The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Aoki-Shoten (Aoki Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.913 December 2013

SPECIAL ISSUE:
   Power of Historical Sources, Current Social Structure, and Historians:
   The Cognitive Structure behind the Historians’ Reading
   of Historical Sources (II)
Articles
Contingency of History, Transformation of Social Structure:
  Raymond B. FOSDICK in the Multiple Contexts of American
  Reform Movements during WWI……………………… MATSUBARA Hiroyuki(1)
Historical Imagination Bridging Representations: Reading Reportages
  on Lower-class Society in Prewar Japan……………………FUJINO Yūko(12)

Current Topics
Current Conditions and Issues Surrounding the Question
  of the Japanese Military “Comfort Women”………………NISHINO Rumiko(24)

Exhibition Reviews
Fight for Justice: The Japanese Military “Comfort Women”
  -Resistance to Forgetting & Responsibility for the Future……UDAGAWA Kōta(31)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (11)
Thoughts on the Revitalization of the History of Social Movements:
  A View from the Study of Contemporary History…………YAMADA Takao(35)
A Publisher’s View on the Historical Science Society of Japan……SHIMADA Izumi(38)
The Administrative Office of the Historical Science Society of
Japan as a Work Place……………………………………KOBAYASHI Kazuko(40)

Critical Reviews on the Reports Presented at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session……………………………MURAI Shōsuke, MAYUZUMI Akitsu(42)
Ancient History Section……………………………ENDŌ Keita, YANO Ken-ichi(45)
Medieval History Section……………………YOSHIDA Kenji, INABA Tsuguharu(47)
Early Modern History Section…………………………………KOBAYASHI Junji(50)
Modern History Section………………………KIDŌ Yoshiyuki, SHIBATA Atsuko(53)
Contemporary History Section ………………………KURATA Tōru, ISHII Kae(57)
Joint Section……HASEGAWA Takashi, WAGURI Juri, WADA Kyōko, KATAKURA Shizuo(60)
Special Section……………………………………………………KATŌ Tetsurō(65)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(70)

Society’s Announcement……………………………………………………(71)

Index. Nos.901-913 (January-December 2013)………………………………(74)


<Summary>
Contingency of History, Transformation of Social Structure:
   Raymond B. FOSDICK in the Multiple Contexts of
   American Reform Movements during WWI
MATSUBARA Hiroyuki

   Early 20th century historians portrayed Raymond B. FOSDICK (1883-1972) as one of the most accomplished technocrats of 1910s United States. A larger-than-life figure, he was seen to represent the age of science-oriented professionals, the organized state, and social policies. He chaired the Commission on Training Camp Activities, a federal institution for protecting soldiers from venereal diseases during WWI. Through this organization, FOSDICK exercised the desires of the middle-class to criticize and discipline urban workers and immigrants' behavior in the name of science, popularly known as “social hygienics.”
   In reality, he could not manipulate these middle-class discourses arbitrarily. He had to negotiate with many actors whose different voices were entangled in multiple contexts. Their friction eventually undermined the legitimacy of his scientific knowledge.
   To legitimate his scientific approach and knowledge, FOSDICK allied with social work movements. In the early 20th century, American states and technocrats were still fledgling in its governance that they had not yet established structures sophisticated enough to effectively combat social problems. Grass-roots reform organizations, such as Lillian WALD's Henry Street Settlement, were considered most “effective” and “scientific” to deal with social problems. Originally from an educated but poor rural family of New York, FOSDICK was sympathetic to the aspiration of those reformers.
   While eager to be a part of the inner circle of science-oriented professionals, which included his schoolmates from Princeton University and Woodrow WILSON's technocrats, FOSDICK's ties with social workers was vital for him to both challenge these elites and distinguish himself from them. Inevitably, FOSDICK suffered from this trilemma. While his success was derived from his capability to integrate a wide range of actors, such contingency on different vectors was fragile. At the end of WWI, FOSDICK had to give up his alliance with social workers, and his social hygienics quickly declined. The social hygienic movement ironically had deprived FOSDICK of his “effective” ally. The age of scientific knowledge had, in fact, led to the disintegration of science-oriented reformers.


Historical Imagination Bridging Representations:
   Reading Reportages on Lower-class Society in Prewar Japan
FUJINO Yuko

   The purpose of this article is to clarify the cognitive structure of reading historical sources and to demonstrate a method for reading historical sources required in the history of people, based on my own personal experience of reading reportages on lower-class society in prewar Japan. Since reportages of lower-class society are texts representing the writers' observations, it is difficult to identify the subjectivity of lower class people within such texts. This article proposes a method to overcome this difficulty. First, when reading historical sources, one has to presuppose that the representational world of the lower class people existed outside that of the writer and to focus on the relationship between the two representational worlds. Second, as one reads historical sources, one has to consciously use one's imagination to “hypothetically put oneself at the scene of events.” In the study of the history of people, the historian's imaginative power to bridge multiple representational worlds plays a key part in reading and understanding historical sources. To that end, the historian ought to objectively understand and refine the workings of his/her own imagination.

No.912 November 2013

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Power of Historical Sources, Current Social Structure, and Historians:
  The Cognitive Structure behind the Historians’ Reading
  of Historical Sources (I)
Preface ………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
Colonialism, Community, and Gender in 18th Century Mexico……YASUMURA Naoki(2)
Heterodoxy and Attribution: The Method of Recognition about Kirishitan (Actual
  Underground Christianity) and “Kirishitan” (Imaginary Christianity)
  in Early Modern Japan………………………………………ŌHASHI Yukihiro(14)
Listening to the Voices of Women: An Attempt to Read Historical Records
  Surrounding the Issue of Pregnancy and Childbirth in Early-modern Japan
                        ……………SAWAYAMA Mikako(27)
Question in Process, Extracted (ex post facto) Actuality:
  Behind the Scenes of Ideology and Agency: War Letters of Wehrmacht Soldiers
  in the Last Stages of the Second World War……………ONODERA Takuya(39)
Understanding the “Hygiene Experiences of Ordinary People”
  in Prewar and Wartime Japan: Possibility of Modern Hygiene History
  through Oral History……………………………………………HŌGETSU Rie(50)
Interviewing, the Self, and Cognitive Structure………………HITOMI Sachiko(62)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HIRAYAMA Atsuko, Encounters between the Spanish and Chinese Empires:
Manila in the 16th and 17th Centuries ………………………………DOI Ayumu(73)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(76)


<Summary>
Colonialism, Community, and Gender in 18th Century Mexico
YASUMURA Naoki

   How did the Indians of Mexico confront social changes during the 18th century? I address this question by focusing on a lawsuit: in 1764 a young Indian widow of Tlalnepantla, accused of adultery, was demanded by her father-in-law to return her residential lot to him at the Spanish local court of Tlayacapan. The widow appealed to the viceroy. The proceedings went back and forth between Tlayacapan and Mexico City. The records concerning this lawsuit require meticulous reading for three reasons: contradictory arguments were presented; both civil and criminal charges were treated in one lawsuit; the documents were not filed chronologically. Thus I first divide the records into 8 parts and make clear the way each part was formed. Second, I piece together relevant facts, discerning overlaps and differences among the discourses. Third, I interpret these facts and divergent discourses in light of two historical trends: an emerging colonial policy regarding the Church-State relationships and land property; increasing protests against the community officials in Indian villages. These trends destabilized social order, bringing gender relations to the fore of local politics to trigger the accusation. Finally, I consider how the historiographical present has conditioned my reading of the records as a dialogue between past and present.


Heterodoxy and Attribution:
   The Method of Recognition about Kirishitan (Actual Underground
   Christianity) and “Kirishitan (切支丹)”(Imaginary Christianity)
   in Early Modern Japan
OHASHI Yukihiro

   In considering issue regarding religion in history, we need to bear in mind that the frameworks we use are always variable, in the same way that frameworks regarding issues of State and gender are variable. In other words, we should relativize the existing frameworks of religions and sects and consider ways of developing laterally-integrated and multifaceted approaches in our analysis. As one way of achieving this goal, in this article, I point out the efficacy of using the following two approaches: firstly, as a laterally-integrating approach I propose using an analysis of heretical religious activities; secondly, I propose using the theory of attribution in order to achieve a multifaceted approach. It is important to relativize existing frameworks concerning religion and to be more conscious of the various attributions of each individual and each group. It is essential that, when we face up to history, we keep our minds open so that we can comprehend realities as a whole, taking in all the complexities and contradictions contained within them.


Listening to the Voices of Women:
   An Attempt to Read Historical Records Surrounding the Issue of
   Pregnancy and Childbirth in Early-modern Japan
SAWAYAMA Mikako

   This article examines how we should read historical records, which were predominantly created by the authorities and men, in order to recover the voices of women in early-modern Japan, who did not leave their own records. It mainly refers to a set of historical records dealing with pregnancy and childbirth, which were created in relation to the childbirth administration enacted by the Sendai Han (clan) and Ichinoseki Han, a branch of Sendai Han, the northern part of Japan. These records, which were produced within the context of conflict between the authorities of the clan, rural communities and peasant families and which have stayed in the place where the women actually lived, reveal various fissures and contradictions. This article demonstrates that, by focusing closely on these fissures and contradictions, we are able to listen to the voices of the women who lived in the early-modern period and also to comprehend their perceptions of body as well as their ambivalence about whether or not they should give birth to children. At the same time, it also highlights that the effort to listen to the voices of the women in historical sources provides us, who live in the present, with an opportunity to re-consider ourselves.


Question in Process, Extracted (ex post facto) Actuality:
   Behind the Scenes of Ideology and Agency:
   War Letters of Wehrmacht Soldiers in the Last Stages of
   the Second World War
ONODERA Takuya

   This article discusses the process by which an historian comes to be aware of his/her own epistemological structure from three perspectives, namely, the “question” posed by the historian towards historical sources, the “actuality” which lies behind the historian who is the subject of his/her own historical narrative, and “emotion” (especially “anxiety”) that underpins his/her historical narrative. The historian's “question” does not have to be firmly in place before setting out on research; the “question” is always “processual” in the sense that it gradually takes shape through the struggle with historical sources. It is often the case that the nature of “actuality” that exists in one's own research is recognized ex post facto after much trial and error. The historian is caught with a variety of “anxieties”, such as anxiety about methodology, anxiety about narrative, and anxiety concerning interpretation; however, it is precisely these anxieties that truly lead to academic progress.


Understanding the “Hygiene Experiences of Ordinary People”
   in Prewar and Wartime Japan: Possibility of Modern Hygiene History
   through Oral History
HOGETSU Rie

   This article aims to examine the significance and problems of analyzing ordinary people's experiences and practices of modern hygiene using oral history. Since about the 1980s, historical and sociological studies in Japan have sought to reinterpret the dissemination of concepts and systems of modern hygiene in terms of penetration of techniques and strategies of government rather than from the perspective of public welfare. However, little attention has been paid to the lived experiences of the recipients of hygiene knowledge and norms. This is largely owing to the strong influence of M. Foucault's theory of power as well as the lack of appropriate historical sources which enable one to analyze such lived experiences. This article addresses the efficacy of oral history as a method for clarifying the lived experiences of those who were instructed in how to maintain their health and prevent disease. In conclusion, it argues that historians, while readily acknowledging theoretical and methodological issues inherent in oral history, are still able to narrate history based on what was told by the respondents.


Interviewing, the Self, and Cognitive Structure
HITOMI Sachiko

   The purpose of this article is to demonstrate as specifically as possible changes in cognitive structure that I have experienced through my involvement as a historian in research on “childhood war experiences” from the perspective of psychology. In so doing, it considers the meaning of comprehending oral sources in history. The two cases taken up here are drawn from “interviews” that were conducted based on methods and theories of psychology. For me, these methods and theories of psychology served to relativize the foundation of historical studies and highlight more vividly the question of what history is. In addition, utilizing the methods and theories of psychology enabled me to realize that there are stories that can only be heard when one delves deeply into the subjective reality of the interviewee and exhaustively pursues the meaning of these experiences for the interviewee him/herself. With regard to the latter point, I also point out the necessity of sharing the methodology of interviews among historians that always take into consideration the positionality of the historian him/herself. It is, after all, an integral part of historical research.

No.911 October 2013

The Reports Presented at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Society
   Changing Regional Systems and Borderlands:
   Experiences of Ezo-chi and Central Eurasia

Plenary Session
Changing Regional Systems and Borderlands: Experiences of Ezo-chi and Central Eurasia
   ……………………………………………………TANIMOTO Akihiro, NODA Jin(2)

Ancient History Section
Formation and Development of Order in Ancient Japan
   ………………………………………………HASEBE Masashi, EMURA Hiroyuki(26)

Medieval History Section
Ruling Structures of Regional Powers in Medieval Japan
   ……………………………………………………OOYABU Umi, HIRAI Kazusa(46)

Early Modern History Section
Transformation in Religious Order and the Bakuhan Power
   ………………………………………………HŌZAWA Naohide, UMEDA Chihiro(67)

Modern History Section
Subjects and “Others”in Global Movement of People: Between Exclusion and Solidarity
   …………………………IIJIMA Mariko, MURATA Katsuyuki, MURATA Nanako(89)

Contemporary History Section
Possibility of Counter-Movement: Planning and Development in a Conservative Era
   …………………………………………NISHIDA Makoto, SHIMIZU Toshiyuki(125)

Joint Section
Maritime Worlds in History: Worlds Bridged/Divided by Oceans
   ………MUKAI Tomoo, TAKADA Ryota, SATSUMA Shinsuke, SUZUKI Hideaki(151)

Special Section
Questioning “Restoration” and Social Movement in Post-3.11 Japan
   ……………………………………………OKADA Tomohiro, HONDA Hiroshi(190)


No.910 October 2013

SPECIAL ISSUE:
   In Pursuit of Transnational History: Learning from
    The New East Asian Modern History Edited by
     the Japan-China-Korea Common History Tri-National Committee
Preface…………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
What Can We See from the Collaborative Work of Japan, China and Korea:
  From History Opening the Way to the Future
  to The New East Asian Modern History……………………OBINATA Sumio(2)
Analyzing Multilateral History Teaching Materials:
  A Comparison between Europe and East Asia……………KONDŌ Takahiro(11)
In Search of Teaching Practices that Could Contribute to Peace in East Asia:
  Reflections on The New East Asian Modern History……MORIGUCHI Hitoshi(19)
What Constitutes a “Transnational Historical Consciousness”:
  A Reading of The New East Asian Modern History……CHONG Yong-hwan(26)
Comments on the Articles
Some Remarks on the Joint Symposium
  “In Pursuit of Transnational History”……………………………KITŌ Akinari(35)
In Search of Shared Historical Understanding:
  East Asia and Europe………………………………………KENMOCHI Hisaki(39)


Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (10)
Invitation to the Crisis Cognition………………………………NAKAMURA Heiji(44)
Region, People, and Information: What I Learned and Thought
  at the Historical Science Society of Japan………………YAMADA Kuniaki(46)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KOSEKI Yuichirō, “Wise Rulers” in Early Modern Japan……FUKAYA Katsumi(49)
ZHENG Cheng, The Relationship between the CCP and the USSR during the Civil War
                        ……………UMEMURA Suguru(52)
TSUDA Hiroshi, Remembering the Empire at War:
  Colonial Nationalism and Commemoration of the World Wars
  in Australia and Canada………………………………………KOSEKI Takashi(55)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(59)


<Summary>

In Pursuit of Transnational History:
  Learning from The New East Asian Modern History Edited by
    the Japan-China-Korea Common History Tri-National Committee

   In March 2013, the Historical Science Society of Japan, the Association of Historical Science, the History Educationalist Conference of Japan, and the Article 9 Association of Waseda University held a joint symposium entitled “In Pursuit of Transnational History: Learning from The New East Asian Modern History (Atarashii Higashi-ajia no Kingendaishi vols. 1 & 2, Edited by the Japan-China-Korea Common History Tri-National Committee, Nippon Hyōron Sha Co., Ltd. Publishers, 2012). The year 2012 was marked by considerable disruption in relationships between Japan, Korea and China as a result of territorial disputes in East Asia. Under such political circumstances, we organized this symposium as a means to establish a shared historical understanding that transcends national borders in the East Asian region. It was attended by 160 enthusiastic participants. At the symposium, papers were presented by OBINATA Sumio, one of the editors of the book, KONDO Takahiro, a specialist in history education in Europe, and MORIGUCHI Hitoshi, a junior high and high school teacher who has used the predecessor to the New History, i.e. History Opening the Way to the Future (Mirai wo Hiraku Rekishi), previously released by the Tri-National Committee, as supplementary material in his world history classes. In addition, CHONG Yong-hwan, a specialist in the history of Korean residents of Japan, read a paper about conflicts surrounding historical understanding in East Asia. This special issue features the papers read by the above four presenters, and comments by KITO Akinari and KENMOCHI Hisaki, who also attended the symposium.


What Can We See from the Collaborative Work of Japan, China and Korea:
   From History Opening the Way to the Future
   to The New East Asian Modern History
OBINATA Sumio

   The New East Asian Modern History (Atarashii Higashi-ajia no Kingendaishi) edited by the Japan-China-Korea Common History Tri-National Committee was published in two volumes in 2012. This book represents the fruits of the second phase of the joint history project and was written based on a comprehensive, critical review of History Opening the Way to the Future (Mirai wo Hiraku Rekishi), a common history teaching material published in May 2005 for use in the three countries. The editing process of the new book started with the planning of its general design and structure at international conferences, and proceeded to an examination of concepts and sample manuscripts, and then repeated examinations of actual manuscripts. The final product was only published after another process of rigorous revision of manuscripts and coordination for publication at working level meetings. In this process, we had numerous discussions about revisions of the manuscript and changes in the composition, during which harsh words were at times exchanged. This publication project is a part of a prolonged, unfinished project that aims at building a shared understanding of history.


Analyzing Multilateral History Teaching Materials:
   A Comparison between Europe and East Asia
KONDO Takahiro

   Today, international conflicts over interpretations of history often call for dialogue between the historians of different countries concerned, and in such cases, it is common to refer to examples from Europe, particularly the case of France and Germany. This article compares the current dialogue in East Asia with similar activities in Europe in order to be able to ascertain the characteristics of the former. The objects used for this comparison are the history teaching materials published in 2005 and 2012 by a joint committee of Japanese, Chinese and Korean historians on the one hand, and on the other, the History of Europe published in 1992 and thereafter in various European languages by a group of 12 historians, and the three-volume common history textbooks for use in Germany and France produced between 2006 and 2011 in both the German and French languages. These publications were analyzed according to the reasons for their production, the style of narrative used, and their distinguishing features as teaching materials. From this analysis, it can be concluded that at the turn of the century there were commonalities shared in the process of dialogue between East Asia and Europe, but since then, only Europe has witnessed a qualitative leap forward in the process of dialogue.


In Search of Teaching Practices that Could Contribute to Peace in East Asia:
   Reflections on The New East Asian Modern History
MORIGUCHI Hitoshi

   Increasing globalization and resolution of the disputes plaguing East Asia makes it necessary to promote the cultivation of peace-oriented historical consciousness across the region. However, the current style of historical education within Japan with its emphasis on rote memorization prevents students from becoming aware of the truths and currents underlying history, and inhibits engagement with globalization. As deleterious changes to the Japanese Constitution are emerging on the political agenda, we need to seriously reflect on the shortcomings of the current system of historical education, and ways to amend these problems. In particular, we need to create a new system of historical education which places emphasis on substance, faces up to Japan's war responsibility, and is future oriented. Furthermore, in order to enhance the development of a peace-oriented historical consciousness within East Asia, we need to promote the creation of a “learning commons” for the youth of East Asia, which would be based on the concept of “common people”, pay attention to the multilayered nature of aggression and suffering in past wars, and heed the history of friendship and solidarity between the peoples of East Asia.


What Constitutes a “Transnational Historical Consciousness”:
   A Reading of The New East Asian Modern History
CHONG Yong-hwan

   This article examines how The New East Asian Modern History deals with the themes of the “Cold War” and how it treats the problem of the history of Korean residents in Japan, in order to elucidate the characteristics of this text. The New East Asian Modern History searches for features of East Asian history during the “Cold War” which cannot be explained by a reductionist reference to U.S.-Soviet hostilities. It finds its answer in the lack of regional stability brought about by the absence of a regional security system in the early years, and the early termination of the “Cold War” within the region with the ratification of diplomatic relations between China and the U.S. in the 1970's. This historical narrative is based on a schema of world history which consciously aims to move the nation-state from center stage and replace it with a narrative oriented towards inter-regional communality. However, by locating the narrative of the Korean residents of Japan within a framework critical of giving primacy to the nation-state, paradoxically, it results in locating their narrative within the framework of the national history of Japan.

No.909 September 2013

Articles
Historical Development of Temple Estates in Ancient Japan:
  The Case of Hakino Estate of Kanzeon-ji in Chikuzen Province……KITAMURA Yasuhiro(1)

SERIES: History since 3.11 (2)
Proposals
What Should We Learn from the History of Tōhoku: History after 3.11
                        ……………KAWANISHI Hidemichi(18)
Venue of “Commonality” in Structure: Commune and East Asia……HOSHINO Haruhiko(21)
Historical Materials and Exhibitions
Crisis of Local Community Breakdown and Exhibition of Local Sources:
  The Case of Iitate Village, Fukushima………………………HONMA Hiroshi(26)
How Do We Face up to Invisible Disaster: Fukushima - Tokyo/ Auschwitz - Berlin
                        ……………TERADA Masahiro(29)
Imparting Memories: Tsunami Disaster and Cultural Heritage……ODA Masahiro(33)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
TANAKA Masataka and the Senshū University Research Group
  for the Great Kantō Earthquake eds., Studying the Great Kantō Earthquake
  from a Local Perspective: the Massacre of Korean Residents in Chiba:
  How Its Examination and Commemoration Has Been Conducted
                        ……………MIYAMOTO Masaaki(36)
Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(41)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (9)
The Great East Japan Earthquake, Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
  and the Historical Science Society of Japan………………NAKANO Satoshi(47)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YOSHINO Shūji, A Study on the Formation of Society in Ancient Japan
                        ……………NAKAMURA Tomokazu(51)
SODA Saburō, The Beginnings of Constitutional Government in National China:
  Meiji Constitutional Government and Modern China………TANAKA Hiroshi(53)

The Society’s Report
  Report on the 2013 General Assembly………………………The Committee(57)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(62)

<Summary>

Historical Development of Temple Estates in Ancient Japan: The Case of Hakino Estate of Kanzeon-ji in Chikuzen Province
KITAMURA Yasuhiro

   This article examines the transformation of large scale land ownership in Japan prior to the mid-8th century with special reference to Hakino Estate of Kanzeon-ji in Chikuzen Province. Hakino was a complex management entity mainly based on dryfields that had been opened up to cultivation prior to the major reforms of the land-holding system implemented in the Taika Reform in the mid-7th century. Hakino Estate eventually came under the ownership of Kanzeon-ji in 703. From the mid-8th century on, portions of Hakino Estate were granted konden (newly reclaimed wetfield) status and the portion of land classified under this category increased over time. The cultivated land within Hakino Estate was not classified as den (“wetfield”), which was the fundamental unit of cultivated land under the landholding system of ancient Japan. This problem in land classification introduced an element of uncertainty in Kanzeon-ji's rights to cultivated land within the Hakino Estate. The increase of konden was an outcome of Kanzeon-ji's attempt to overcome this instability in management by transforming the old dryfields within Hakino Estate into konden, which were one sub-category of den. It can be inferred that such kind of transformation of land classification was fairly common in large-scale estates which predated the land reforms of the mid-7th century. We can infer that the development of the land system based on den after the Taika Reforms proceeded not only due to policies implemented by the government, but also because of the active participation and acceptance of the reforms by landholders trying to improve their position under the new system.


About the Series “History since 3.11”

   Taking seriously the importance of problems subsequent to the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster of March 11, 2011, the Historical Science Society of Japan published a special issue “The Role of Historical Science in the Face of Great Earthquakes and Nuclear Disaster” for the October 2011 edition of the Journal of Historical Studies. At the annual meeting in May 2012, a special section on 3.11 and history was convened. Furthermore, for that annual meeting, we also published The Role of Historical Science in the Face of Great Earthquakes and Nuclear Disaster (Aoki Shoten Co.). However, since neither the history of natural disasters nor nuclear power plants disasters have been well studied in Japan, it should be necessary to continue discussions hereafter surrounding the 3.11 and history. Therefore, the Committee of the Historical Science Society of Japan has started the series “History since 3.11” in the Journal of Historical Studies twice a year (March and September issues) beginning with this issue.
   This section will serve as a place for discussion, comprised of “proposals”, “historical materials and exhibitions”, “book reviews” and others.


No.908 August 2013

SPECIAL ISSUE: Is “East Asian History” Possible?:
  Methodology and Verification of Contemporary History (Ⅲ)
Articles
Historical Views on Post-liberation Korean Peninsula Affairs
  among Korean Residents of Japan during the Korean War and East Asian History
                       ……………KOBAYASHI Tomoko(1)
Frontier Islands in Modern Japan: From the Perspective 
  of the Ryūkyū and Okinawan Waters……………………MAEHIRA Fusaaki(12)
Current Topics
Japan-China Conflict in 2012 and a Liberal in China……………MŌRI Kazuko(20)
Public Access to the Records of Japan-Korea Talks
  and “Overcoming the Past”……………………………………ŌTA Osamu(27)

Articles
The Political Process behind the Showa Emperor's Visit to the US, 1971-1975
                       ……………FUNABASHI Seishin(35)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (8)
Various Projects of the Historical Science Society of Japan
  and Women History/Gender………………………………ONOZAWA Akane(52)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YABE Kentarō, The Ruling Order of Toyotomi Administration and the Imperial Court
                         ……………FUJII Jōji(55)
FUJINO Tsukiko, From Wang Zhaojun to Princess Wencheng:
  International Marriage in Ancient China…………………YAMASHITA Shōji(58)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(61)


<Summary>

Historical Views on Post-liberation Korean Peninsula Affairs
   among Korean Residents of Japan during the Korean War
   and East Asian History
KOBAYASHI Tomoko

   After 1945, Korean residents of Japan were engaged in various activities with the aim of restoring rights as Korean nationals taken away from them by Japan during the colonial period. They rewrote Korean history, which had been subsumed within the emperor-centered historiography of Imperial Japan (Kōkokushikan), and created opportunities for their national education.
   These various activities undertaken by the Korean residents were instrumental in the development of research in Korean history in postwar Japan. However, the awareness of contemporary history among the Korean residents prior to the Korean War has become a neglected theme after the establishment of the San Francisco Peace Treaty system and the solidification of the division of the Korean Peninsula after the Korean Armistice Agreement in 1953.
   How did the Korean residents of Japan perceive post-1945 Korean affairs and act accordingly? Examining this question should offer a valuable insight into the gap that now exists in the awareness of contemporary Korean history between North and South Korea. Simultaneously it would also help us to understand why the Korean residents are exposed to discrimination in Japanese society even today.
   The history of the Korean residents of Japan cannot be discussed entirely within the framework of the nation-state. Historically examining solidarity and collaboration transcending national borders, which Korean residents sought during the Korean War, and enhancing mutual understanding at the East Asian level, is an essential task in constructing an East Asian history capable of taking on global issues.


Frontier Islands in Modern Japan: From the Perspective of the Ryukyu
   and Okinawan Waters
MAEHIRA Fusaaki

   The geographical image of national land enclosed within borders is inextricably linked to national identity. The Meiji government had to create a geo-body for the new nation-state. This meant delineating the borders of “Japan” as way of ensuring territorial clarity which 19th century international law demanded of sovereign states. This article discusses border issues in modern Japan, focusing on the Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa) from the 1840's to the 80's.
   In the 19th century, the British navy took the lead, followed by the US, in conducting hydrographic surveys and drawing nautical charts in Asian waters. These western vessels' contacts with Japan provided important momentum for arousing awareness of the issue of national borders in Japan, which had been left in obscurity before.
   The Ryukyu Islands were the first region to pose a problem concerning the demarcation of national borders in modern Japan. The Meiji government established the Ryukyu Han (domain) in 1873. The survey of the Ryukyu Islands by the Japanese navy, which started in the following year, was a strategic move towards the internalization of the Ryukyu Islands. The government established Okinawa Prefecture in 1879 and incorporated it as a part of Japanese territory. YAMAGATA Aritomo, then Minister of the Interior, and others, who inspected Iriomote and other Okinawan islands in 1886, envisioned building up military defenses in those “frontier islands” in the south of Japan from the geopolitical viewpoint of “the Southern Gateway of the Empire.”


The Political Process behind the Showa Emperor's Visit to the US, 1971-1975
FUNABASHI Seishin

   The visit to the US by Emperor Showa in 1975 was set in motion at the meeting between the emperor and President NIXON at the time of the former's trip to Anchorage in 1971. In 1972, the US government officially invited the emperor to visit the US.
   In the midst of political controversy in 1973 surrounding the plan of the emperor's proposed visit to the US, however, the TANAKA Kakuei cabinet, faced with charges of political exploitation of the emperor, entrusted the decision of whether to continue the visit to the imperial household, which led to affirmation by the Imperial Household Agency and even by the Socialist Party that this did not represent a case of political exploitation of the emperor. Subsequently, the emperor decided to postpone his visit, but the plan itself was not altogether abandoned.
   A formal invitation to visit the US was again issued at the time of President FORD's visit to Japan in 1974. The succeeding MIKI Takeo cabinet, adhering to the decision of the preceding cabinet and maintaining the stance of political neutrality even after the formal acceptance of the invitation, managed to form a general consensus concerning the visit. Consequently the emperor's visit to the US came into being.
   As the rationality underlying the emperor's visit was called into question, a situation emerged where a decision reflecting the will of the imperial household, which was a transgression against the new constitution, could bring the emperor's visit to the US into being as long as the timing was considered appropriate. This affirmed the emperor's involvement in the decision-making process of his overseas trip and meant that the emperor as a symbol of the country now had a certain degree of power to make decisions.

No.907 July 2013

SPECIAL ISSUE: Is “East Asian History” Possible?:
  Methodology and Verification of Contemporary History (II)
Articles
Awareness of the International Status of the Ryūkyū Kingdom by Korean Intellectuals
  Centered in the Northern Learning School…………………FUMA Susumu(1)
“East Asia,” the United States and the Rivalries between Mega-Regions
                         ……………NAKANO Satoshi(15)

Current Topics
Twilight of Black Politics: Selective Memories of the US Civil Rights Movement
  in the Age of OBAMA…………………………………FUJINAGA Yasumasa(26)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (7)
On the Meaning of the Word “Science Movement”……………SEBATA Hajime(33)
Toward after the 80th Anniversary:
  What Has Changed since 3.11? ……………………TAKAYANAGI Tomohiko(35)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HATTORI Kazutaka, A Restorative Study on the Law of Handen-Shūju in Ancient Japan
                         ……………KITAMURA Yasuhiro(38)
SUDA Makiko, The Roles of the Ōuchis in Japan-Korea Politico-Cultural Relations
  during the Medieval Ages…………………………………………SEKI Shūichi(41)
MURAI Ryōsuke, A Study on Power Structure of the Sengoku Daimyō
  in the Warring Age of Japan…………………………………YATA Toshifumi(44)
IWAHASHI Kiyomi, Historical Consciousness and Information Space in Early Modern Japan
                         ……………KISHIMOTO Satoru(46)
SUZUKI Naomi, A Study on Family History in Ancient China……KOTERA Atsushi(50)
IWAMA Kazuhiro, White Collar Workers in Modern Shanghai:
  The Formation of a New but Fragile Middle Class……………ŌSAWA Hajime(52)
NAGATA Hiroaki, We Jewish Germans: Modern German History
  from a Minority Perspective 1893-1951…………………………TAKEI Ayaka(55)
KIDŌ Yoshiyuki, Chinese Immigrants in the United States:
  The Making of a “Nation of Immigrants”…………………MURATA Katsuyuki(59)

<Summary>

Awareness of the International Status of the Ryukyu Kingdom
   by Korean Intellectuals Centered in the Northern Learning School
FUMA Susumu

   Northern Learning School intellectuals possessed the highest level of knowledge of foreign countries in Korea prior to the Opium Wars. Diplomatic relations between the Korean Kingdom and the Ryukyu Kingdom were severed shortly after the annexation of Ryukyu by Japan in 1609. The Northern Learning School intellectuals had an accurate perception of the international status of the Ryukyu Kingdom, that it was a vassal state of Japan; however, unable to explain why there were no diplomatic relations between the two countries, they had no choice but to offer an explanation based on the legend of the murder of a Ryukyu prince, thereby concealing the fact that diplomatic relations between the two countries had been terminated because of the existence of Japan. The standard interpretation of the investiture system to date which argues that only Japan did not participate in the international order of East Asia is not accurate. The tributary and investiture relationship between Ryukyu and China was based on and maintained on the assumption that there were no diplomatic relations between Japan and China. The existence of the international order in East Asia was based on an implicit conspiracy among these four countries that persistently concealed the fact that the Ryukyu Kingdom were a vassal state of Japan.


“East Asia,” the United States and the Rivalries between Mega-Regions
NAKANO Satoshi

   Since the end of Cold War, a new mega-geographical concept of “Higashi Ajia (East Asia),” which inclusively refers to both the Northeast (traditional “Higashi Ajia”) and the Southeast Asia, has gained large currency in the Japanese academic as well as public discourses. The article first discusses how the concept has emerged with its emphasis on the contemporary and historical economic and cultural ties within the mega-region, while arguments on regionalism or regional political orders have conspicuously been absent. Then the article looks at a competitive relation since the early 1990s between “Higashi Asia” and another mega-geographical concept of “Ajia Taiheiyō (Asia-Pacific),” which has gained popularity not only among the Japanese public media but also in international politics, in which the U.S. and Japanese governments have tried very hard to confine the influence of East Asian regionalism throughout the process of the redefinition of the U.S.-Japan Security Alliance in the mid 1990s. This article concludes that the current concept of “East Asia” in Japanese academic as well as public discourses has possibly been “detoxed” in a way so as to not confront the continuing military and political presence of the United States as a hegemonic power in the East Asia-Pacific region, and argues that historians of “Higashi Ajia” should be more aware of the political environment behind the very notion of the mega-geographical concept which they rely on in their academic endeavors.

No.906 June 2013


SPECIAL ISSUE: Is “East Asian History” Possible?:
  Methodology and Verification of Contemporary History (Ⅰ)
Preface…………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
The U.S. Policies on the Problem of Independence and Unification
  of the Korean Peninsula and the “Cheju April 3 Incident”………MURAKAMI Naoko(2)
Support for Military Draftees in Chinese Basic Society during the Korean War:
  The Case of the Western Region of Sichuan Province………SASAGAWA Yūji(14)
Research Trends of Medieval “East Asian History”………………SEKI Shūichi(25)
Beyond “East Asia”: Research on Pre-modern East Asian Maritime History
  and the “Modern Era”……………………………………………MURAKAMI Ei(35)
From the Compilation of Common History Teaching Materials in East Asia
  to East Asian History: Viewed from the Experience of Transnational Collaboration
  between Historical Science and History Education…………SAITŌ Kazuharu(45)
Trends
Current Trends in “East Asian Early Modern Period”Studies
  ……………SHIMIZU Mitsuaki/ YOSHIMURA Masami/ KISAKI Takayoshi(56)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
TAKATSUKI Yasuo, The Making and Development of the Rice Market
  in Early Modern Japan………………………………………NISHIKAWA Kunio(70)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(74)

Announcement: Statement against the “Ceremony to Mark Japan's Restoration
  of Sovereignty and Return to International Society”
  Sponsored by the Japanese Government………………………………………(75)


<Summary>

The U.S. Policies on the Problem of Independence and Unification
   of the Korean Peninsula and the “Cheju April 3 Incident”
MURAKAMI Naoko

   In this article, I examine the effects of American policies regarding the problem of the independence and unification of the Korean Peninsula on the Korean peopleʼs demands for decolonization and the reaction of the people to these policies, taking the “Cheju April 3 Incident” as an example. Cheju Island in 1947 was still under colonial control at the basis of peopleʼs everyday life, for example the imposition of compulsory delivery of grain to the government, rationing, and then the malcontent of the people erupted aroused by the police shooting incident. The basic demands of the people were the settlement of the ongoing colonial issues and self-determination; however, these demands were not realized and rather the oppression directed at the people was further intensified. With the aim of building a containment strategy directed towards the Soviet Union in East Asia, the U.S. sought the establishment of a government in Korea established “by the Koreans themselves” and “by democratic means.” Elections, however, were actually held only in South Korea with only a limited number of Korean voters granted franchise and with freedom restricted to the extreme. In substance, the people were not guaranteed any choice other than voting for candidates. Resistance to this contradiction erupted most strongly on Cheju Island. The US military administration treated the subsequent failure of the election in the Cheju Island electoral district as an “exception” and subjected the islanders to severe oppression. The experience of the residents of Cheju Island demonstrates their deep distress, conflict and the tremendous sacrifice they paid through their resistance in the process of formation of the post war order in East Asia, when they were denied autonomous decolonization.


Support for Military Draftees in Chinese Basic Society during the Korean War:
   The Case of the Western Region of Sichuan Province
SASAGAWA Yuji

   In this article, I discuss the changes in the basic society of China caused by the Korean War, which solidified the Cold War regime in East Asia, focusing on the people who served in the military. The support services for those in military service in this period contributed considerably to their livelihood support and improvements in their social standing by providing them with the means of production and a sense of honor. These services were supported financially by land and assets extracted from landowners and wealthy farmers through the land reform. However, the manifestation of an awareness of rights as drafted soldiers was contained within a fixed framework and support was inextricably linked to surveillance. In particular, there was a strong awareness of the issue of maintaining agricultural production and, in the labor support of these operations, rather than heterogeneous mutual aid based on existing individual human relationships, rational systematization was pursued based on units of villages and settlements. This movement toward homogeneity in the basic society in China continued to expand thereafter and the factors that encouraged this were the Korean War and the subsequent continuation and reinforcement of the Cold War regime in East Asia.


Research Trends of Medieval “East Asian History”
SEKI Shuichi

   The purpose of this article is to compile research trends on medieval “East Asian history” and point out the various research issues. I first provide theoretical concepts of historical periods and regions discussed in the 1980s. I next introduce current research on pirates, maritime commerce and Buddhist priests in medieval Japan, who were the major players in interchanges, explaining the perspective of comprehending them as border-crossing persons, and introduce the current state of research concerning national boundaries. I next introduce the latest research dealing with Zen priests involved in diplomacy, envoys (false envoys) sent out by persons other than the supposed dispatchers and the views on foreign countries. I furthermore introduce collaborative research undertaken jointly with archeology and other fields. As an overall trend, it could be said that, in medieval East Asia, there was extensive development of private interchanges and that diplomacy and trade by national governments were supported by such private interchanges. I then stress the necessity for theories to construct a medieval “East Asian history.”


Beyond “East Asia”: Research on Pre-modern East Asian Maritime History
   and the “Modern Era”
MURAKAMI Ei

   Research in East Asian (East and Southeast Asian) maritime history has been notably active in Japan since the 1990s. The results of research projects on maritime history centered in the pre-modern history of East Asia (China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Ryukyu) have been published in succession. We have now progressed to the stage of summing up the various results of maritime history research, including project-based research.
   In this article, I overview the development of East Asian maritime history in Japan, provide a comprehensive survey of the recent research trends relating to the framework of East Asia, and then point out issues and prospects for the future. My primary target, within the time period in question, is the “early modern period” of the 16th-18th centuries while also considering the “modern era” since the 19th century. Moreover, within the category of maritime history, I focus primarily on the matters relating to the transference of people, goods and money by sea.


From the Compilation of Common History Teaching Materials in East Asia
   to East Asian History: Viewed from the Experience of Transnational
   Collaboration between Historical Science and History Education
SAITO Kazuharu

   Common history teaching materials and jointly edited books produced by collaboration between Japan and Korea and between Japan, China and Korea have been published consecutively in recent years. In this article, I examine the significance and role of compiling common history teaching materials and jointly edited books on East Asia as an entity and the image of East Asian history formed from this process.
   I analyze the compilation process over the past ten years, from the Japanese, Chinese and Korean common history teaching materials project begun in 2002 and published in 2005, to the jointly edited history books of the three countries published in 2012. I also touch on the research trends surrounding the formation of a common world history in recent years.
   East Asian history is engendered in the midst of constant questioning. Therefore, there is a need for continued discussion crossing over national boundaries regarding the possibilities and “pitfalls” of common history teaching materials for East Asia. In addition, I also stress the need for history dialog-based studies as a new research field for the pursuit of dialogs and collaboration between history science and history education through the compilation of common history teaching materials.


Current Trends in “East Asian Early Modern Period” Studies
SHIMIZU Mitsuaki, YOSHIMURA Masami and KISAKI Takayoshi

   In this article, we undertake a multi-angled examination of trends within historical research on the “East Asian early modern period,” where has made great progress in recent years, based on our experiences with the joint symposium “‘Early-Modernization Theory’ and Japan: An Approach to Comprehending ‘East Asia’,” presented by the sub-sections of the Historical Science Society of Japan in January of this year.
   First of all, SHIMIZU broadly examines the various characteristics and common points in the discussions of MIYAJIMA Hiroshi and FUKAYA Katsumi regarding the methods of “East Asian early modern period” studies. Next, YOSHIMURA presents possibilities and further issues contained in their results and new knowledge gained through recent research on the history of foreign relations in the early modern period with an emphasis on the relationships within East Asia. KISAKI moreover provides a multifaceted and interdisciplinary survey of research trends both in Japan and abroad regarding “European forces in East Asia,” which either tends to be disregarded, or comprehended dichotomously through formulas such as “East and West,” in current “East Asian early modern period” studies.

No.905 May 2013

Articles
International Public Opinion on the Repatriation of the German POWs in France
  (November 1918-March 1920)…………………………………TATE Hazuki(1)

Current Topics
Guaranteeing Compulsory Education for Everyone:
  A History of Night Junior High School in Post-war Japan……KUSA Kyōko(18)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (6)
Local Cultural Heritage Viewed from the Perspective of the History of the Amami Islands
                          ……………ISHIGAMI Eiichi(28)
The Possibility of Folk Beliefs and Minority Studies……………SEKI Tetsuyuki(31)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ENDŌ Tamaki, Bureaucratic Institutions within the Medieval Japanese Imperial Court
                          ……………ICHIZAWA Tetsu(34)
SHIMIZU Yūko, Luzon and Early Modern Japan………………FUKAYA Katsumi(37)
YAMAMOTO Hideki, A Study on Ōmetsuke (the chief inspectors)
  of the Tokugawa Shogunate…………………………………OGURA Takashi(41)
INOSE Kumie ed., British Cultural History……………………MIICHI Masatoshi(44)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Society in May 2013……(48)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(60)

Society's Announcements: The General Meeting of the Historical Science Society
  of Japan for the Year 2013……………………………………………………(63)


<Summary>
International Public Opinion on the Repatriation of the German POWs in France
   (November 1918-March 1920)
TATE Hazuki

   After the armistice of the First World War on 11 November 1918, the prisoners of war of the victorious countries were immediately released and repatriated. In contrast, those from the defeated countries, principally German POWs in France, were kept captive, waiting for their repatriation until the Peace Conference could settle the matter. This article examines the formation of sympathetic public opinion on an international scale vis-a-vis this extended capture of German POWs in France and its influence on the French repatriation policy. This article analyses not only opinions of those in France and Germany who were directly involved in the prisonersʼ repatriation, but also various views and suggestions from socialists, pro-League intellectuals and people from the neutral countries. These various international opinions had a significant influence on the Vatican, Switzerland and the International Committee of Red Cross, who all played a certain part in quickening the repatriation process. It was on this occasion that those key-actors gained presence and respect in the international political arena and established themselves as promoters and guardians of post-war international humanitarianism.

No.904 April 2013

Articles
Military Expansion and the Development of U.S. Veterans Benefits, 1943–1952:
  The Continuation and Transformation of the G.I. Bill of Rights through the Korean War
                              ……………KOTAKI Yō(1)

Trends
Ireland and the British Empire: Studies of Modern and Early Modern History
  after Northern Ireland's Peace Accord…………………TAKAGAMI Shin-ichi(17)

Current Topics
For Sharing the Understanding of History in East Asia:
  The 11th Forum of “Historical Understanding and Peace in East Asia”
  and Publication of A New Modern History of East Asia…………HONJŌ Toki(27)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (5)
Miscellaneous Thoughts on the Historical Science Society of Japan
  and the History of Latin America……………………………SUZUKI Shigeru(33)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KAWAKAMI Mayuko, Buddhist Missionaries to Bodhisattva Emperors:
  A Study of the Relationship between China and Surrounding Kingdoms, 400−900
                          ……………KŌCHI Haruhito(36)
WATANABE Shigeru, Information Transmission in Ancient and Medieval Japan
                          ……………MIKAMI Yoshitaka(39)
NISHITA Tomohiro, Law Enforcement, Jurisprudence and the Provincial
  System under the Kamakura Bakufu………………TONOOKA Shin-ichirō(42)
KINOSHITA Satoshi, Studies on Samurai Bureaucracy and Ranked Status
  during the Medieval Period…………………………………YAMADA Takashi(46)
YŌ Ki, Childbirth in Relation to the State and Society in Modern China
                          ……………FUKUSHI Yuki(50)
IGARASHI Daisuke, State, Fiscal Administration, and Religious Endowments
  in Medieval Islam……………NAKAMACHI Nobutaka(53)
TATEISHI Yōko, National Integration and Historical Studies:
  The Debate on “National History” in the Stalinist Era of the Soviet Union
                          ……………NAKASHIMA Takeshi(57)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(60)

Society’s Announcements: The 2013 General Meeting of the Historical
  Science Society of Japan……………………………………………………(62)


<Summary>

Military Expansion and the Development of U.S. Veterans Benefits, 1943-1952:
   The Continuation and Transformation of the G.I. Bill of Rights
   through the Korean War
KOTAKI Yo

   By focusing on the legislative process of the Servicemenʼs Readjustment Act of 1944, more commonly known as “the G.I. Bill of Rights,” and its succession law enacted in 1952, known as “the Korean War G.I. Bill,” this article examines how a comprehensive set of veterans benefit programs continued along with U.S. military expansion in the early Cold War era, separate from welfare and social security provisions for general citizens.
  As one of the major demobilization policies of World War II, the G.I. Bill provided a vast number of veterans with generous start-up assistance for their careers. Politicians and even scholars often favorably remember this monumental law today because of its contribution to the economic prosperity of postwar America and income rising of middle class people. However, around 1950, the G.I. Bill was the focus of harsh attacks on the administrative power and budget of the federal government, which had been expanded through the New Deal in the 1930s and during World War II. Yet, the G.I. Bill benefits for veterans never diminished after the Korean War. The growing number of ex-soldiers and the concern over “long-lasting partial mobilization” for the Cold War ended sharp criticism against the G.I. Bill.


No.903 March 2013

SERIES: History since 3.11 (1)
About the Series “History since 3.11”………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Proposals
The Range of Historical Studies on Natural Disasters………MINEGISHI Sumio(2)
“Nuclear Issues” in Contemporary China and Peace Movements in Japan
                        ……………MARUKAWA Tetsushi(6)
Historical Materials and Exhibitions
Reading the Historical Sources on the “Tenshō Earthquake” in Late 16th Century Japan:
  Whether a Tsunami Hit Wakasa Bay?………………TONOOKA Shin-ichirō(10)
Special Exhibition “Disasters and Cultural Properties” and Activities Subsequent
  to the Exhibition……………………………………………MAEDA Masaaki(13)
Current Topics
Nuclear Policy and Antinuclear Power Movements after 3.11……SASAKI Kei(16)
Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
OKUMURA Hiroshi, Great Earthquakes and Preservation of Historical Sources,
  and Two Other Books…………………………………KAWAUCHI Atsushi(21)
Recent Publications…………………………………………………………(25)

Articles
Profitable War: Pro-maritime Arguments and Party Politics in Britain, 1701–1713
                        ……………SATSUMA Shinsuke(29)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (4)
Memory of the Various Projects of the Historical Science Society of Japan
                        ……………KIBATA Yōichi(48)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
TANAKA Hiroki, A Study on the Structure of Warrior Bands (Bushidan) in Medieval Japan
                        ……………TAKAHASHI Osamu(51)
SEBATA Hajime, Using Official Documents………………NAKANOME Tōru(53)
WATANABE Setsuo ed., Integration and Adjustment in Medieval European Society
                        ……………MINAGAWA Taku(57)

Recent Publications…………………………………………………………(61)

<Summary>
About the Series “History since 3.11”

   Taking seriously the importance of problems subsequent to the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster of March 11, 2011, the Historical Science Society of Japan published a special issue “The Role of Historical Science in the Face of Great Earthquakes and Nuclear Disaster” for the October 2011 edition of the Journal of Historical Studies. At the annual meeting in May 2012, a special section on 3.11 and history was convened. Furthermore, for that annual meeting, we also published The Role of Historical Science in the Face of Great Earthquakes and Nuclear Disaster (Aoki Shoten Co.). However, since neither the history of natural disasters nor nuclear power plants disasters have been well studied in Japan, it should be necessary to continue discussions hereafter surrounding the 3.11 and history. Therefore, the Committee of the Historical Science Society of Japan has started the series “History since 3.11” in the Journal of Historical Studies twice a year (March and September issues) beginning with this issue.
   This section will serve as a place for discussion, comprised of “proposals”, “historical materials and exhibitions”, “current topics”, “book reviews” and others.


Profitable War: Pro-maritime Arguments and Party Politics in Britain, 1701-1713
SATSUMA Shinsuke

   In early modern England (after 1707, Britain), there was an argument that war at sea, especially war in Spanish America, was an ideal means of warfare for the country. This argument, the origin of which can be traced back to the memory of Elizabethan maritime war, was revived at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713). Political and naval historians refer to this pro-maritime war argument, which is also called the “blue water policy”, in the context of conflict between political parties and debates about British war strategy connected with party politics. However, recent studies reveal that this argument attracted a wide range of supporters irrespective of their political allegiances.
   To understand the reason for this broad support, this article focuses on the alleged economic advantages of maritime war, one of the core elements of the argument, and examines the content of the economic advantages as well as the context that made them more persuasive, such as the struggle with France over the Spanish American market. Moreover, this article analyses differences within the argument that historians have neglected, and points out that there were chiefly two arguments with different content and functions. This article also investigates how the supporters of the argument changed as the War of the Spanish Succession progressed.


No.902 February 2013

SPECIAL ISSUE: Crisis in Ōsaka and Historical Science (II)
Articles
Pursuing an Analytical Perspective on Recent Local Government Politics,
   Based on Research to Date on Modern and Contemporary Japanese History
                          ……………MINAGAWA Masaki(1)
Neoliberalism and the Political Control of Education……………ŌUCHI Hirokazu(7)
The Problem of the Abolishment of Subsidies for Korean Schools and Colonialism
                          ……………FUJINAGA Takeshi(16)
Current Topics
Recent Moves over History Textbooks and Historical Consciousness
                          ……………TAWARA Yoshifumi(25)

Current Topics
In the Name of the Father, the Son and the Dead: Cemeteries and the Nation-States
                          ……………Midori IIJIMA(33)
The Greek Election and Issues for Japan……………………KIMURA Hidesuke(43)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (3)
The “Scientificity” in Historical Science………………………KOTANI Hiroyuki(48)
My Experiences of the Historical Science Society of Japan ……KATŌ Hiroshi(49)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HIROSE Norio, The East Asian International Order and Ancient Japan……WAMI Kiyohiro(52)
OGURA Takashi, A Study on the Tokugawa Shogunate’s Control System over the Kamigata Area
                          ……………IWAKI Takuji(55)
TAKADA Kaori, Open Sky Diplomacy…………………………NISHIZAKI Fumiko(58)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(62)

<Summary>
Pursuing an Analytical Perspective on Recent Local Government Politics,
   Based on Research to Date on Modern and Contemporary Japanese History
MINAGAWA Masaki

   In this article, I review research on contemporary Japanese history in order to raise issues about how to understand the political phenomenon of populism that is currently emerging in local government politics. I point out that this phenomenon requires us to rethink our research to date on democracy.


Neoliberalism and the Political Control of Education
OUCHI Hirokazu

   This article clarifies that the education policies of HASHIMOTO Toruʼs Osaka Ishin no Kai (Osaka Restoration Association) promote both neoliberalism and the political control of education. I also discuss directions for critically surmounting the education policies of Hashimoto and the Osaka Ishin no Kai.


The Problem of the Abolishment of Subsidies for Korean Schools and Colonialism
FUJINAGA Takeshi

   Repeated assertions that view Korean schools as dangerous have served to legitimize discriminatory policies and reproduced the concept of assimilation education from the prewar through the postwar era. The present policies to exclude Korean schools from the elimination of high school tuition fees and to abolish subsidies toward them have also taken over policies based on the colonialist ideology of discrimination and assimilation.

Recent Moves over History Textbooks and Historical Consciousness
TAWARA Yoshifumi

   Subsequent to the announcement of the textbooks to be used in junior high schools in 2011, the right wing has become vociferous, following the 4% or so rate of adoption of textbooks published by Ikuhosha and the outburst of nationalism springing from Japanʼs territorial disputes with Korea and China. I provide a detailed report of recent developments, such as the intervention in the adoption of high school textbooks by the Tokyo Metropolitan and Yokohama Boards of Education, the distortion of history by Osaka Mayor HASHIMOTO Toru, Nagoya Mayor KAWAMURA Takashi, and other issues.

No.901 January 2013

SPECIAL ISSUE: Crisis in Ōsaka and Historical Science (I)
Preface………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
How to View Tōru HASHIMOTO and His Ōsaka Ishin no Kai………HIROKAWA Tadahide(2)
Ōsaka City's “Municipal Administration Reform Plan”
  and How Historical Science Societies Should Cope with it………SHIMADA Katsuhiko(8)
Subsistence and Collectivity of Elderly Residents in Ōsaka's Kamagasaki Area
  after the High Economic Growth Period: A Short History of “Musubi,”
  a Group for Picture-card Shows……………………NOGAWA Yasuharu(16)
From a History Classroom on “Comfort Women”……………HIRAI Mitsuko(26)

Articles
“Political Activities of Study Societies (Xuehui)
  in the Period of Late Qing 1898s Reform Movement”………YAOTANI Akiyoshi(34)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (2)
The Mission Statement of the Historical Science Society of Japan
  and the “Standpoint of World History”…………………………ŌTA Yukio(55)
The Historical Science Society of Japan and Myself:
  A Close but Distant Relationship…………………………KITANI Tsutomu(58)

<Summary>
SPECIAL ISSUE: Crisis in Osaka and Historical Science

   Since 2000, the governments of large cities have reorganized public universities, adopted history textbooks published by affiliates of the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform (Tsukuru-kai), and edited supplementary reading materials for history education in order to promote the agenda of revisionists views of Japanese history. It was against this background of this larger trend that Toru HASHIMOTO was elected as the Governor of Osaka Prefecture in 2008, and his political party Osaka Ishin no Kai (the Osaka Restoration Party) won the Osaka mayoral and gubernatorial “double” elections in 2011. Since then, the Osaka prefectural and municipal governments have rapidly reviewed history exhibits and history teaching on human rights, in addition to altering education and restricting political activities. These changes regarding historical science, history teaching and history exhibitions in Osaka have created a crisis of historical science as a whole. Confronted with this situation, the Historical Science Society of Japan has decided to publish a brief special feature focusing on Osaka. 
   This special issue consists of the following elements regarding problems of historical science in Osaka Prefecture and Osaka City: (1) Grasping the current situation; (2) Examining the recent problems of Osaka and the other large cities in relation to historical research, especially locating these problems in the context of modern Japanese and East Asian history and within the methodology of oral history; (3) Considering how they affect the teaching of history in classrooms; and (4) Elucidating the problem out from the perspective of pedagogy.


How to View Toru HASHIMOTO and His Osaka Ishin no Kai
HIROKAWA Tadahide

  This article presents academic and theoretical criticism of HASHIMOTO and the Ishin no Kai, and discusses problems related to the mass media coverage of this phenomenon. It also outlines the historical perception held by Hashimoto, who does not regret Japanʼs war of aggression in the past, and raises questions concerning reconciliation and coexistence between Japan and other Asian countries. 


Osaka Cityʼs Municipal Administration Reform Plan and
   How Historical Science Societies Should Cope with It
SHIMADA Katsuhiko

  The Osaka prefectural and municipal governments have reduced subsidies to the Osaka Human Rights Museum and the Osaka International Peace Center. Also, they are planning to set up a facility for school students to learn about modern history. Historical science societies should make clear the differences between the concepts and functions of each of the facilities, and also criticize the new facility that should engage in glorifying Japanʼs past wars. 


Subsistence and Collectivity of Elderly Residents in Osakaʼs Kamagasaki Area
   after the High Economic Growth Period: A Short History of Musubi,
   a Group for Picture-card Shows
NOGAWA Yasuharu

   Since the 1990s, some elderly people in Osakaʼs Kamagasaki area, who were lonely and distrustful of others, have tried to self-transform through the ties with their supporters. This article notes this development and explores its historical meaning.


From a History Classroom on Comfort Women
HIRAI Mitsuko

   This article reports how the matters of “comfort women” are taught at school as one of Japanʼs harmful acts against other Asian nations during the Pacific War, and also presents the attacks on teaching Japanʼs harmful acts at school and presents ideas on how to counter the attacks.


Political Activities of Study Societies (Xuehui) in the Period of Late Qing 1898s Reform Movement
YAOTANI Akiyoshi  

   This article analyzes the activities of Study Societies in the period of the Hundred Days Reform Movement of 1898. Originally, orthodox values in China held that forming a clique was only for the insignificant persons but not for true gentlemen. Therefore, it was quite revolutionary that Study Societies should make political claims through new media. The first chapter of this article indicates that the political nature of Study Societies was initially concealed carefully at the time of formation of the Society for the Study of Self-strengthening (Qiangxuehui) in 1895, and traces the process whereby the Study Societiesʼ nature as political organizations was gradually revealed in the enlightenment movement conducted subsequent to the publication of “the Chinese Progress (Shiwubao)”. The second chapter examines the methods that Reformers used for gaining supporters, and points out that besides the newspapers already mentioned in previous research, Reformers conducted their publicity campaign utilizing items such as booklets and member lists, and their activities were beginning to take on the nature of a trans-regional leveling coalition. The third chapter explains that the formation of the Protect the Country Society (Baoguohui) led the political nature of Study Societies being positively promoted, and argues that the method of new activities adopted by Reformers included the direction that would finally lead to the demise of the traditional dynastic system.