins was brisk and was a factor in the redevelopment of coins as currency through the 17th century.
In addition, prior research considered that credit transactions, which developed to a high degree in the 15th century, declined in the 16th century. However, credit transactions themselves did not cease. Rather, new means of transactions were developed. These consisted, for example, of settlements using gold and silver. Another was the development of transactions paid on account with specific parties. The former developed based on the high credibility of gold and silver while the latter formed through high credibility developed through close human relationships.
Privately-minted coins called mumonsen, which were in use during this era, are thought to have circulated only in specific regional markets with which the merchants who minted mumonsen conducted businesses. In other words, mumonsen had no credibility as money but circulated based on the credibility of the issuing party.


Commercial Practices and Credit Transactions in Sino-Japanese Trade during the Muromachi Period
OLAH Csaba

In the Ming Period only diplomatic missions were allowed to enter China and to trade with Chinese. Trade, both official and private, was controlled by officials in border areas or by the Maritime Trade Offices in Guangdong, Fujian and Ningbo when the diplomatic missions came via the sea. In the case of diplomatic missions from Japan, Ningbo and Beijing were the cities where Japanese most often conducted private trade. Their activities were coordinated and controlled by official brokers at the Maritime Trade Office in Ningbo who were in charge of helping the Japanese find trading partners in Ningbo and the surrounding area. This article shows how Japanese organized their trading activities in China during the 15-16th centuries. It focuses on analyzing the commercial practices of Japanese and Chinese that made trade effective and profitable, but that sometimes also entailed big losses. The article will examine credit transactions by different members of the Japanese diplomatic missions, transactions by a leading diplomat Sakugen Shuryo and the activities of his intermediaries in trade, based on sources from Japanese travel diaries. The sources reveal that credit trade was profitable, but Chinese sometimes defrauded their Japanese trading partners. Japanese also used credit trade to cheat the Chinese; thus credit trade was often marked by incidents. Even official brokers were sometimes involved in these incidents, which shows that local merchants and brokers had corrupted the Ming foreign trade system and the system did not provide adequate protection against corrupt traders.


No.927 January 2015

Articles
The Japanese Imperial Household's Reaction to
 Taisho Democracy: Tenant Disputes in the Imperial Farmland and
 the Ideology of the Modern Emperor System………………KATO Yusuke(1)
Prosecution Reforms by the Nationalist Government of
 Republican China, 1938-1945………………………… YOSHIMI Takashi(17)

Current Topics
New History in an Amnesic Nation…………………………… IKO Toshiya(33)
What Is the "Right to Collective Self-Defense"? The Resurgence of Fascism
 in Japan in the Era of "Collective Imperialism"……… KURITA Yoshiko(39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
TANAKA Tomoko, The Dawn of a Higher Education System
in Modern Japan…………………………………… KOMAGOME Takeshi(47)
MARUTA Takashi, Revolutionary Rites: Political Mobilization and
Folk Customs in Chinese Communist Base Areas…… ONODERA Shiro(51)
AMANO Chieko, History of Children in Modern Francete…OKABE Hiroshi(54)
MATSUBARA Hiroyuki, Undermined Ground of the "Efficiency":
 1910s Social Hygienic Movement and
American Political Culture……………………………KAWAGOE Osamu(56)

Society's Announcements
Public Statement: A Critique of the Unjust Stance Held by the
 Japanese Government and Certain Sections of the Media on
  Japan's Wartime "Comfort Women" Issue…………………………… (60)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………(62)


<Summary>

The Japanese Imperial Household's Reaction to Taisho Democracy: Tenant Disputes in the Imperial Farmland and the Ideology of the Modern Emperor System
KATO Yusuke

This article analyses the Japanese imperial householdʼs reaction to Taisho Democracy by examining the tenant disputes (1920–24) in the imperial farmland in Kagura village, Kamikawa district, Hokkaido. In Kagura, a dispute occurred between the tenants who leased the farmland from the imperial household at low prices and the subtenants who subleased the land from the tenants at high prices. What is unique about this case is that both tenants and subtenants used the ideology of the emperor system to justify their claims. This ideology was interpreted in two contrasting ways; while the tenants interpreted the emperor system as a conservative symbol, the subtenants interpreted it as a progressive one. Both sides presented an intense barrage of petitions to the Imperial Household Ministry. The imperial household itself could not reach a decision on the matter as the local branch and the main office of the Ministry were divided on the matter. The problem of tenant disputes which was prevalent throughout Taisho Period Japan had spread to the imperial farmlands and was interfering with the day-to-day management of the farms. As a result, the imperial household found itself confronted with a serious situation where it could not exercise adequate control over the course of the emperor system ideology.


Prosecution Reforms by the Nationalist Government of Republican China, 1938-1945
YOSHIMI Takashi

Prosecution reforms by the Nationalist Government of Republican China during the Sino-Japanese War were materialized, after a period of experimental judiciary, as a proposal for prosecution reforms by the Ministry of Justice and resulted in the amendment of the Criminal Procedure Law in December 1945. This process was promoted by such factors as the revision of the unequal treaties, the judicial reforms brought about by political changes as a result of the transition to the constitutionalism, and a further realignment closer to the Anglo-American legal system through closer ties between China and the U.S.
Yet the process had its origins in an earlier reworking of the legal system based on the Anglo-American model prior to the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War. The Ministry of Justice, which was in charge of the prosecution reforms, made consistent efforts to shift to the Anglo-American legal system, even though the progress was slow in the early years of the war. In the later years of the war, the Ministry envisioned a prosecution system with affinities to the American one. On the other hand, it firmly maintained its intention to expand the range of the right of private prosecution despite opposition by the U.S. The Ministry of Justice moved ahead with prosecution reforms taking into account the need for constraints on state authority and for the protection of human rights, which are the characteristics of constitutional government. This article argues that this expansion in the range of the right of private prosecution by the Ministry of Justice indicates the democratization of the prosecution system.