The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Aoki-Shoten (Aoki Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.926  December 2014


SPECIAL ISSUE: History of Sex Trafficking and Gender (Ⅱ)

Articles
Significance of the Establishment of the Shin-Yoshiwara
Regulation Agreement of 1871: Mobilization of Yujoya
Trade Associations…………………………………………… SONE Hiromi(1)
The Licensed Quarter in Nagasaki in the Early Modern
"Prostitution-society" in Japan……………………………MATSUI Yoko(14)
Scope of the Theory of Yukaku Society………………YOSHIDA Nobuyuki(26)
                            
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
NAGAE Masakazu, A Study on the Food Delivery System: Land Reform
in the Time of Food Crisis…………………………………… ITO Atsushi(39)

Critical Reviews on the Reports Presented at the 2014
Annual Meeting of the Society Plenary Session……………………
…………YOKOYAMA Yoshinori,HASEGAWA Takahiko, TOBE Hideaki(42)
Ancient History Section……………………………………MORI Ken-ichi(46)
Medieval History Section……………… FURUSAWA Naoto, YANBE Koki(47)
Early Modern History Section…………………… YAMAMOTO Hirobumi(50)
Modern History Section…………… KANEKO Ayumu, KAWAGUCHI Ryo(53)
Contemporary History Section… OYAMADA Noriko, MATSUDA Haruka(56)
Joint Section ……………………
…ABE Mamoru, OSHIO Takashi, SATSUMA Shinsuke, OZAWA Ichiro (59)
Special Section……………………IIJIMA Wataru, FUKUAZAWA Tetsuzo(64)

Society's Announcement……………………………………………… (70)

Index. Nos.914-926 (January-December 2014)…………………………(74)

<Summary>

Significance of the Establishment of the Shin-Yoshiwara Regulation Agreement of 1871: Mobilization of Yujoya Trade Associations
SONE Hiromi

The Shin-Yoshiwara Regulation Agreement of 1871 was established as the direct result of the abolition of Shin-Shimabara licensed quarter (yukaku) established in Tsukiji compound in Tokyo. The first point of this agreement was to make houses of prostitution (yujoya) and dating houses (chaya) that flowed into Yoshiwara from the abolished Shin-Shimabara district accept disparities between yujoya and run the business accordingly. The second point was the intention to protect thereby the interests and traditional practices of large and medium-size yujoya already established in Yoshiwara. The third point was that, to achieve these goals, the association of long-established yujoya set up an organization (ukeharaijo) and, while competing with chaya, decided to seek for loose coexistence with them. Because of this strategy, yujoya adopted two compulsory measures, namely, compromise with chaya by uniformizing and legalizing service charges paid to them (chaya kosen) and the elimination of chaya if engaged in illegal activities. The above points reveal the historical significance of the establishment of the Agreement in 1871; yujoya association ensured conditions for their survival as a trade association detached from town administration.


The Licensed Quarter in Nagasaki in the Early Modern “Prostitution-society” in Japan
MATSUI Yoko

Under the state of effective “National Seclusion,” foreigners were not allowed to form a family and stay in Japan for an extended period of time. They were also forbidden to have relationship with Japanese women except prostitutes.
In the licensed quarters in Nagasaki, most of the prostitutes came from within Nagasaki city or nearby villages. They belonged to brothels under the guise of an apprenticeship. The basic operation of the licensed quarters in Nagasaki was analogous to other quarters in early modern Japanese cities.
Meanwhile, as Nagasaki was the only port city where foreign trade with the Chinese and the Dutch was conducted, the management of the wards was closely connected to trade. The prostitutes for the foreigners in the compounds were procured by the licensed quarters; and all procedures of such prostitution were performed through the local officials who supervised the foreigners' compounds as well as the licensed quarters. The payment was also managed officially and paid through the accounting office of the city. In other words, the earnings from prostitution served to defray the cost of importing items through foreign trade.
Thus the licensed quarters were an indispensable part of the structure of Nagasaki city which was completely dependent upon the foreign trade. This is a radical example of “prostitution-society” in early modern Japan, in which prostitution was widespread and a part of the structure of society, and shows us important points to discuss.


Scope of the Theory of Yukaku Society
YOSHIDA Nobuyuki

This article seeks to outline the development of the theory to analyze licensed quarters (yukaku) as a society, which has taken form as one aspect of the history of urban society in early modern Japan, as well as the issues this theory currently faces. It also attempts to add more cases for research. The first half of this article takes up three points criticized by Yokoyama Yuriko, replies to these criticisms, and attends to some of the current issues. The first point of Yokoyama's criticism is that the theory of yukaku society represents “a social structural approach to sex trade” with meager concern for the agency of the women involved (yujo). The second point has to do with the social status assigned to prostitutes, their “labor,” and issues of possession involving the women. The third point is to question the “strong interconnections within and the closed nature of yukaku society.” The latter half of this article deals with the the so-called “seven quarters in Fukagawa,” which attract attention as the largest group of unlicensed red-light districts in Edo. While surveying their socio-spatial structure, this article examines why these quarters long served as temporary locations for houses of prostitution (yujoya) in Shin-Yoshiwara from the end of Edo period through the Meiji restoration period. Thereupon, this article confirms, in spite of Yokoyama's criticism, that the theory of yukaku society is still valid; it also points out some tasks for the future, including the importance of focusing on prostitutes themselves as a central issue in trying to elucidate the overall structure of the yukaku society.

No.925  November 2014


SPECIAL ISSUE: History of Sex Trafficking and Gender (I)

Preface………………………………………………the Editorial Board (1)
Articles
Establishment, Transformation, and Characteristics
  of Prostitution in Ancient and Medieval Japan………FUKUTO Sanae(2)
Confucian Ethics, Agreements and Subsistence: The Practice
  of Wife-selling and Wife-mortgaging and Concepts
of Morality in Qing China…………………………… KISHIMOTO Mio(13)
Imperial Germany and the International Movement against
 "White Slave Traffic": Women across the Western Borders
     ………………………………………………HIGURASHI Minako(24)
Trends
Historiography of the History of American Prostitution
in the Progressive Era……………………………… KANEKO Ayumu(38)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SATO Yoshifumi, Consciousness of Native Place in Modern China
       ………………………………………………FUJIYA Koetsu(50)
KANAZAWA Shusaku ed., A Companion to British Maritime History
       ………………………………………… KAWAWAKE Keiko(53)
       
Home and Abroad
The Image of East Asian History from the Perspectives
of Women's History and Gender History: International
Symposium on Women's/Gender History in East Asia
(China, Korea and Japan) in 2013 …………… HAYAKAWA Noriyo(56)
               

<Summary>

Establishment, Transformation, and Characteristics of Prostitution in Ancient and Medieval Japan
FUKUTO Sanae

The purpose of this article is to conduct a gender analysis of the historical transformation of sexual norms and prostitution in Japan. I hope thereby to make a contribution towards explaining the permissive attitude to the wartime sexual exploitation, as demonstrated by Mayor Hashimoto of Osaka City, among many others. Commercial prostitution did not appear in Japan until the 8th century. At the beginning of the 8th century Naikyobo was established following the example of Tang Dynasty China; Naikyobo dancers in Japan, however, rendered only entertainment services at events of the imperial court and did not provide sexual services. This was because of the gender-equal sexual norms prevalent in Japan until the 8th century. Prostitution emerged at transportation hubs in the late 9th century and gradually spread to other parts of society through the first half of the 13th century. However, since the women involved were mostly entertainers, known as yojo, kugutsu, or shirabyoshi, providing sexual favours was regarded less as prostitution but as something that accompanied entertainment. At the same time, the existence of prostitution without entertainment can be ascertained from around this time. Male-dominant sexual norms emerged as well and started to permeate throughout society. In line with this, women came to be prohibited from having sexual relationships with men other than their husbands. From the late 13th century through the 15th century, there was a further increase in prostitution in response to economic and urban development. By the 16th century, brothels, often operated by women until the 15th century, came to be dominated by male operators and the sexual exploitation of women by men became stronger.


Confucian Ethics, Agreements and Subsistence: The Practice of Wife-selling and Wife-mortgaging and Concepts of Morality in Qing China
KISHIMOTO Mio

This article examines the moral concepts among bureaucrats and intellectuals in China during the Qing Dynasty through the cases of legislation and court decisions regarding wife-selling at the time. For that purpose this article analyzes, from the perspectives of ethics, agreements, and subsistence, how people at the time assessed the act of wife-selling while keeping a balance between these three principles. Confucian ethics severely denounced wife-selling as an act that undermines the principles of human relations, and from this same perspective, the Qing Code prohibited it as well. A gap remained, however, between the Code statutes and the social realities faced by the poor who unwillingly had to sell their wives for the sake of the subsistence; thus efforts were made to bridge this gap in a number of ways. One of them was the establishment of regulations at the provincial level that tolerated the contracts of wife-selling when made by the poor, and another was discretionary measures for individual cases by judges in local courts. In the latter, it was the usual practice, in violation of the Code statutes, to take into account such conditions as poverty and to prioritize agreements among the concerned parties.


Imperial Germany and the International Movement against “White Slave Traffic”: Women across the Western Borders
HIGURASHI Minako

This article examines how Germany joined the international efforts to deter “white slave traffic” at the turn of the 20th century, through an analysis of the materials of the Prussian administrative authorities. Prior historical studies about “white slave traffic” in Imperial Germany primarily focused on cases in the eastern borderland involving Jewish people from Eastern Europe. Materials of the Prussian administrative authorities, however, reveal that Germany gave more attention to cases in the western borderland than in the east. Because of the bilateral agreement of 1889 between Germany and the Netherlands, the German administrative authorities assumed that they dealt adequately with trafficking both in legal and administrative terms. By around 1900, however, the grounds for such an assumption were broken after such cases as noncompliance with the agreement in the Netherlands came to light. Faced with these circumstances, the German administrative authorities realized that there was a need for new measures to deal with trafficking. Germany thus reversed its previously passive stance and participated in the international fight against “white slave traffic.”


Historiography of the History of American Prostitution in the Progressive Era
KANEKO Ayumu

This article is a historiographical reiew of the contour of recent historical studies on prostitution in the United States, especially in the Progressive Era.
Early studies of American prostitution history emerged as a part of women's history, inspired by the “New Social History.” They unveiled the rise and fall of red-light districts, as well as the experiences of women who were situated in the economic structure of gender inequality and practiced prostitution as a means of survival or gaining greater economic independence. Moreover, they showed that racial differences and hierarchies shaped the economy of prostitution.
Another trend of the history of prostitution has been to show motives behind and consequences of the anti-prostitution discourses including the “white slavery panic.” Many historians have argued that the various anti-prostitution discourses served to defend certain kinds of gender, racial and class norms. According to recent studies, reformers for the abolition of prostitution, whether they were advocates of women's causes or social hygienists fighting against venereal diseases, were united for the purpose of controlling young female sexuality in the public sphere, but they contended with each other vying for authority in the governance of sexuality. Furthermore, some historians argue for the need to study the history of prostitution in the context of the American empire.

No.924 October 2014


The Reports Presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the Society
Doing History Today Part II: Probing Deeper Academic History

Plenary Session
Doing History Today Part II: Probing Deeper Academic History
  …………………………………………OOGURO Shunji , IWAKI Takuji, KONNO Hideharu
Ancient History Section
States and Ruling Order in Ancient Japan
  ………………………………………………………………………NAKAMURA Tomokazu
Medieval History Section
Power and Formation of Order in Medieval Japan
  …………………………………………………SHIMOMURA Shutaro, KINOSHITA Satoshi
Early Modern History Section
The Transformation of Maritime Order in the East Asia and the Foreign
 Policy of Early Modern Japan
  …………………………………………………………SHIMIZU Yuko, MATSUO Shin-ichi
Modern History Section
Queer History as a Way to Reexamine “Tolerance” and Phobias
  ……………………………………………………………UCHIDA Masakatu, NODA Keiko
Contemporary History Section
Rethinking Decolonization and Contemporary History:
 The World Structure in the 1960?1970s
  ………………………………………………………… OGURA Mitsuo, MAEKAWA Ichiro
Joint Section
Frontier and Identity
  ………………… SANO Mitsuyoshi, KURODA Yuga, FUSHIMI Takeshi, MAEDA Hirotake
Special Section
From Material Preservation to Historical Study: Doing History Today
  …………… HIRAKAWA Arata, SATO Daisuke, TAKAHASHI Osamu, OKUMURA Hiroshi


No.923   October 2014


Articles
Policies for Controlling the Liang-Huai Defense Forces during the Late Southern
 Song Dynasty: From the Transport Commissioner at
 Zhe-Xi Liang-Huai to the State Funds System……………………KOBAYASHI Akira(1)
The Campaign to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea and the Politicalization
 of the Trade System: The Case of the Patriotic Joint Pledges
 of Business in Shanghai  ……………………………………………KANEKO Hajime(18)

Views and Reviews
To Enrich the Image of Agricultural History in the 20th Century:
 In Response to Criticism from TAMA Shin nosuke…………………… NODA Kimio(33)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
FUKUOKA Mariko, The Prussian East-Asian Expedition and
 the Japanese Diplomacy in the Late Edo Era………………… NISHIZAWA Mihoko(39)
ASAJI Takeshi, Discrimination and Rebellion…………………… SEKIGUCHI Hiroshi(42)
YOSHIMURA Tomohiro, Discriminated Buraku Communities
 and Daily Labor Markets in Modern Osaka……………………SUGIMOTO Hiroyuki(44)
KIKUCHI Kazutaka, The Structure of History Textbook Problems
 in the East Asia …………………………………………………… SAITO Kazuharu(48)
TESHIROGI Yuji, The Western Experiences and the Change of the
 World View in the Last Years of Qing Dynasty……………………… ONO Yasunori(51)
KUDO Akihito, The Mirage of a Mediterranean Empire ………… .WATANABE Shoko(54)
HASHIKAWA Kenryu, Rural Enterprise in the Rise of American Capitalism
      ………………………………………………………………HISADA Yukako(58)

Recent Publications …………………………………………………………………(61)

<Summary>

Policies for Controlling the Liang-Huai Defense Forces during the Late Southern Song Dynasty: From the Transport Commissioner at Zhe-Xi Liang-Huai to the State Funds System
KOBAYASHI Akira

Once the war with the Mongols began during the late Southern Song Dynasty, the Dynasty placed military commissioners in charge of national defense on the front lines. Among them, the commissioner in the Liang-Huai area was especially important because this commissioner defended the heart of the Dynasty. This article analyzes how the Southern Song leadership was able to keep the Liang-Huai military commissioner, who presided over a powerful army, under its own control. In 1239, the office of transport commissioner at Zhe-Xi Liang-Huai was established for the purpose of controlling the Liang-Huai military forces. The transport commissioner purchased 30% or more of the rice that the Liang-Huai military required, yet the rice could not be delivered to the military on the front line unless ordered to do so by the Southern Song central government. This is how the Southern Song government controlled the Liang-Huai military forces. However, the transport commissioner system was fraught with instability and tormented the peasants in Zhe-Xi area. To solve these problems, in 1263 a state funds system was introduced which placed the expansive rice fields in Zhe-Xi area under the management of the national government. This system, in which the rice harvested from the fields of the state funds was delivered to the front lines according to orders from the government, enabled the Southern Song government to achieve stable control over the Liang-Huai military forces.


The Campaign to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea and the Politicalization of the Trade System: The Case of the Patriotic Joint Pledges of Business in Shanghai
KANEKO Hajime

The aim of this article is to analyze the campaign to conclude the Patriotic Joint Pledges of Business promoted by industrial and commercial circles in Shanghai as a part of the campaign to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea . It also examines how the functions of the Commercial and Industrial Trade Associations to maintain the trade system were politicalized by the Communist Party of China as the campaign to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea developed.
The purpose of the Patriotic Joint Pledges of Business was to subject the businesses in Shanghai to the commercial and industrial policy of the state. Through the Joint Pledge, the Communist Party attempted to control economic activities of the businesses in order to incorporate the trade system in Shanghai into the controlled economy under the Korean War. However, looseness and weakness inherent in the conventional trade system in Shanghai never dissolved even with the Joint Pledges. As a result, the Trade Associations could not control the businesses even when they breached the Pledge. Therefore the politicalization of the trade system in Shanghai did not develop as easily as the Communist Party expected.

No.922 September 2014


Articles
Military Forces and Politics in the Final Phase of the Thirty Years War:
A Case Study on the Revolt of Jan von Werth……………………………SAITO Keita(1)

Views and Reviews
In Search of the "Bottom-up History of the Third Reich": An essay on
ONODERA Takuya, Ideology and Agency: War Letters of Wehrmacht
Soldiers at the Last Stage of the Second World War………………MIYAKE Tatsuru(17)

SERIES: History since 3.11 (4)
Proposals
For History to Last …………………………………………………TAKAZAWA Norie(24)
After Participating in the Deliberation of the Five-year Plan for the
Observational Studies of Earthquakes and Volcanoes …………HOTATE Michihisa(28)
Historical Materials and Exhibitions
Current Conditions of the Documents Related to the
  Great East Japan Earthquake…………………………………… MIZUMOTO Yuka(32)
March 11, 2011 and Poetry: Its Recordability and
 the Significance of Its Exhibition……………………………… TOYOIZUMI Takeshi(35)
Recent Publications………………………………………………………………… (39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YOSHIDA Kenji, Structure and Development of the
 Military System of Muromachi Shogunate……………………………TANAKA Hiroki(41)
SAKAI Hiromi, Dynamics of Gender in
 "The Struggle of Love" ………………………………………… SAWAYAMA Mikako(44)
HARA Akira, The Japanese War Economy, 1937-1945……………………HORI Kazuo(48)

The Society's Report
Report on the 2014 General Assembly…………………………………The Committee(51)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………………(57)
Society's Announcement: In Opposition to the Relocation of the U.S. Base
to Henoko, with Deeper Thought to the Meaning of April 28: From the
Perspective of Those who Engage in Scholarship and Education of History……… (62)

<Summary>

Military Forces and Politics in the Final Phase of the Thirty Years War: A Case Study on the Revolt of Jan von Werth
SAITO Keita

The efforts of the Duke Maximilian of Bavaria to enhance his control over military forces during the Thirty Years War have been commonly examined in the context of war administration. This article aims to broaden this narrow scope by considering the political background of the Holy Roman Empire, where not only the Duke, but also the Emperor vied for control over military power. Focusing on the 1647 revolt, in which the Emperor suborned the Bavarian general Werth to hand over his army, this article makes the following points. Firstly, the Peace of Prague of 1635 acknowledged the Emperor as the highest military commander of the Empire, and thus legitimated the imperial scheme of 1647. Secondly, equipped with the exclusive right to ennoble or elevate the status of his subjects, the imperial authority held great sway over the Bavarian commanders. Thirdly, however, that the Duke came to recruit his army increasingly in his homeland in order to ensure its loyalty helped him regain control over the army during the revolt. The well-organized war administration he developed was also effective in this process. In conclusion, it argues that the efforts of the Duke of Bavaria to control the army were closely interlinked with imperial politics.

No.921 August 2014


SPECIAL ISSUE: Relocating the History of “Postwar Japan” in the Context
of World History: Cold War, Decolonization, and Peace (II)

Articles
Reflections on “Postwar Responsibilities” in “Postwar Japan”:
From the Recent Controversy on Colonial Genocides……… NAGAHARA Yoko(1)
Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and Republic of Korea
and Rights of Claiming Compensation: A Critical Survey
of Contemporary Historical “Korean Studies”………………… UTSUMI Aiko (11)

Articles
Manchukuo Army and the National Conscription Act ………… OIKAWA Takuei (23)

Notes and Suggestions
“History of People’s Struggle” as a Historians’ Movement:
Under Crisis Consciousness and Possibility Consciousness
around the 1970s ……………………………………………FUKAYA Katsumi (41)

Trends
Close-Reading History: AOKI Michio’s “Discovery”
of Cultural History …………………………………………… WAKAO Masaki (49)

Society’s Announcements: In Opposition to the Adoption of the Right
of Collective Self-defense through Constitutional Re-interpretation ………… (59)

<Summary>

Reflections on “Postwar Responsibilities” in “Postwar Japan”: From the Recent Controversy on Colonial Genocides
NAGAHARA Yoko

The Vergangenheitsbewältigung (dealing with the past) has often been referred to in the historical study of postwar Japan in its reflections on WWII. The writings and controversies on Vergangenheitsbewältigung in Germany, however, tend to be German-centric and Euro-centric and even “Jew-centric” in some cases. The recent controversy over the continuity between colonial genocides and the Holocaust is no exception. While a historian put the spotlight on the massacre in German Southwest Africa (modern-day Namibia) in 1904/08 by arguing that it was “the first genocide of the 20th century”, the Namibian people's continuing demand for atonement also significantly accelerated a community-wide interest and attention among scholars, thus giving impetus to the agenda for scholarly investigations. Historians are heatedly debating questions such as whether there is any common ground between the colonial atrocities and the Holocaust, if the two phenomena share any causality or continuity, and if there were any other similar cases of colonial violence or not. Many of the participating historians seem to possess a tacit premise that proclaims the Holocaust to be an incomparably unique phenomenon in modern world history. Moreover, while discussing issues common with and related to various colonialisms, they stop short of extending their comparative views beyond 1945. The controversy reveals that the colonial past is only beginning to become a part of the Vergangenheitsbewältigung. The historical science in postwar Japan seems to share this lack of consideration of colonialism coupled with an over strong adherence to the “dealing with the past” in German historiography.


Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and Republic of Korea and Rights of Claiming Compensation: A Critical Survey of Contemporary Historical “Korean Studies”
UTSUMI Aiko

On August 30, 2011, the Constitutional Court of Korea ruled regarding claims for compensation by former “comfort women” of the Japanese Army that the “right of claim of individuals under the Japan-Korea Right of Claims Agreement had not extinguished.” The following year, the Korean Supreme Court accepted the right to claim of plaintiffs in a case presented by former Korean drafted workers. The court argued that illegal conduct directly linked to colonial rule was exempted from the right of claim agreement. According to the Japanese government's interpretation of the Agreement between Japan and the Republic of Korea Concerning the Settlement of Problems in Regard to Property and Claims and Economic Cooperation, all compensation claims, including those of individuals, were thereby terminated and the Japanese government has maintained this interpretation to the present. As the Agreement approaches its fiftieth anniversary, it is once again being called into question. This article is a comprehensive survey of trends in the discussion and research at the time of the conclusion of the Treaty.
The Japan-Korea Research Institute was critical even before the signing of the Agreement, contending that “efforts to engage in economic cooperation are being built upon a basis of ‘justifying’ past acts of aggression in Korea.” The Historical Science Society of Japan also severely condemned the domination of Korea by Japanese imperialism, stating that the Treaty “has not been concluded reflecting a spirit of condemnation of the past domination of Korea by Japanese imperialism.” It moreover criticized the colonial preconceptions held by the Japanese people, stating that “unless we rid ourselves of this attitude of ethnic scorn, it will be impossible for us to be friends with the Korean people, who are seeking autonomy.” In addition, in regard to rights of claim, the statement released by Japan contains a portion indicating that hereafter all rights of claim are abandoned, but the important point has been made that this does not appear in any form whatsoever in the statement released by Korea. As official documentation dealing with the Japan-Korea talks are now being released for public viewing, there are hopes that more detailed research regarding the rights of claim will be produced.


Manchukuo Army and the National Conscription Act
OIKAWA Takuei

The historical significance of the National Conscription Act (NCA) of “Manchukuo” lies primarily in that, compared with traditional mercenaries, it supplied the army with soldiers who excelled both academically and physically. The conscription law achieved passive acceptance for several reasons. Conscripts not only gained prestige from belonging to the military, but they also gained opportunities for education and skill training, leading to new job opportunities and the opportunity of an urban lifestyle. Moreover, the law was implemented so as not to place an over-heavy burden on the poor. The passing of the NCA corresponds to the transformation of the Manchukuo Army from an internally-oriented security force to an auxiliary force to support operations against foreign powers.
Secondly, the significance of the NCA also derives from Manchukuo's supposed status as an independent nation. Unlike colonial Korea and Taiwan, the Japanese army held high hopes for support from the ethnic Mongolian population so that the army actively utilized locally-drafted forces, while also taking steps to prevent an outflow of such soldiers to anti-Japanese resistance forces. Despite this, the NCA proved to be an excessive burden on the Mongolian people from the outset.
Thirdly, the NCA was important in that, while NCA possessed special characteristics different from standard conscription systems in Japan and China, it was also influenced by both. In Manchukuo the social pressure produced by conscription was not as high as other parts of China, and the NCA conformed to the Chinese social environment in terms of conformation to the rule of law.

No.920 July 2014

SPECIAL ISSUE: Relocating the History of “Postwar Japan” in the Context
of World History: Cold War, Decolonization, and Peace (I)

Preface………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)

Articles
Unlearning “America” in Postwar East Asia: “The Cold-War Postwar”
and Amnesia about Decolonization ………………………………KATO Koichi(2)
The Sino-Soviet Policy toward Postwar Japan (1949-50):
Between Alliance and the Division of Labor ……… MATSUMURA Fuminori (14)
Reexamination of Indemnity Rights Negotiations in Japan-Korea Talks:
With Special Reference to Discussion within
the Japanese Government………………………… YOSHIZAWA Fumitoshi (25)
Thinking about “Postwar Japan”: New Insights from Boundary
Theory in The History of Postwar Japanese Society edited by
YASUDA Tsuneo…………………………………………… ARAKAWA Shoji (35)
Education of “Children of Mixed Blood” during the Occupation and
Reconstruction Period: the Cleavage between Personalism
and Egalitarianism……………………………………………… KAMITA Seiji (46)
A History of Japan-Africa Relations in the Post War Period
with Special Reference to the 1950s and 1960s ……KITAGAWA Katsuhiko (60)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SUZUKI Naoko, The Foundation of German Empire and
East Asia …………………………………………………… KOIKE Motomu (72)

Recent Publications …………………………………………………………(76)

<Summary>

Unlearning “America” in Postwar East Asia: “The Cold-War Postwar” and Amnesia about Decolonization
KATO Koichi

Recent scholarship calls for the need to relativize America's political,military, economic, and cultural influences in modern world history. Previously America's role has been over-exaggerated, so that in studying the regional order in postwar East Asia, we must unlearn “America” in the region, and inevitably relativize the cold war structure which the United States sought to build. In East Asia, where almost all countries and areas had been colonized or semi-colonized in the modern age, it was not only the cold war but also decolonization that was of grave significance for the postwar regional order.
Research on the cold war in the Third World now requires re-evaluation of the “third worlders” role. As one historian says, they “learned to manipulate the Americans and the Russians by laying on flattery, pledging solidarity, feigning indifference, threatening defection, or even raising the specter of their own collapse and the disastrous results that might flow from it.” Accordingly, the “third worlders” used the cold war rhetoric to achieve decolonization either political or economic, or both.
Despite the fact that decolonization was as significant as the cold war in East Asia, memories of decolonization faded away and meanings of the cold war were overemphasized in postwar Japan. As a result, the facts that the “peace” in Japan was inextricably linked to the “wars” in East Asia, and that Japan's economic growth was precipitated by wars in Korea and Vietnam, have been silently condoned. However, such people as surviving “comfort women” recently have pressed charges of colonial responsibilities against Japan.


The Sino-Soviet Policy toward Postwar Japan (1949-50): Between Alliance and the Division of Labor
MATSUMURA Fuminori

Postwar Japanese foreign policy especially during the early Cold War era has been examined mainly in terms of its relations with the Western bloc. Only a few scholars have explored policies of the Eastern bloc (i.e. the Sino-Soviet alliance) toward Japan in the same period. Most of them, however, emphasize its anti-American strategy in which both the Soviet and Chinese Communist parties (CPSU and CCP) urged the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) to adopt a hardline anti-US stance. These studies focus upon the ideologically oriented party-level relations between the CPSU and CCP while largely ignoring an analysis of the state-level relations on which the formal Sino-Soviet alliance was established. This article aims to analyze the Sino-Soviet policy toward Japan at both party and state levels.
Contrary to the conventional wisdom presented by preceding studies, this article argues that Moscow endeavored to avoid a blatant anti-American stance in East Asia when the Sino-Soviet alliance was established. Firstly, in party-level relations, instead of orchestrating Asian revolutionary movements by itself, the CPSU tried to have the CCP take a leading role. Secondly, in state-level relations, the Sino-Soviet alliance regarded Japan, an enemy common to the Allied Powers, as the main hypothetical enemy and decided on the early evacuation of the Soviet armies from Port Arthur. According to such an arrangement, the overall peace treaty with Japan was considered more important than the Sino-Soviet antagonism toward the Western bloc.


Reexamination of Indemnity Rights Negotiations in Japan-Korea Talks: With Special Reference to Discussion within the Japanese Government
YOSHIZAWA Fumitoshi

This article presents a reexamination of indemnity rights negotiations in Japan-Korea talks particularly in relation to discussions within the Japanese government using recently disclosed diplomatic documents. The main points can be summarized as follows. First of all, major concerns of the Japanese government included the issue of individual rights of indemnity by Koreans as well as compensation for the assets of Japanese citizens who had resided in Korea. In order to resolve these two issues, the Japanese government aimed to nullify only the rights of diplomatic protection held by both Japan and Korea while deliberately leaving obscure the disposition of individual rights of indemnity for citizens of both countries. Secondly, it was important to ensure the involvement of financial authorities along with foreign affairs authorities in indemnity rights negotiations. It is necessary to scrutinize the policy documents of the Finance Ministry in Japan and those of the Economic Planning Board and Ministry of Finance in Korea. Thirdly, the Japanese government insisted that colonial rule had been legal and sought a “full and final settlement” with regard to all the rights of indemnity of Korea. Since the Korean government also gave priority to economic development, domestic compensatory measures remained inadequate. It is this stance toward “colonial responsibility” of both Japan and Korea that must be called into question now.


Thinking about “Postwar Japan”: New Insights from Boundary Theory in The History of Postwar Japanese Society edited by YASUDA Tsuneo
ARAKAWA Shoji

Much has been said about Japan's defeat in the Second World War from the perspectives of demilitarization and democratization policies that were introduced as major reforms during the occupation period. Prior to it, however, policies were strongly promoted which aimed at repatriating Japanese citizens deployed and residing throughout the empire and its marginal occupied territories while, conversely, returning people who had been mobilized as laborers or military personnel in colonies and occupied territories to their original homelands. New nation-states and concomitant boundaries came to be formed within the former territory of the multi-ethnic Japanese Empire. In addition, further transformation of these boundaries was prompted by the commencement of the Cold War. In this way, the postwar history of East Asia began. Within this context, postwar Japan forgot the history of colonial domination and inexhaustible warfare for territorial expansion, enjoying democracy and economic growth closed to the four islands of the archipelago.
However, since around the time of the demise of the Cold War, the limitations of postwar politics, which had sought to resolve both internal and external affairs, including the history question, through state-promoted amnesia and economic growth, have become exposed. It is necessary for historical studies to undertake a methodological reexamination of postwar history in particular as an academic discipline in order to face up to this question. This article proposes the necessity to extend the framework of the “postwar Japanese” history so as to encompass the former territories of the empire and the postwar experiences of people who lived there.


Education of “Children of Mixed Blood” during the Occupation and Reconstruction Period: Cleavage between Personalism and Egalitarianism
KAMITA Seiji

This article examines the development of educational practices for “children of mixed blood,” who were the offspring of Japanese women and foreign military personnel, during the period of occupation and reconstruction
The Eugenic Protection Act, promulgated in July 1948 under the occupation, encouraged discrimination, branding children of mixed blood with an image of “inferior progeny.” The GHQ and Ministry of Education, however, ignored this policy and promoted non-discriminatory egalitarian education. Rather than admitting the rich human qualities of these children, they simply had them enter public elementary schools nationwide in an uncoordinated manner and sought to make them an invisible entity within Japanese society.
However, despite such attempts to promote coeducation of children of mixed blood and ordinary school-age children in the public elementary schools, there were some cases in which teachers worked hard to democratically resolve bullying through classroom discussions. Moreover, in the education practice solely for children of mixed blood pursued by SAWADA Miki, principal of the Elizabeth Saunders Home and St. Stephen's School in Oiso-cho, Kanagawa Prefecture, education based on personalism was undertaken which not only respected the background, circumstances and current condition of each individual child but also looked ahead to future work.


A History of Japan-Africa Relations in the Post War Period with Special Reference to the 1950s and 1960s
KITAGAWA Katsuhiko

The primary purpose of historicizing post-war Japan's relations with Africa is to find common goals for both regions and a framework to explain their places in the ever-changing economic-political circumstances of the contemporary world. This article examines the following topics: (1) how relations between Japan and Africa in the pre-war period were connected to those in the post-war period; (2) how Japan's post-war policy toward Africa was influenced by political movements in Asian and African countries after the Bandung Conference in 1955 and characterized as dualistic diplomacy to “White Africa” and “Black Africa” in the Cold-war period; (3) how a variety of actors were involved in post-war Japan's relations with Africa and how an information infrastructure was constructed in order to share recognition of African affairs among government officials and prominent figures in the business world; (4) how Japanese Africanists were actively involved in forming African studies in academic circles and supporting anti-Apartheid movements in civil society.

No.919  June 2014


Articles
Chinese Nationalist Government’s Military Control and Organization in Guangxi
Province: With Special Reference to the Battle
of Guinan …………………………………………………………… FUJII Motohiro (1)

Trends
Creating Common History Teaching Materials for the Balkans: Some Thoughts
from Teaching Modern Southeast European History ………… SHIBA Nobuhiro (18)

Notes and Suggestions
On “Self-honorific Expressions” and “Self-styling Words” in Hideyoshi
Papers: A Criticism of YAMAMOTO Hirofumi’s A Sequel
to History on Sunday …………………………………………… KONNO Makoto (24)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
IKEGAMI Hiroko, Transition from the Japanese Middle Ages
 to the Early Modern Era …………………………………………… FUKAYA Koji (30)
SAWAYAMA Mikako, Modern Families and Child Rearing ……………MUTA Kazue (33)
SAKANE Yoshihiro, Studies on Farmland Policies
in Wartime Japan……………………………………………… NUMAJIRI Akinobu (37)
SUZUKI Masahisa, Modernism in Shanghai………………………… SEKI Tomohide (40)
MIZUHA Nobuo, Nationalism and Democracy in China:
Zhang Naiqi and His Era…………………………………… YOSHIZAWA Seiichiro (44)
KARASAWA Koichi, Monarchs and Society in Late Medieval
Serbia and Bosnia ……………………………………………… SATSUMA Hideto (48)
NAKATA Hideki, Corns for the Indigenous,
Coffee for the Nation……………………………………………… OZAWA Takuya (51)
TAJIMA Nobuo, Nazi Germany and Republican China,
1933 - 1937…………………………………………………………MIYAKE Masaki (54)

Recent Publications ……………………………………………………………… (58)


<Summary>

Chinese Nationalist Government's Military Control and Organization in Guangxi Province: With Special Reference to the Battle of Guinan
FUJII Motohiro

During the Sino-Japanese war, the Chinese Nationalist Government, in its attempt to build a nation, saw the Xinan region of China (Southeast China), which included Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Sichuan provinces, as main bases to sustain war efforts against Japan. But the Xinan region was ruled by local powers that were largely independent from the central government. As such, Chiang Kai-Shek needed to co-operate with them while attempting to exert military control over them under the initiative of the central government. Placing the local powers under military control was considered as an important step for consolidating military command under the central government and solidifying the war regime in the Xinan region. This article examines how the central government sought to control the local powers, particularly focusing on those in Guangxi province, which, with their strong military power, had been in competition with Chiang Kai-Shek since the pre-war period. More specifically, it analyzes the process of the central government's policy change in defense organization and military policy based on the co-operation with the Guangxi Army particularly in relation to the battle of Guinan, a battle fought for Nanning city, south of Guangxi province, from December 1939 to February 1940.
In 1938, the Military Committee, in co-operation with the Guangxi Army, established the Guilin Command as the headquarters controlling the huge area stretching from Henan in the north to Guangxi in the south. At first, the Guilin Command considered the front of the Huazhong region (central China) as the most important strategic area. However, after the fall of Nanning city, the central government became more concerned to defend the Xinan region. Meanwhile, Chiang Kai-Shek and his staff in the Military Committee were growing increasingly frustrated with the Guangxi-Army because they felt the Army had not fought aggressively enough in the battle of Guinan. Therefore, they started to blame the defeat at Guinan on the Guangxi Army's lack of discipline and confusion in the military chain of command due to the dysfunction of the Guilin Command. Faced with these accusations from the central government, the Guangxi Army was not able to respond forcefully since it had significantly lost its military capability in the battle of Guinan. Consequently, the Military Committee dissolved the Guilin Command and put its jurisdiction under the direct its own control. After that, the central government deployed a large army in Guangxi province. In conclusion, it can be said that the Chinese Nationalist Government strengthened its control and extended its authority over the Guangxi Army through the military organization reforms in the wake of the defeat in Guinan.

No.918  May 2014

Articles
The Development of Municipalization Campaign in Taiwan during the 1920s:
With Special Reference to the Movement of Japanese and Taiwanese
Residents at Kagi Town, Tainan Prefecture after the Local
Government Reform…………………………………………… FUJII Yasuko(1)

Notes and Suggestions
Investment Activities of a Regional Wealthy Man in an Economically Declining
Region from 1904 to 1915: A Case Study of SEKIKAWA & Co. Ltd.
and SEKIKAWA Mohei ………………………………… SHIRATORI Keishi (20)

Current Topics
The History Textbook Controversy in Japan Enters Its Third Stage:
The Background to the Rejection of Jikkyo Shuppan’s
Japanese History Textbook…………………………… OGAWA Terumitsu (34)

Forum
Conventional and Established Interpretations
and Critical Review of School Textbooks ………………… OGUSHI Junji (42)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YAMASHITA Shin-ichiro, The State and Salary System
in Ancient Japan ……………………………………… SHIMURA Kanako (44)
MORITA Yasukazu, Reading Woodblock Prints:
Astrology, “Dance of Death”, and the Reformation ………NONOSE Koji (47)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting
of the Society in May 2014 ………………………………………………(50)

Society’s Announcements: The General Meeting of the Historical Science
Society of Japan for the Year 2014 ……………………………………… (63)

<Summary>

The Development of Municipalization Campaign in Taiwan during the 1920s: With Special Reference to the Movement of Japanese and Taiwanese Residents at Kagi Town, Tainan Prefecture after the Local Government Reform
FUJII Yasuko

In 1920, a reform of local government was introduced in the colony of Taiwan. This reform slightly moderated the autocratic rule of the Government-General of Taiwan and permitted civilians (both Japanese and Taiwanese) to participate in local government administration, though extent of this was limited. After this reform,residents in some regions began to submit requests and petitions to the Government-General and prefectural authorities. For example, groups of Japanese and Taiwanese residents in Kagi Town, Tainan Prefecture, started a campaign demanding implementation of municipalization in 1927. Municipalization was largely welcomed by the colonial authorities because it was thought to facilitate the “Japanization” of Taiwan. Consequently, the request obtained official approval and Kagi Town became a city in 1930.
This article examines local residents’ movements and the authorities’ responses to them with particular reference to the municipalization campaign in Kagi Town, focusing on the local government reform in 1920 that provided a new political arena concerning the interests of local society. It reveals that political events in the colony reflected not only a conflict of different nationalistic interests but also the coordination of regional and class interests.

Investment Activities of a Regional Wealthy Man in an Economically Declining Region from 1904 to 1915: A Case Study of SEKIKAWA & Co. Ltd. and SEKIKAWA Mohei
SHIRATORI Keishi

This article is an attempt to the analyze investment activities of a regional wealthy man in an economically declining region, Esashi Town in Hokkaido, from 1904 to 1915. The investment activities of SEKIKAWA, one of the wealthy men in Esashi, can be summarized as follows. 1. SEKIKAWA & Co. Ltd. showed a strong “tendency to secure their assets”, and the supplies of money by the main family in Tokyo were important for the company. 2. Mohei took part in the establishment of some firms to revive the economy in Esashi. However, the failures of these firms created huge losses for him. After sorting out the losses, he also strengthened the “tendency to secure his assets”. 3. Both SEKIKAWA & Co.Ltd. and SEKIKAWA Mohei emphasized inter-family trading and transactions. 4. As the supplies of money by the main family in Tokyo demonstrates, even a regional economy like Esashi’s was affected by Japanese Industrialization at that time.

No.917 April 2014

Articles
Shitaji Chubun and Shoen Management:
 Case of Niimi-no-sho in Bicchu Province………………… NITADORI Yuichi(1)
Ruling System of the Kamakura-fu during the Reigns of Kamakura-kubo
 Ashikaga Ujimitsu and Ashikaga Mitsukane: For Reconsideration 
 of the Kamakura-fu Establishment …………………………UEDA Shinpei (18)

Views and Reviews
On Historians and Actualities…………………………MATSUZUKA Shunzo(37)
How the Words “the Only Atom-bombed County in the World”
Have Shaped Japan’s Postwar Experience ………… KWON Heok-Tae (44)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
OKUDA Haruki, Land Tax Reform and Practice
of Land Division in Modern Japan…………………… TAKISHIMA Isao (51)
CHEN Peifeng, Japanese Colonial Rule and Classical Chinese Text
 in Japan’s Colonies………………………………………KIM Moonkyong (54)
OSHIMIZU Yutaka, The Roman Empire in the Age of
 Diocletian Continuity and Change of the Imperial Rule in
Latin Inscriptions ……………………………………… SHINPO Yoshiaki (57)

Recent Publications …………………………………………………… (61)

Society’s Announcements: The 2014 General Meeting
  of the Historical Science Society of Japan………………………………(62)


<Summary>

Shitaji Chubun and Shoen Management: Case of Niimi-no-sho in Bicchu Province
NITADORI Yuichi

This article first re-examines shitaji chubun (physical division of the land) at Niimi-no-sho (manor) in Bicchu Province. It reveals that ichien-teki chubun through east-west division was in principle implemented and irikumichi remained as an exception. This is less complex an understanding than the previous research has portrayed.
Next, this article discusses relationships between forms of shitaji chubun and shoen (manor) management in comparison with other cases. The ideal objective of shitaji chubun was ichien-teki chubun. However, due to location of interests relating to the management of shoen and disputes over the shoen themselves, which served as transportation and distribution hubs, shitaji chubun exposed its practical limitation. This led to the configuration of irikumi and tsubowake. Shitaji chubun at the Niimi-no-sho shows a typical example of this.
Ryokegata did not place importance on geographical continuity as much as jitokata. As a result, shoen management inevitably deviated from local circumstances and included in itself certain problems. In addition, peasants of the ryokegata, when demanding tax reductions and exemptions, took advantage of the circumstances in which the jitokata was placed and, as a result, the ryoke were compelled to feel agitated.
By contrast to the prevailing theory presented by Shimada Jiro who saw shitaji chubun as a countermeasure restraining the advance of the zaichi ryoshu (feudal lord) system, this article argues that shitaji chubun retained structural limitations and policy intentions were not accomplished.


Ruling System of the Kamakura-fu during the Reigns of Kamakura-kubo Ashikaga Ujimitsu and Ashikaga Mitsukane: For Reconsideration of the Kamakura-fu Establishment
UEDA Shinpei

The Kamakura-fu establishment was a political system unique to the eastern provinces of Japan during the Nanboku-cho (Northern and Southern Dynasties) and Muromachi periods. This article aims to reconsider the nature of the Kamakura-fu establishment, collecting and examining various examples of jungyo in the eastern provinces during the reigns of the Kamakura-kubo Ashikaga Ujimitsu and Ashikaga Mitsukane (1367-1409).
Until about the mid-1380s, the Kamakura-fu had sought to extend repressive control over the bushi and society in the eastern provinces. However, it provoked their opposition and disputes occurred continuously. From the latter half of the 1380s onward, the jungyo system transformed into a system centered in the bushi of the eastern provinces and the Kamakura-fu established a ruling system in which the bushi and society in the eastern provinces were rightfully positioned. By the early fifteenth century, this new system had reached maturity, leading to the restructuring of power base and the formation of ritual order. The new social order with the Kamakura-kubo at its apex became established in the eastern provinces. This marked the birth of the Kamakura-fu establishment.
However, since the local society became integrated into the ruling system with its contradictions unsolved, complex social contradictions, entirely engulfing the eastern provinces from the Kamakura-fu elite to the local society, continued to accumulate. These contradictions, epitomized by the uprising of Uesugi Zenshu and the insurgencies in the eastern provinces after the 1420s, brought about the collapse of the Kamakura-fu and the Kamakura-fu establishment.


No.916 March 2014

Articles
Reinterpretation of Based on Tabulation and Analysis of Inscriptions
  on Bones and Tortoise Carapaces ………………………TAKANO Yoshihiro (1)

Views and Reviews
Issues Surrounding NODA Kimio (ed.), A Century of Agricultural and
 Forrestal Resources Development and Agricultural and Forrestal
 Resources Development in the Japanese Empire ……… TAMA Shinnosuke(16)

SERIES: History since 3.11 (3)
Proposals
A History of Disaster that Travels between Past and Present:
 A View from Studies on Famines in Early Modern Japan……KIKUCHI Isao (23)
Thinking about History from Women’s Pregnancy…………… TAMA Yasuko (27)
Historical Materials and Exhibitions
“To Defend the Future”: Experiments in the Permanent Exhibition
Documentary of the Great East Japan Earthquake and History
of Tsunami at Rias Ark Museum of Art……………… YAMAUCHI Hiroyasu (31)
An Outline and the Significance of “Hinagiku …………FUKUSHIMA Yukihiro (35)
Recent Publications …………………………………………………………(38)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SOGAWA Yoichi, The State and Building Projects
in Ancient Japan ……………………………………… FURUOYA Tomohiro (42)
YOSHIDA Nobuyuki, Edo : The City in Tradition ………… TAKAYAMA Keiko (45)
SAWAI Minoru, The System of Scientific Research
 and Development in Modern Japan ……………………………AOKI Hiroshi (48)
HAKODA Keiko, The Birth of a Diplomatic Corps : The Evolution of Modern
  China’s Diplomatic System and Its Consulates Abroad…KAWASHIMA Shin(51)
NAKANO Satoshi, The Japanese Occupation of Southeast Asia
 and the Japanese Citizen……………………………… KAWANISHI Kosuke (53)
SATO Takeshi, A Study on the Constitutional History of France
during the One Hundred Years’ War Period………………HORIKOSHI Koichi (57)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………… (60)

Society’s Announcement: Opposing Revision of the Textbook Screening System
 and Reinforcement of State Control over School Textbooks under the
 Abe Administration …………………………………………………………… (61)
Announcement: Urgent Statement of Historians against the Bill
on Protection of Specified Secrets………………………………………… (63)

<Summary>

Reinterpretation of Based on Tabulation and Analysis of Inscriptions on Bones and Tortoise Carapaces
TAKANO Yoshihiro

It has been a conventional wisdom that (referred to below as “shiji”) played a part in the organized system of “shikan” (officials in charge of documents and records) within the Yin Dynasty, as seen in Chinese classical writings. This article, calling into question the notion that uncritically equates “shiji” with “shikan”, tabulates and examines inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces associated with “shiji”.
First, it reveals that there are two separate inscription forms in the “shiji” and both of these forms appear even in the same example of the actual use of the “shiji”. These findings suggest that one should not uncritically infer the meaning of an inscription from its form. This applies not only to the case of the “shiji” but also to other cases.
Moreover, this article also demonstrates that, as far as it has been seen, there is no historical source that definitely substantiates the conventional idea that equates “shiji” with “shikan”. Meanwhile, it also highlights that new usages of the “shiji” began to emerge after the reigns of Zu Geng and Zu Jia. The reigns of Zu Geng and Zu Jia seem to have been a transitional period when “shiji” came to assume the meanings of 史, 吏, 事, 使 and so on.
The task that remains to be done is to clarify how the “shiji” diversified and changed in meaning after the late Yin Dynasty.


No.915   February 2014

Articles
The Study of Literary Group Activities in Early Qing Dynasty:
  The Case of Jiangnan Taicangzhou ……………………… CHEN Yongfu (1)
The 1919 Revision of the Ordinance of Gravesites
  in Colonial Korea  ………………………………………LEE Sang-Wook(15)

Views and Reviews
Examining the Narratives of “Post-war History” in High School Japanese
  History Textbooks: With Special Reference to the Period from the
  “Occupation”of Japan to the Establishment of the US-Japanese
  Security System ………………… OGAWA Terumitsu/ UDAGAWA Kota/
        CHONG Yong-Hwan/ AOYAMA Harutoshi/ ANEGAWA Yudai (35)
A View from Teaching World History at High School …TORIGOE Yasuhiko (50)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KAMIKAWA Michio, Buddhism in Medieval Japan
  and East Asia …………………………………………OTSUKA Norihiro(57)

Recent Publications ………………………………………………………… (61)

Society’s Announcements: A Statement against Bill on Protection
  of Specified Secrets …………………………………………………… (62)

<Summary>

The Study of Literary Group Activities in Early Qing Dynasty: The Case of Jiangnan Taicangzhou
CHEN Yongfu
This article examines the rise and fall of literary group activities, focusing on Taicang in Shunzhi and Kangxi periods. More specifically, it discusses human networks and characteristics that underpinned the literary groups and analyzes a series of policies that banned them in the early Qing period. It is conventional wisdom that literary group activities stagnated in the early Qing period. Two inactive periods can be observed: the first one beginning in the transitional period from the Ming to Qing Dynasties and continuing until the 5th year of Shunzhi period; and the second one extending from the late Shunzhi period to the 12th year of Kangxi period, which was related with various political factors that led to a prohibition of setting up literary groups. In addition, economic downturns and, more importantly, the revolution of the writing style required in imperial examinations in the early Kangxi period also had a huge impact on literary group during the late Shunzhi and the early Kangxi period. However, apart from these periods, literary groups were generally active. In contrast to the literary group activities of the late Ming period, the early Qing literary groups scattered across the country and often accused each other for lack of knowledge and literals. But, in view of the policies in the early Qing period, it is unlikely that the government purposely attempted to contain the influence of scholar-bureaucrat or contain the gentry's political influence; rather it was concerned with cheating and chaotic situations in the imperial examinations and increasing rivalry between different literary groups.


The 1919 Revision of the Ordinance of Gravesites in Colonial Korea
LEE Sang-Wook
After the March 1st Movement in 1919, the revised “Ordinance for Control of Gravesites, Crematories, Burial and Cremation” was proclaimed in colonial Korea. The Government-General of Chosen boasted that this revision was a “great amendment” that profoundly respected Korean customs. The present article examines this 1919 revision and makes the following main points. Firstly, this revision was primarily designed to introduce private gravesites. Permission for establishment of private gravesites was granted on the condition that one owned graves for ancestors or spouses on private land outside common cemeteries. Secondly, however, despite such a condition, an analysis of the Government-General documents reveals that, in many cases, corpses buried outside common cemeteries were not laid out on private land. This means that the revision largely ignored the reality. This inconsistency caused problems. Thirdly, before the 1919 revision, the Government-General had permitted a limited number of Koreans to establish private gravesites. Therefore, this revision can be understood as an extension of the existing policy. What matters is the historical fact that, after the Government-General had suppressed the political demands expressed in the Independence Movement, it showed “respect” with regard to the issues of family graves.

No.914 January 2014

SPECIAL ISSUE: Power of Historical Sources, Current Social Structure, and
Historians: The Cognitive Structure behind the Historians’ Reading
of Historical Sources (III)

Article
Methods of the History of Thought:
History and Subject Formation ……………………………… WAKAO Masaki(1)


Articles
Hokuriku-do “Ryo-Taisho” and Shugo and Kokujin: An Attempt
 to Re-examine the Military System of
 the Early Muromachi Bakufu…………………………HORIKAWA Yasufumi (15)
The Formation of Gender Role Division in Urbanizing Japan:
 Anjo City, Aichi Prefecture, 1950s - 1980s…………… FURUKAWA Fumie (30)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
OYAMA Kyohei, Villages and Gods in Medieval Japan……EBISAWA Tadashi (50)
KISHIMOTO Mio, “Fengsu” and Visions of History: Essays on Ming
 and Qing China 1; Rethinking Analytical Perspectives on Local Society:
 Essays on Ming and Qing China 2…………………………… MARI Hiroki (53)
SANTOKI Makiko, Urban Culture and Education
in Britain………………………………………………MATSUZUKA Shunzo (56)
HOSOKAWA Michihisa, “White” Domination
in Canadian History………………………………………………ONO Naoko(60)


<Summary>

Methods of the History of Thought: History and Subject Formation
WAKAO Masaki

This article presents the trajectory of how I have read historical sources and how I have tried to write history based on that “reading”. What is historical research? What kind of academic discipline is the study of the history of thought? These are highly important questions, but we are seldom conscious of them in our daily research. Writing this paper gave me the opportunity to address these questions and consciously reassess the nature of my historical research to date. My approach to the history of thought is founded on: 1) questioning conventional wisdom and common sense; 2) accounting for the process of the formation of such conventional wisdom and other popular ideas; 3) using contemporary books as historical sources; 4) unraveling the intertwined ambivalences and conflicts of history; 5) opening a door to the world of oral records. This article primarily describes how the history of thought is practiced―I define the history of thought as a field of historical research that focus on consciousness and thought. That is why this article bears “methods of the history of thought” as its title.


Hokuriku-do “Ryo-Taisho” and Shugo and Kokujin: An Attempt to Re-examine the Military System of the Early Muromachi Bakufu
HORIKAWA Yasufumi

The article re-examines researches to date on the military system of the Muromachi Bakufu. The conclusions are as follows. Firstly, existing research associates the issuance of documents directly with a supposed policy intention on the part of the issuing party. However, it is necessary to also take into consideration the agency of the receiving party and the circumstances in which documents were issued. The quantitative tendencies of surviving documents do not directly reflect the reality behind the documents. Placing too much emphasis on the policy intentions of the Muromachi Bakufu and portraying it as a political institution that attempted to control shugo and kokujin through firmly established systems and policies may lead to overestimation of the power and authority of the early Muromachi Bakufu. Secondly, niju-shohan and issuing of documents by provincial military leaders (kunitaisho) has been conventionally understood as a system and policy of the Bakufu which allowed members of the ruling Ashikaga clan to be involved in applications for combat rewards by local military leaders (kokujin) serving under tozama shugo. However, this view needs to be modified. Kokujin in the early years of Nanboku-cho period (1336-1392) had contacts with many military leaders. These facts can be construed as outcomes of persistent approaches to the military leaders on the part of kokujin who sought to acquire documents and apply for rewards.


The Formation of Gender Role Division in Urbanizing Japan: Anjo City, Aichi Prefecture, 1950s-1980s
FURUKAWA Fumie

The 1950s witnessed the urbanization of many rural regions throughout Japan, bringing along with it the establishment and dissemination of gender role division in these areas. This article is the first area study written in Japanese that examines the process whereby the gender role division came to be the prevailing social norm and what roles women were assigned in family and labor. In the 1950s, the urban-oriented gender role norm attracted women in agricultural district of Anjo since it encouraged wives, not male patriarchs, to manage the household and control the family budget. This norm brought about a transfer of power to women. Simultaneously, as male farmers took up jobs outside agriculture leaving agricultural labor to women, women began to have more control over agricultural management, though their autonomy was still largely limited. After the 1960's, machine manufacturing industry began to flourish in Anjo. In this process, the number of families started by people employed in that industry dramatically increased. During the 1970s, it became common for a wage-earning husband to fed his family and for his housewife to take charge of domestic duties. A married woman could take a job but only on the condition that she fulfilled her domestic duties. This new family system was very popular among young women because it enabled them to live separately from their parents-in-law. However, this new family system continued to sustain the traditional concept of the patern.