The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Aoki-Shoten (Aoki Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.900 December 2012

On the Occasion of Publishing Journal of Historical Studies (Rekishigaku Kenkyu) No. 900
   ………The Chair of the Historical Science Society of Japan IKE Susumu(1)

Relay Talks: On the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (1)
Expecting a Breath of Fresh Air from the Historical Science Society of Japan
                             ……………SASAKI Ryūji(3)
The Development of Historical Studies on Women and Journal of Historical Studies
                             ……………WAKITA Haruko(6)

Current Topics
The Historical Archive of the City of Koln in Germany as a Citizen Archive:
  On Availability for Academic Research, Genealogical Research,
Education and the General Public……Max Plassmann et al.
         trans. & explained by HIRAMATSU Hideto and INOUE Shūhei(10)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YOSHIE Akiko, Kingship in Ancient Japan: Mythology, Historical Perception and Gender
                             ……………HASEBE Masashi(18)
TANAKA Toshitatsu, Study in the Relations between the Court and Bakufu
  in the Early Stage of the Early Modern Period ………NAGASAKA Yoshihiro(21)
HASEGAWA Mayuho, Extending Hands: The Birth of Modern Obstetricians
  and its Historical Background……………………………………YUGE Naoko(24)
AOTANI Hideki, Historiography, Memory, and Identity in the Medieval Low Countries
                            ……………KAWAHARA Atsushi(28)
YASUTAKE Hidetaka, The Empire of Freedom and Slavery:
  From Nation-building to the American Civil War……………OBARA Toyoshi(31)

Critical Reviews on the Reports Presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session ……………………………ŌGUSHI Junji, KUROKI Hidemitsu(35)
Ancient History Section ……………………………MORI Akihiko, IIO Hideyuki(37)
Medieval History Section ……………HOTATE Michihisa, TAKAHASHI Noriyuki(40)
Early Modern History Section ………………………………YOSHIDA Nobuyuki(43)
Modern History Section ………………………ISHII Hitonari, FUCHIDA Masashi(45)
Contemporary History Section……………YANAGISAWA Asobu, YANO Hisashi(47)
Joint Section…………SAKATA Michio, TAKATSU Hideyuki, HAYASHI Kayoko(50)
Special Section …………………………………………………WARITA Satoshi(54)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(57)

Index. Nos.876-900 (January-December 2012) ………………………………(58)

No.899 November 2012

  History Education and Historical Awareness in the Age of Neoliberalism

Preface…………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Educational Issues Relating to the Difficulty of Comprehending the Present
  and the Formation of Historical Awareness:
  Breaking Down the Mechanisms Making Society Transparent
  and Depriving of People’s Subjectivity………………………SANUKI Hiroshi(2)
Thinking about Historical Awareness: Starting by Addressing the Question of
  “What is the Present?”………………………………………KONNO Hideharu(9)
Teacher Education and History Education in the Age of Neoliberalism
                         ……………TANAKA Toshitatsu(17)
World History as Social Studies and World History as Curriculum:
  Overcoming the “World History” of Imperial Japan?…………ARAI Shin-ichi(23)
The Internal Contradictions and Limitations of Senior High School World History
                         ……………TORIYAMA Takeo(30)
History Education and History Textbooks of the Neoliberal Age in Japan and Korea
                         ……………KIMIJIMA Kazuhiko(36)
History Education and Textbook Problems from the Perspective of Gender
                         ……………YOKOYAMA Yuriko(44)
The Possibilities and Challenges of Bi-national Textbooks:
  the Case of France and Germany………………………NISHIYAMA Akiyoshi(52)
Current Topics
The Recent Trend of History Textbook Problems:
  Viewed from Local Societies and Foreign Countries
    Kanagawa Yokohama…………………………………………KATŌ Chikako(60)
    Tokyo Suginami………………………………………………FUKUTŌ Sanae(63)
    Okinawa Yaeyama……………………………………YAMAGUCHI Takeshi(65)
    Korea………………………SIN Chu-baek(trans. by CHONG Yong-hwan)(67)
    China…………………………………BU Ping(trans. by SAITŌ Kazuharu)(69)
Views and Reviews
New Challenges of Historical Studies:
  “Global History” and “New World History”………………MINAMIZUKA Shingo(72)
Book Reviews 
Gotelind Muller ed., Designing History in East Asia Textbooks:
  Identity Politics and Transnational Aspirations (in English)……SHIBA Nobuhiro(77)

Educational Issues Relating to the Difficulty of Comprehending the Present
   and the Formation of Historical Awareness: Breaking Down
   the Mechanisms Making Society Transparent and Depriving of
   Peopleʼs Subjectivity
SANUKI Hiroshi

   With the aim of pursuing its own profit, global capital, which has economic power and networks that transcend nation-states, is currently retaking state power and, at a stroke, is reducing the level of safeguards of human rights, labor rights and the right to exist, leading to the increase in the number of people exposed to poverty and disparities. Neoliberalism has a mechanism that makes those in disadvantaged circumstances accept their status as “their own responsibility” and thoroughly disempowers the disadvantaged. Within this context, it is essential to overcome isolation and restore inter-connections. The perspective of questioning society expands once you break free of the spell of self- responsibility. If we do not create a process such as this, social consciousness and historical awareness will not be invoked in the individual. As we are compelled to acquire even human rights as a product under the logic of self-responsibility, we are facing a crisis in which we lose sight of social justice that values enabling people to live as humans are distributed “equally” among them through the development of political collaboration. Neoliberalism is truly moving ahead with the destruction of society enwrapped in this kind of logic of self-responsibility. How has society been formed? Returning to this fundamental question, it would be essential to recreate historical awareness to review the history of society and humanity as well as historical image as part and parcel of the basic cultural literacy of modern people.

Thinking about Historical Awareness: Starting by Addressing
   the Questionof “What is the Present?”
KONNO Hideharu

   In order to understand the current historical awareness based on neoliberalism, it is first of all necessary to extract the characteristics of the awareness of the present held by the younger generation, and then examine the discussions of the 1950s when the original form of the stipulations of historical awareness were first created. The awareness of the present held by the younger generation is characterized by mistrust in society and lethargy, and by a sense of well-being deriving from their links to close companions. In historical research during the 1950s, historical awareness was understood to consist of a awareness of social change as well as self-awareness of social class. In addition, in historical education, surveys on the historical awareness of children were actively pursued as a necessary assumption for conducting historical education. Subsequently, however, these currents completely dissipated without any establishing any mutual interconnections and none of them became an effective understanding for the awareness of the present held by the younger generation. In this respect, historical awareness derives from “positioning oneself within the continuity of time from the past to the future” (KANO Masanaoʼs definition) and, precisely because historical awareness is something which is created, questions such as “what is the present” and “who am I who exists in the present” are essential and it would be meaningful to link both of them (i.e. the content of historical awareness and the triggering event for the creation of historical awareness) together.

Teacher Education and History Education in the Age of Neoliberalism
TANAKA Toshitatsu

   In this article, I discuss future issues in history education in relation to teacher education. In Section 1, Current teacher education and related issues, I point out that neoliberal policies have brought changes to education administration and to classrooms, that there are demands for the enhanced efficiency of training organizations in teacher education, that competition is being stimulated among training organizations through the reinforcement of assessment functions and that the formation of teacher competence is an issue. I further argue that there is an urgent need to enhance systems at universities for training those who will be in charge of history education and to promote research on history education.
   In Section 2, Future issues in history education, I argue that as research in history education has leaned increasingly towards instruction methods, resulting in increasing standardization of history education through the use of teaching manuals, the manner in which teachers promote the formation of their studentsʼ image of history has become a point of contention. I contend that how history teachers use lessons learnt from local history to discover real issues, and furthermore how universities develop programs to train such teachers will become increasingly important.

World History as Social Studies and World History as Curriculum:
   Overcoming the “World History” of Imperial Japan?
ARAI Shin-ichi

   In 1989, the senior high school social studies course was dismantled and divided into two parts, namely, “World History and Geography” and “Civics.” In addition, within World History and Geography, world history was designated as a required subject for all senior high school students. Today, making world history a mandatory subject is understood to be a part of a neoliberal response to globalization. In this article, I intend to consider historically the manner in which world history as historical studies or as an educational subject became established and developed in connection with the course of the nation and the perspective of the world held by the Japanese people through an examination of world history in Japan since the prewar period.
   In particular, I point out specifically that the trichotomy consisting of the history of Japan, of Asia and of Europe, which even today continues to be embedded within the organization of history courses in universities and other educational institutions, originated in the perspective of the world as seen by Imperial Japan, a perspective marked by Eurocentrism and Asian stagnation theory, and emphasize that overcoming this perspective is an important issue in overcoming the resultant colonialist imperial consciousness.

The Internal Contradictions and Limitations of
   Senior High School World History

   Since the 1990s, the content of world history has changed along with the rapidly advancing globalization of the market economy. The official curriculum guidelines that stipulate the content of world history textbooks have also recently come to comprehend the history of the world as a flow from exchanges between regions to unification. However, unification does not mean homogenization, and expanding disparities and poverty has become a problem in all regions of the world.
   In world history studies, it is important to see movements in each region as part of the worldwide trend. Senior high school students, however, lack the motivation to direct their attention to the world as it relates to their own lives and world history as a subject has become disliked as something simply requiring rote memorization. The reason is the lack of a concrete image of world history because, in content, it is centered in the history of foreign countries and political history and only provides a general outline of the overall picture. The students therefore neither understand it nor find it interesting and cannot feel that it is something meaningful to study. In order to improve this situation, it is necessary to fundamentally reexamine the approach to world history.

History Education and History Textbooks of the Neoliberal Age
   in Japan and Korea

   In this article, I examine history education and textbooks in the neoliberal age in Japan and Korea, mainly focusing on the education curriculum in Korea and the official curriculum guidelines of Japan. History education and history textbooks are groaning within the context of neoliberal education policies advanced at the initiative of the government of both countries. In Korea, neoliberalism based on globalization under the pretext of globalization and informatization is rampant in the education curriculum. In Japan, the concepts of neoliberalism have emerged in the official curriculum guidelines, imposing history education and textbooks to abide by these principles. In regard to the differences between the two countries, in the case of Japan, neo-nationalism has been adopted as part of neoliberalism in history education classrooms, prompting neo-nationalists to be vigorously active. In particular, the groups affiliated with the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform (Tsukuru-Kai) are receiving strong backing from the financial and political worlds, media, some intellectuals, and they have been active for a long period of time. I stress that, within the context of such circumstances, there is a need for the further efforts on the part of historians to maintain academic standards in the teaching of history.

History Education and Textbook Problems from the Perspective of Gender

   The junior high school textbook published by Ikuhōsha and in wide use since 2012 is a textbook reflecting the perspective of history revisionism that places importance on gender-defined roles and allegiance to the state while taking a positive view of sexual discrimination and Japanese military aggression and colonialism in the modern era. Furthermore, the Ikuhōshaʼs authors have currently initiated a political movement to delete descriptions relating to “comfort women” of the Japanese military from junior high school textbooks with the aim of expanding this movement to senior high school textbooks. History education should criticize such movements and pursue gender equality. In addition, the role of the history textbooks that support history education is also important. In this article, I clarify the characteristics and changes in the descriptions relating to womenʼs and gender history in Japanese senior high school textbooks from 1979 to 2011, and conclude that there is a need to further intensify historical studies from the perspective of gender in order to develop history education that aims to overcome history revisionism, resolve the issue of Japanese military “comfort women” and achieve gender equality.

The Possibilities and Challenges of Bi-national Textbooks:
   The Case of France and Germany

   The Franco-German history textbook project was brought to a completion in 2011 with the publication of the last volume dealing with the period from Greco-Roman Antiquity to the Congress of Vienna. Launched in response to a resolution of the Franco-German “Young Parliament” in 2003 and supported by the political leadership of both states, this project to compile the first bi-national history textbook in the world, officially for the French Lycée and German Gymnasium, has attracted worldwide attention as a concrete experiment to trans-nationalize history education.
   On the other hand, this project also demonstrates many challenges: the textbook is actually accepted only as a symbol and is rarely used in practice except in bilingual classes. This indicates that the paradigm of nation-state boundaries is still steadfastly rooted in history education. Furthermore, although the title of the textbook is “Europe and the World”, its concept of “European history” is clearly West-Eurocentric, and the “World” exclusively means other areas which Europe encountered.
   The multi-perspectivity, which is one of the most significant additional values of this textbook, should be applied to political, social and cultural contexts of the other countries and settings, not just in France and Germany as nation-states. In this sense, this textbook is truly a symbolic product of the fruit of French-German reconciliation, but it is still just a first step on the road to trans-nationalize history education.

No.898 October 2012

The Reports Presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Society
  The Counter-initiative against Neoliberalism
    and Building a Counter-Movement: Opening the Door of Change

Plenary Session
The Counter-initiative against Neoliberalism and Building a Counter-Movement:
  Opening the Door of Change…………WATANABE Osamu, NAGASAWA Eiji(2)

Ancient History Section
The Formation and Development of Order in Ancient Japan
   …………………………………………KOTERA Atsushi, EGUSA Noritomo(25)

Medieval History Section
Emergency Response and Risk Management in Medieval Japan
   ………………………………………………KATAOKA Kōhei, GOZA Yūichi(46)

Early Modern History Section
Transformation of Money and Finance Structure in the Bakuhan System
   ……………………………………TAKATUKI Yasuo, KOBAYASHI Noburu(67)

Modern History Section
The Historical Perspectives after 3.11: Science and Technology, the State and Society
   …………………………………………………HATANO Isamu, OKI Sayaka(89)

Contemporary History Section
Building Subjectivity in the “Era of Development”:
  Logic of Interpellation and Strategies of Counter-Movements
   …………………………………HARAYAMA Kōsuke, KAWAMURA Masami(114)

Joint Section
Reorganization of Urban Communities in a Time of Rapid Change
   …………………KUWAYAMA Tadafumi, TAKAZAWA Norie, SAWAI Kazuaki(137)

Special Section
Re-thinking Historical Studies after 3.11: Experiencing Disaster, and the Study of History

No.897 October 2012

The Tokugawa Shogunate’s Policy toward the Imperial Court
  in the Midst of Seventeenth Century:
  Benefit and Salary Systems for the Court Nobles……………MURA Kazuaki(1)
The Development of Hydro-electric Power and Modernization of Industries
  in the Nagoya Area in Prewar Japan: Focusing on the Building up of
  Electricity Demand by FUKUZAWA Momosuke……………ASANO Shin-ichi(18)

Issues and Questions of Historical Studies on Japanese Policies
  toward Farmers during and after the Asia-Pacific War…………ITŌ Atsushi(33)

Relay Talks: On the Eve of the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (7)
The Historical Science Society of Japan and Myself…………KATŌ Kōzaburō(42)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SUZUKI Atsuko, Distribution and Local Societies
  in the Warring States Period in Japan……………………KAWATO Takashi(44)
KITAMURA Tsuyoshi, A Postwar Ethnography of the War Dead
  in Okinawa…………………………………………………ICHINOSE Toshiya(47)
HARAYAMA Kōsuke, History of Consumers in Postwar Japan……OIKAWA Eijirō(50)
FUJITA Katsuhisa, Study on the Warring States Biographies
  in “Shiji”…………………………………………………………HIRASE Takao(53)
ADACHI Yoshihiro, The Social and Agricultural History of East Germany, 1945 - 1961:
  For Historicizing the Experience of Socialism………………KUMANO Naoki(56)
NAGASAWA Eiji, The Egyptian Revolution…………………………KATŌ Hiroshi(59)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(62)

The Tokugawa Shogunateʼs Policy toward the Imperial Court
   in the Midst of Seventeenth Century:
   Benefit and Salary Systems to the Court Nobles
MURA Kazuaki

   This article explores the Tokugawa shogunateʼs policy toward the Imperial Court in the reign of TOKUGAWA Ietsuna, the 4th shogun. While much previous research has discussed this topic with a focus on the Imperial Court, this article focuses on the shogunate, by examining the process of establishment of the benefit and salary systems (karoku, karyō and yakuryō) granted by the shogunate to members of the Imperial Court, and concludes that the shogunateʼs policy toward the Imperial Court should be regarded as part of its overall policy towards the entire feudal lord class.
   This paper concludes, firstly, that the benefit system for the Imperial Court was established in the reign of Ietsuna and its unit was principally a family, not an individual. The salary system corresponding to the benefit system was also established in this period. These systems basically did not change until the end of TOKUGAWA period. Secondly, we conclude that the salary system for buke tensō, one of the most important posts of the Imperial Court, was established in the same reign for the purpose of appointing talented people by complementing the shortfall of the benefit system. In this regard, the feature of the shogunateʼs salary system for the Imperial Court was the same as the system for samurai. In conclusion, the reign of Ietsuna should be regarded as a milestone in that the shogunate accomplished institutionalizing the Imperial Court as an organization of the state.

The Development of Hydro-electric Power and Modernization
   of Industries in the Nagoya Area in Prewar Japan: Focusing on
   the Building up of Electricity Demand by FUKUZAWA Momosuke
ASANO Shin-ichi

   In the period from the aftermath of the Russo-Japanese War to the end of the First World War, the industries, especially the heavy chemical industries, developed greatly in Japan. This development was based on the use of electricity as motive power. The necessary electricity was supplied by development of hydro-electric power plants. It has been generally understood that the increase in utilization of electric power was caused by reducing electricity costs, rising costs of coal, and improving the infrastructure of the electric power supply system. However, less importance has been attached to the efforts made by the electric power companies to build up electricity demand, and this is the topic I will be dealing with in this article. The features of the Nagoya area, which this article mainly covers, were as follows: although there were the abundant hydro-electric sites in the hinterland of the Nagoya area, the demand of electricity was relatively low compared to the scale of electric power supply, because the conventional industries, most typically the textile industries, dominated this area, delaying the development of the heavy chemical industries. In order to develop the hydro-electric power in this area, it was important to secure a new demand for electricity, and therefore the electric power supply company worked hard to build up electricity demand. In this article, I first use data to demonstrate the course of the building up of electricity demand in the Nagoya area, and then explore the management policy of demand building by FUKUZAWA Momosuke, who was the top managing executive of Nagoya Electric Lighting Company. FUKUZAWA set up many companies, such as electric railway companies, electro-iron-making companies, and electric chemical industries. Many of these companies were located in the southern area of the Nagoya Port, and contributed the development of the coastal industrial zone; afterwards, these industries formed the foundation for the heavy chemical industries. The development of hydro-electric power was the starting point, as well as the foundation, of the industrialization, in particular the heavy chemical industries, of the Nagoya area.

No.896 September 2012

War Crimes Trials in Postwar Austria:
  High Treason and the Politics of the People's Courts………MIZUNO Hiroko(1)

Notes and Suggestions
Inter-Ministry Liaison and Coordination Initiated by the Central Liaison Office
  during the Occupation of Japan: The Case of English Translation Tasks
  of Legal Documents………………………………………SEKIGUCHI Tetsuya(22)

Relay Talks: On the Eve of the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (6)
“Modernization” Theory and “Our Historical Science”………KINBARA Samon(33)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SASAKI Muneo, Historical Study on the State System of Ancient Japan
                           ……………SEKINE Atsushi(36)
KAMAKURA Saho, Studies on the Formation of Japanese Medieval Land Proprietorship
                           ……………MORITA Hayato(39)
MIEDA Akiko, The Hieizan Enryakuji Temple and the Muromachi Bakufu
                           ……………KAWAUCHI Masayoshi(42)
KONG Xianggi and MURATA Yujirō, Late Qing China and Japan……TAKASHIMA Kō(45)
NAKAMARU Hideki, Representation for Reputation:
  Parliament and Political Society in Elizabethan England……………INAI Tarō(49)

Exhibition Reviews
Disasters and Cultural Properties: Preserving Cultural Properties
  which Tell Us about Our Past…………………………SHIMOMURA Shutarō(53)

The Society’s Report
 Report on the 2012 General Assembly…………………………The Committee(57)

Announcement: Joint Statement against the Reduction and Abolishment
of Subsidies to Ōsaka Human Rights Museum and Ōsaka International
Peace Center (Joint Statement)………………………………………………(62)

War Crimes Trials in Postwar Austria: High Treason and the Politics of the Peopleʼs Courts

   In 1945, Austria was liberated from Nazi rule and reestablished as an independent nation-state. From a historical perspective, however, there was little reason to consider Austria's separation from Germany as the only legitimate way to reconstruct the devastated land. For a long time, Austria faced the national question concerning her relations with Germany, and her participation in WWII under Nazi rule made it more difficult for her to claim sovereignty. To resolve the national question and to evade the consequences of participating in the war, the Austrian political elite decided to establish “people's courts” to prosecute domestic war criminals. This policy, which was greatly influenced by Austrian communists, also aimed to prosecute former Austrian Nazis who were accused of high treason, thus excluding them from the process of building an Austrian nation. As the Cold War progressed, however, the political landscape in Austria changed drastically. Former Nazis, who had once been prosecuted for high treason, were quickly rehabilitated, whereas Austrian communists were marginalized and branded as national traitors. As pressure to abolish the peopleʼs courts and reduce the prosecution of high treason to a formality gained momentum, the problems of wartime Nazi collaboration and national identity were subsumed into the problem of cold war ideological conflict. Finally, the demarcation lines of Austrian nationality were redefined in terms of Austria as a victimized nation which in turn was based on anti-communism.

Inter-Ministry Liaison and Coordination Initiated
   by the Central Liaison Office during the Occupation of Japan:
   The Case of English Translation Tasks of Legal Documents

   Using the case of English translation tasks of legal documents submitted to the General Headquarters, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ/SCAP), this article examines the function of the Central Liaison Office (CLO). We examine how English translation tasks were operated, while the size of the CLO was gradually reduced, but the volume of translation tasks themselves was not reduced.
   Once GHQ issued an order for translating a document into English, the CLO informed every ministry of the order through the Post-War Inter-Ministry Liaison Committee and the Post-War Process Liaison Committee. However, not all English translation tasks were processed in the same manner. Ministries strengthened their cooperative relationship with each other through the Post-War Inter-Ministry Liaison Committee held in the CLO. In addition, after an order was issued to publish the English versions of the official gazettes, the Cabinet took part in the process of the translation under the name of “reviewing”.
   This case study suggests that the CLO effectively managed to integrate the different ministries despite the rampant sectionalism amongst them, and was able to processed tasks efficiently despite inter-ministry rivalry. Considering the fact that no change occurred in the CLO's role even after the Cabinet began to conduct “reviewing”, the CLO's liaison and coordination abilities should be highly evaluated.

No.895 August 2012

  TŌYAMA Shigeki (1914-2011), a Historian:
  How Should We Assess His Achievements and Develop Them?
Preface…………………………………………………………The Editorial Board(1)
A Framework of History for East Asia:
  The Significance of TŌYAMA Shigeki's Proposition in 1963……ITAGAKI Yūzō(2)
TŌYAMA Shigeki after the Debate on the History of the Showa Era:
  How He Responded to the Issues Raised in the Debate……ŌKADO Masakatsu(14)
The Place of Jiyū-Minken Movement in TŌYAMA's Historiography
                           ……………OBINATA Sumio(22)
On TŌYAMA Shigeki's Arguments on the Study of History and the Education of History:
  Focusing on the Question of “Japan as the Only Imperialistic Power in Asia”
                           ……………MARUHAMA Akira(29)
Comments on the Articles
Which Part of TŌYAMA's Legacy Should be Inherited and Updated?:
  Focusing on the Narrative of Contemporary History and on
  His Activities to Protect Democracy……………………NOGAWA Yasuharu(36)
Method in Women's History and TŌYAMA's Understanding of History
                           ……………YONEDA Sayoko(39)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SUHARA Shōzi, A Study on the Emergence of Local Government
  System in Ancient Japan…………………………………NAKAMURA Yoriaki(42)
AKAZAWA Haruhiko, A Study on the “Kannin-Onmyoji”(official astrologer)
  in the Kamakura Period…………………………………YAMASHITA Katuaki(44)
TAKAOKA Hiroyuki, From Total War System to the “Welfare State”
                           ……………MINAGAWA Masaki(47)
NODA Jin, The “Kazakh Khanate”: Between Russian and Qing Empires
                           ……………ONUMA Takahiro(51)
ONODERA Shirō, Flags, Anthems, and National Days:
  The History of Modern Chinese National Symbols…………MARUTA Takashi(54)
HASHIMOTO Nobuya, Empire, Social Rank, and School…………AOSHIMA Yōko(57)

 TOYAMA Shigeki (1914-2011), a Historian:  
   How Should We Assess His Achievements and Develop Them?

   TOYAMA Shigeki (1914-2011) was a historian who contributed to the development of historical science in postwar Japan. Starting as a historian working on the Meiji Restoration, he sought to grasp the modern and contemporary history of Japan in a comprehensive, critical way. (The Meiji Restoration, 1951; the Meiji Restoration and Japan Today, 1968). His narrative of contemporary history, The History of the Showa Era (1955), provoked a heated and extensive debate among the Japanese intellectuals concerning the nature of Japan's modernity, the question of war responsibility, and the method of history writing. In an attempt to locate the experiences of Japan in a broader context and investigate the factors that led to Japan's emergence as the only imperialistic power in the region, he proposed a “Framework of History for East Asia” (1963), a vision of history keenly conscious of the imperialistic structure of the modern world system.
   Based on the strong sense of responsibility as a historian, TOYAMA engaged himself in the activities for the sake of peace and democracy. Determined never to allow a regression to the prewar undemocratic regime, he played a key role in organizing the movement against the Kigen-setsu (the forged “National Foundation Day”). He attached great importance to the study of the revolutionary tradition of the Japanese people, and, in this context, devoted himself to excavating and commemorating the achievements of the popular constitutional movement in the Meiji era, the Jiyu-minken movement. He was keenly interested in how to teach history as well, knowing that education plays a crucial role in the making of historical consciousness.
   This special issue is based on a symposium held in Tokyo on 21 January 2012. It consists of four articles and two comments, each of them shedding new light on different aspects of TOYAMA's achievements and discussing how to develop them today. The following are the abstracts.

A Framework of History for East Asia:
   The Significance of TOYAMA Shigeki's Proposition in 1963

   TOYAMA delivered what was to become a legendary presentation on the occasion of 1963 Annual Meeting of Rekishigaku Kenkyukai (The Historical Science Society of Japan) at Tokyo. The aim of this study is to grasp the significance of that event in the context of his multi-faceted career as a Marxist historian, as well as in that of the shifting streams of Japanese intellectual history. The author writes this article as a historical testimony, based on his firsthand experience of what he personally observed in the course of his engagement in the management of the Society at that time.
   The significance of TOYAMA's proposition of “Framework of History” regarding “East Asia” should be understood in dual aspects. Firstly, the concept “rekishi-zo” (history as vista/image/vision/perspective/composition/framework) implied an intention to overcome the dogmatic-schematic interpretations of “historical materialism” and to grasp the overall historical process in coherent and integrated manner. Secondly, the spatial setting of “East Asia” was a tentative posture, so to speak, to investigate the transnational structure of a region as an integral part of world capitalism-imperialism, getting rid of insularity by which “Japanese history” had been haunted. In other words, for TOYAMA, “East Asia” was not a set framework in itself, but was only one of many possible ways in which a “region” could be defined and re-defined dynamically, in an attempt to grasp the structure of the world in a transnational way.
   In examining the background of such an epoch-making initiative, we should pay attention to the characteristics of TOYAMA's life-long scholarly activities: (1) his preference for organizing broadly open collaborative research, (2) his aspiration to tackle the “actualities” of the world, in pursuit of constructing “political history” of a high order, as a creative development of theories of earlier schools of Marxism in Japan, and (3) his conviction that it was essential to base his activities upon a “united front” to be formed amongst a public drawn from ordinary citizens and intellectuals seeking peace and democracy.
   Ever since TOYAMA broached the issue of relocating Japanese history within the context of East Asia, this has become a cliché within the research, writing and teaching of Japanese history, and even within the popular discourse. Unfortunately, however, the reality is that the bold originality of his proposition has since been ignored or misunderstood. Moreover, it appears that even TOYAMA himself was not properly aware that this proposition marked a turning point in his own research activities. These facts underline the extent of the stubborn persistence of the insular thought patterns pervading the Japanese consciousness.
   This article proposes re-activating TOYAMA's legacy to find a path out of the cul-de-sac of these insular thought patterns. It is particularly important to critically self-examine the problem of Japanese insularity in the light of the multiple disasters of earthquake-tsunami and nuclear power plant explosion of 2011.

TOYAMA Shigeki after the Debate on the History of the Showa Era:
   How He Responded to the Issues Raised in the Debate
OKADO Masakatsu

   The publication of the History of the Showa Era (1955), by TOYAMA Shigeki, FUJIWARA Akira and IMAI Seiichi, gave rise to a first full-fledged debate on historical matters in postwar Japan. The scope of the debate was extensive, covering issues such as the nature of modern and contemporary history of Japan as a whole, the methodology of contemporary history, and how to understand and write history.
   Subsequently, TOYAMA Shigeki, one of the co-authors of the book, tried to respond to the questions raised in the course of the debate, such as the question of wartime experiences and war responsibility, and furthermore, to grasp the renewed significance of these questions in the context of contemporary circumstances (i.e. the situation in Japan and Asia in the 1960s and 1970s). Thus he pondered on certain historical questions, ruminated, and updated their significance, so to speak, in the context of the present actualities, and this is one of the most characteristic features of his attitude towards history.
   This article analyzes some of TOYAMA's writings in the first half of the 1960s and early 1970s, and examines how he tried to respond to the issues raised in the course of the debate on the History of the Showa Era. Special attention is paid to the situation of historical research in those days, the activities of academic historical associations, and social and political background. We attempt, in this way, to locate and examine TOYAMA's historiography in the context of contemporary history.

The Place of the Jiyu-Minken Movement in TOYAMA's Historiography

   The Jiyu-Minken movement (the movement for “freedom and people's rights,” a constitutional movement in the Meiji era) was one of the main subjects of TOYAMA Shigeki's work. This article examines what significance he attached to this movement, based on an analysis of what he wrote and spoke on the subject.
   TOYAMA grasped the Jiyu-Minken movement as the outcome of a bitter struggle of the people, who were forced to fight under specific historical conditions. Thus, while he points out the limitations and immaturity of the movement which were prescribed by the objective conditions, he reveals his sympathy, at the same time, with the struggle of the people who fought under these conditions. He points out that, considering the place of Japan in world history at that time, it was inevitable that the Jiyu-Minken movement as a political movement should be defeated. He argues, at the same time, that it succeeded as an enlightening and educational movement, and influenced subsequent developments in the other East Asian countries.
   He argued that the significance of the Jiyu-Minken movement should be grasped in the context of worldwide popular movements. He proposed applying the concept of “complex revolution” to the movement. Furthermore, he insisted that the experiences of the Jiyu-Minken movement should become the “common property” of the Japanese people as a whole. Deeply interested in the cause of democracy in contemporary Japan, he engaged himself actively in the movement aimed at revolutionizing the national historical consciousness.
   He argued that a historian should be keenly conscious about the actualities of the present day, that the study of history is sharpened when it is carried out in tense relationship with reality. He stressed the importance of bridging between Japanese history and world history, and of collaboration between the study of history and the education of history as well. These are the points we should keep in mind and develop in the future.

On TOYAMA Shigeki's Arguments on the Study of History
   and the Education of History: Focusing on the Question of
   “Japan as the Only Imperialistic Power in Asia”

   Throughout the 1960s, TOYAMA was interested in examining the historical circumstances that led to the emergence of Japan as the “only imperialistic power in Asia”, and in investigating the implications of this fact, i.e. Japan's imperialistic past, in its contemporary context. In postwar Japan, the ruling classes, totally neglecting their own war responsibility, sought to enter into a military alliance with the United States. This meant, he argued, that Japan had not yet overcome its imperialistic past. Investigating the roots of the problem further, he tried to examine the nature of historical consciousness of the ordinary Japanese people as well.
   In the field of the education of history, he argued that the question of imperialism should not be taught as a given, part of the inevitable historical “background”. Rather, Japanese pupils should be taught more about Japan's own role in advancing imperialism, and he proposed, in a concrete way, how to approach this question.
   He was fully aware that it was the historical consciousness of the ordinary masses that enabled the ruling class to mobilize them in war, and that it was the education of history in pre-war Japan that, in its turn, contributed to the making of this sort of historical consciousness. Hence his deep commitment to the question of education.

Which Part of TOYAMA's Legacy Should Be Inherited and Updated?:
   Focusing on the Narrative of Contemporary History
   and on His Activities to Protect Democracy
(Comments by NOGAWA Yasuharu)

   The History of the Showa Era, published by TOYAMA Shigeki and his colleagues in 1955, presents a remarkable specimen in the field of the narrative of contemporary history. We should pay more attention to TOYAMA as a writer of contemporary historian and learn from his achievements in this field.
   Another remarkable feature is that, since he was strongly conscious of the social responsibility of historians, he devoted himself to activities aimed at the protection and development of democracy in postwar Japan. Thus he played a key role in organizing the movement against the Kigen-setsu, which still continues today.
   Needless to say, since the circumstances surrounding us today are different from those in the 1950s and 1960s, TOYAMA's method and approach cannot be applied mechanically. Still, the essence of his proposals and activities seems to be relevant even for historians living in present Japanese society.

Method in Women's History and TOYAMA's Understanding of History
(Comments by YONEDA Sayoko)

   Although TOYAMA himself did not write a book on women's history, his insight as a historian has been inspiring for students engaged in the research of this field as well.
   Firstly, TOYAMA noticed, in the course of his research on the Jiyu-minken movement, the significance of the feelings of people based on the concrete experiences of their actual life, and argued that these feelings constitute an important basis of social consciousness, or how one perceives society.
   Secondly, he argued, in the course of his study on FUKUZAWA Yukichi, that, if we are to assess the role of an individual in history, we should not let ourselves be trapped in a dichotomy between “conservative vs. progressive”, but should rather try to understand that person in the context of complicated historical process, and try to understand the meaning of that person's aspirations and attempts under a given historical condition.
   These viewpoints are relevant for the study of women's history as well. Examining the feelings of women based on the concrete experiences of their life and analyzing the complicated process through which they transform themselves are important tasks for the students of women's history.

No.894 July 2012

The Arrival of the North Pacific Surveying Squadron and the Tokugawa Shogunate:
  The Prelude to the Change in Japan’s Policy on Foreign Trade……GOTŌ Atushi(1)
Notes and Suggestions
The Emergence of a Large-Scale Landowning Family in a Rice Mono-Crop Area
  in the Late Edo Period………………………………………NAKAYAMA Kiyoshi(18)
The Function of Language in Egypt under the Ptolemies……KANAZAWA Yoshiki(31)

Relay Talks: On the Eve of the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (5)
The History of the Themes of the Annual Meetings:
  What Have We Been Discussing at the Plenary Session for the Past 60 Years?
                             ……………YUZŌ Itagaki(46)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YAGI Mitsuru, A Study on Excavated Wooden Tablets from Ancient Japan
                          ……………WATANABE Akihiro(50)
FURUOYA Tomohiro,Documentary Records, Archaeological Materials,
  and the Study of Ancient History……………………………SOGAWA Yōichi(54)
ZHANG Yuping,Dai Jitao and Modern Japan……………………SAGA Takashi(57)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(61)

The Arrival of the North Pacific Surveying Squadron
   and the Tokugawa Shogunate: The Prelude to the Change
   in Japan's Policy on Foreign Trade
GOTO Atushi

   The purpose of this article is to examine how the policy of the Tokugawa Shogunate on foreign trade changed as a result of the arrival of the U.S. North Pacific Surveying Squadron in 1855.
   The arrival of the surveying squadron caused a serious dilemma for the Shogunate. On the one hand, if the Shogunate rejected the squadron's request to be allowed to carry out surveys on the coast of Japan, the outbreak of a war with the United States was predicted. On the other hand, if the Shogunate accepted the request, it was predicted that daimyō, or feudal lords, would rebel, because accepting this request would mean that the squadron would intrude into the territories of these feudal lords without permission. It seemed inevitable that the Shogunate would have to face either war with a foreign power or domestic rebellion.
   It was in the course of debate on this question that the kaibō-gakari metsuke, or the superintendent officers responsible for defense matters, began to insist on opening up trade with the United States and the other western countries. By doing so, they believed the Shogunate would be able to avoid the outbreak of war. They argued, at the same time, that the Shogunate would even be able to placate the discontent amongst the daimyō, if it permitted them to participate in foreign trade. Thus, they argued that foreign trade would be a solution for the dilemma they faced.
   The influence of this argument grew steadily, and towards the end of 1855, ABE Masahiro, the principal official of the Shogunate, began to suggest the possibility of abandoning the isolationist policy and launching on foreign trade. This paved a way to the concrete developments in foreign trade policy, which were to unfold from the next year.

The Emergence of a Large-Scale Landowning Family
   in a Rice Mono-Crop Area in the Late Edo Period

   This article deals with the HOSAKA Family, who emerged as a large-scale landlord in Kubiki County in the Province of Echigo, a rice mono-crop area, in the late Edo period (mid 19th century). The HOSAKA family expanded its business through extensive money-lending and renting-out of farmland. At the end of the Edo period, the HOSAKA Family owned approximately 20% of the agricultural land within Kubiki County, and collected about 4000 koku of rice a year as farm rent (1 koku = 180 litres).
   The HOSAKA Family's management system was supported by agents (sahainin) who were responsible for the management of peasants and farm land. Many of the agents were formerly small landlords (so called “self-cultivating landlords”) who used to serve as the village administrative officials. It was as a result of the economic decline of this group of smaller landlords that the HOSAKA Family was able to accumulate land. After having pawned their land to the HOSAKA Family, however, these ex-landlords became agents and even maintained their position as village headmen in their capacity as large-scale farm tenant farmers. By subletting their holding farm to the smaller peasants, these people maintained their influence in local society, which sometimes even counterbalanced that of the nominal landlord, the HOSAKA Family.

The Function of Language in Egypt under the Ptolemies

   One of the most remarkable features of Egyptian society in the Hellenistic age was its bilingualism. Although the Ptolemaic dynasty was despotic and of foreign origin, the tongue of the rulers was far from compulsory for the indigenous population. The language of the ruled was officially recognized, and played its role in various fields. Thus, documents of official nature such as deeds produced by notaries could be written either in Greek or the indigenous language (demotic).
   In the domain of jurisdiction, two sorts of law courts, i.e. “chrematistai” of Greek origin and “laocritai” of Egyptian one existed. Although the former dealt with deeds and complaints written in Greek and the latter was dealt with those in demotic, both courts were open for all, and anyone could choose, on his or her own will, to which court to take recourse, in accordance with the person's circumstances. For instance, women often took recourse to the indigenous law written in demotic, for this law required the existence of neither guarantor nor proxy for women, while the Greek law did. Therefore, in the matrimonial affairs, women preferred the traditional Egyptian law which protected their rights better.
   Lingual co-existence and the dualistic jurisdiction encouraged, potentially, the rapprochement between the two ethnic groups, i.e. the immigrant rulers and the indigenous subjects. How was this possible under a despotic dynasty? This might be explained in a rather paradoxical way. According to the ideology of the Hellenistic despots, a kingdom was essentially perceived as their private property “won by the spear”, and they were interested neither in the welfare of their own fellows nor nation. The Ptolemies, especially, devoted themselves to the exploitation and the monopolization of the wealth of their realm. Beyond that, however, they did not trouble themselves by meddling in the customs of local society. In other words, bilingualism and dualistic jurisdiction were allowed for, only because the monarch's power was absolute.
   In an attempt to understand the historical background of these developments, this article also examines related matters such as the strong linguistic tradition of the ancient Egyptian kingdoms, the role of documents in administration, the question of literacy, and the educational system for scribes.

No.893 June 2012

  The History of the Utilization and Management of “Resources”:
  Rethinkng the Roles of Communiry, Local Society, and State
Preface ………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
The Production of Firewood and Charcoal in the Late Edo Period:
  The Case of the Bōsō Enclave of Iwatsuki Domain………GOTŌ Masatoshi(2)
Forest Labor in Japan during the Edo Period:
  Focusing on the Question of Kirigumi and Kirioki………TAWADA Masayasu(13)
Rights of Peasants to the Forests Owned by Feudal Lords, Sovereigns, and State:
  A Comparative Study on Prussia and Japan in the Transitional Period between
  Pre-modern and Modern Times…………………………………IIDA Takashi(25)
Changing Phases of Common Property Resources in India:
  Rights, Control and Class Conflict……………………YANAGISAWA Haruka(37)
Forest Management System and Indigenous Land Use
  in the British Empire between the Wars……………………MIZUNO Shōko(45)
Notes and Suggestions
Historical Research on the Utilization and Management of “Resources”
  in Modern and Contemporary Japan:
  The Case of Economic History……………………TAKAYANAGI Tomohiko(57)
Related Publications……………………………………………………………(64)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
HIROSE Kunio, The Statutes and Edicts of the Qin and Han Dynasties……KUDŌ Motoo(69)
SAWADA Noriko,Democracy in Athens…………………………MOROO Akiko(71)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(75)

The Production of Firewood and Charcoal in the Late Edo Period:
   The Case of the Bōsō Enclave of Iwatsuki Domain
GOTO Masatoshi

   This article deals with commercial forestry production in pre-modern Japan, focusing on the situation in a mountainous area in the interior of the Bōsō Peninsula that supplied firewood and charcoal to Edo. This area constituted part of the territories of the Katsuʼura Domain from the early half of the 17th century and, later, from the mid-18th century, became the “Bōsō Enclave” of the Iwatsuki Domain.
   The “Bōsō Enclave” was a center of forest-related production in the Iwatsuki Domain, providing it with a large quantity of firewood in the form of annual tribute (nengu-maki). Villages in the area produced firewood for sale (kaidome-maki) as well, which was monopolized by contractors, who paid a required commission to the domain for that privilege. They monopolized the firewood produced in the domain-owned forests as well.
   The production of firewood competed with that of charcoal, since both relied on the same kind of materials (i.e. “miscellaneous small trees”). Thus, from the end of the 18th century, the quantity of firewood production began to decrease to a great degree. The Iwatsuki Domain prohibited charcoal burning and encouraged the production of firewood. Peasants in the area, however, preferred charcoal production for various reasons such as the convenience of transport and the freedom in marketing. As for the firewood production, since it was not profitable enough, it turned out in the end that no one was willing to be the contractor who was to monopoly the purchase of firewood. The development of charcoal production in the Bōsō Enclave could not be controlled even by the policies of the domain.

Forest Labor in Japan during the Edo Period:
   Focusing on the Question of Kirigumi and Kirioki
TAWADA Masayasu

   This article attempts to examine the nature of forest labor in local society during the Edo Period. Taking up the case of Ina County in Shinano Province, it looks into (1) the social position of those who were involved in forest labor, (2) the purpose of their activities, and (3) the form of labor organization in the forest. Special attention is paid to the meaning of concepts such as kirigumi (“cutting team”) and kirioki (literally the act of “cutting aside”).
   Kirioki refers to the act of cutting down trees in a mountainous forest for several successive days, piling the logs and leaving them there for a while, and later carrying them out together, usually by horse. Those who entered mountains to carry out these activities organized themselves into kirigumi and built huts which functioned as the base of the whole operation. Peasants in the villages in Ina County participated actively in kirioki. Most of the timber was intended for firewood, which they sold to the city dwellers in Iida-machi, the major urban center in the region, as a way of making their living.
   Kirioki was an activity in which peasants and even urban lower-class dwellers from neighboring areas were involved. It continued to develop in different and complicated forms throughout the Edo Period.

Rights of Peasants to the Forests Owned by Feudal Lords, Sovereigns,
   and State: A Comparative Study on Prussia and Japan
   in the Transitional Period between Pre-modern and Modern Times
IIDA Takashi

   It is well known that modern forestry policies in Japan took Prussia as the model. However, if we examine the experiences of two countries in the transitional period from the pre-modern to the modern times, with special reference to the question of the rights of peasants to the forests owned by feudal lords, sovereigns, and state, we find that they were quite different, reflecting the difference in the historical nature of feudal land ownership in each country.
   In Prussia in the pre-modern era, forests owned by feudal lords not only overwhelmingly exceeded those owned by the peasants in scale, but the proprietary rights of the feudal lords extended to agricultural land as well (including both their own farms and peasant farmland). As for the royal demesne (Domäne) in Kurmark, it is true that the king, like other feudal lords, had the responsibility to provide peasants with wood from his own forest. However, this was done under strict bureaucratic control (the quantity and the usage of the wood to be allotted were rigidly scrutinized), and the peasants were not allowed freedom in the disposal of wood. In the course of the liquidation process of the feudal relationship between lords and peasants (which was carried out as part of a series of Prussian reforms), the Domäne authorities compensated peasants for their rights regarding royal demesne forests by providing pensions, or, sometimes even conceded to their demands and agreed to maintain the status quo. However, it was out of question that a peasant should obtain a piece of forestland in the Domäne. Far from that, in order to secure their private proprietary rights to their own farmland, the peasants had to redeem the (upper level) proprietary rights of the feudal lords by paying a large sum of money.
   In contrast, in Japan in the Edo Period, not only the private proprietary rights of peasants to agricultural land were generally established, but also, even in regions where all the forests were legally owned by the feudal lords, the free disposal by peasants of forestland and trees was widely recognized. Therefore, on entering the modern era, the Japanese peasants, who had no need to secure their private proprietary rights to agricultural land through the process of the redemption of the rights of feudal lords, were able to concentrate their efforts on obtaining (or regaining) forestland. By newly accepting to pay land taxes, they obtained the proprietary rights to private-owned forests. At the same time, in order to recover the forestland which had been absorbed into the state-owned forests, they prepared money to cover the judicial expenses or to purchase the land from the state. In the case of the imperial demesne forestland, demands by the peasants sometimes resulted in the bestowal of large-scale forestland or the money to pay for the cost of planting and developing new forestland.

Changing Phases of Common Property Resources in India:
   Rights, Control and Class Conflict

   The 1990s witnessed a change in the framework for understanding issues related to common property resources (CPRs) in India. Scholarship revealed that the primary demand of local participants in the Chipko movement in the Himalayas in the 1970s was not to preserve forests, as had been previously believed, but rather to claim preferential rights to the use of forests and other local common resources.
   In the 19th century, common property resources in many parts of India were under the control of influential local landholding classes, who set out to convert village commons into private arable lands. In the 20th century, those with a limited access to local resources such as agricultural laborer classes started to claim their rights to local resources by encroaching on uncultivated common lands and cultivating them. The process, though leading in the short term to the decline of village commons, has brought about a transformation in village structure, i.e. from a highly stratified one to a more egalitarian one, thus potentially contributing to the creation of an egalitarian type of CPR management system.
   This article argues that contests over natural resources need to be examined in the context of changing relationships between local social hierarchies.

Forest Management System and Indigenous Land Use
   in the British Empire between the Wars

   This article deals with the Empire Forestry Conferences that were held in the British Empire to discuss forest resource management, focusing on the arguments by colonial scientists on the question of indigenous customs such as shifting cultivation.
   In the 1920s and 1930s, the sharing of a variety of experiences throughout the colonies at these conferences resulted in a new management system, which was then spread around the empire. This management system allowed for the use of forests by local people to a certain extent.
   Meanwhile, in the mid 30s, in the face of the menace of soil erosion and population increase, some scientists began to insist on the need for direct intervention to modify the forms of native land use. At the same time, it was argued that close cooperation between technical and administrative services was necessary, in order to take measures against the impending ecological crisis. Growing enthusiasm was observed among scientific and administrative officers throughout the empire, for more comprehensive land planning and closer mutual collaboration.

Historical Research on the Utilization and Management of
   “Resources” in Modern and Contemporary Japan:
   The Case of Economic History

   This article surveys different trends in historical research, specifically economic history, on the utilization and management of “resources” in modern and contemporary Japan.
   Initially, since scholars were interested in the question of economic development, “resources” was usually taken to mean raw materials and energy sources. Later, with the emergence and the aggravation of environmental problems on a global level, scholars came to be interested in the management and protection of sustainable resources, such as water and forests.
   In the utilization and management of resources in modern times, in addition to the mechanism of social relationships within rural communities, it has become necessary to coordinate between a wider spectrum of different stakeholders, such as citizens vs. companies, and the city vs. rural communities. This is because, firstly, the economic value of resources has been enhanced, and, secondly, a system of land ownership adapted to the capitalist economy has been introduced by the state. Since the coordination between different stakeholders was a difficult task, the role of the state as a coordinating body has grown in importance.
   In our future research on the history of the management of resources in Japan, the following points should be kept in mind. Firstly, we must pay sufficient attention to the question of inherent local order, which existed in each area for the utilization and management of resources. Secondly, we must ascertain the impact of the newly introduced system of landownership on the utilization and management of resources in modern Japan. Thirdly, we must examine the role of the state throughout the whole process, paying attention to its different aspects.

No.892 May 2012

The Politics of Portrait in Daimyō Families in Early Modern Japan:
  The Case of the Portrait of IKEDA Shōnyū, the Founder of the IKEDA Family
                             ……………SAITŌ Natsuki(1)

Views and Reviews
The Significance of the Study of Business Management in the Context of
  Japanese Economic History: Reflections on KASUGA Yutaka,
  A Zaibatsu Trading Company in Imperial Japan, and Related Works
                          ……………YAMAMOTO Yoshihiko(18)

Current Topics
The 100 Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution: How Was It Commemorated ?
                           ……………TANAKA Hiroshi(26)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KATSUTA Masaharu, ONO Azusa and the Japanese Constitutional Movement (Jiyū-Minkenn)
                             ……………ANZAI Kunio(32)
IIDA Yōsuke, Bismarck and the British Empire……………………BABA Masaru(35)
ASADA Shinji, Qingdao under German Rule:
  Economic Liberalism and the Colonial Social Order…………SUZUKI Naoko(38)

Exhibition Reviews
Light and Shadows in Namban Art: The Mystery of the Western Kings on Horseback
                          ……………KISAKI Takayoshi(42)
Metabolism, the City of the Future:
  Dreams and Visions of Reconstruction in Postwar and Present-Day Japan
                          ……………SATŌ Yoshihiro(45)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Society in May 2012……(49)

Society’s Announcements:
 The General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan for the Year 2012……(63)

The Politics of Portrait in Daimyo Families in Early Modern Japan:
   The Case of the Portrait of IKEDA Shōnyū, the Founder of the IKEDA Family
SAITO Natsuki

   Hitherto, in the course of the analysis of religious rituals connected with the memory of the founders of samurai families in early modern Japan, stress has been placed on the phenomenon of “deification” of the founders, which took place under the influence of a new trend in political thought. However, an examination of the role of the portraits of family founders, which were produced under the strong influence of Zen Buddhism, reveals a different aspect of the question.
   The analysis of the circumstances surrounding the production and distribution of the portraits of IKEDA Shōnyū, the founder of the Ikeda family in Okayama and Tottori, shows that Zen Buddhism, which had been influential in Japanese society since medieval times, was closely involved in the process. It is revealed also that, in the course of that process, Zen Buddhism was responding to the desire and aspirations of people of a subordinate position inside the family, such as sons without the right of succession, unimportant relatives, retainers and women, who were interested in memorializing those who were defeated. (Shōnyū himself had been killed in a battle against the TOKUGAWA forces.)
   Of the many groups of portraits of Shōnyū, the one preserved in the Tottori Prefectural Museum (previously kept in the Ryūhōji Temple) has been recognized as the master copy. This portrait, if examined in isolation, does not contain any information as to the motive lying behind its production. When we collect the san (biographical notes written by Zen monks ) attached to the other related pictures and examine them in total, however, we find that it was Tsunemoto of the Okayama IKEDA family, a son without the right of succession, who produced, in the first half of the 17th century, a set of portraits consisting of three scrolls, depicting his father, Toshitaka, his grandfather, Terumasa, and his great grandfather Shōnyū, respectively. It is most likely that he produced this set of scrolls in close collaboration with the network of female members of the family.
   The portrait of Shōnyū appears to have been initially stored in Gokokuin, which was his home temple (bodaiji). After this temple was dismantled by IKEDA Mitsumasa, the portrait was transferred, copied, and preserved in other temples. In this stage (i.e. in the middle of the 18th century), they seem to have functioned, in the context of han politics, as important cultural and political asset for a sect of people, who were critical of the current course of policy.

No.891 April 2012

Piracy and Maritime Commerce in China during the Mid-Qing Era (1780-1820)
                          ……………TOYOOKA Yasufumi(1)
“Colonialism without Colonies” in the Habsburg Empire:
  Focusing on the Experiences of the Novara Expedition, 1857-1859
                          ……………ŌI Tomonori(17)

Views and Reviews
On KOBAYASHI Isao, “The Themata in 7 th Century Asia Minor and the
  Rebirth of the Byzantine State”: Critical Remarks …………NAKATANI Kōji(34)

Current Topics
“They Think We Are Out of Date...”: On the Abolition of the Chair of Paleography
  at King's College, University of London ……………TSURUSHIMA Hirokazu(40)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KURAMOTO Kazuhiro, Emperor Sanjō………………………KAMIYA Masayoshi(47)
KIMURA Naoki, The Baku-Han System State in the Context of the East Asian World
                          ……………ŌHASHI Yukihiro(49)
TERADA Takanobu, A Study on the Chinese Gentry under the Ming Dynasty
                          ……………NAKAJIMA Gakushō(52)
BYEON Yeong-ho, Korean Confucianism from the 16th Century to Present:
  T’oe-gye Lee, Yul-gok Lee and Chung-hee Park……TSURUZONO Yutaka(55)
KURITA Nobuko, SATŌ Ikuko, Carthage: An Empire of Commerce
                          ……………MORITANI Kimitoshi(57)

Society’s Announcements:
  The 2012 General Meeting of the Historical Science Society of Japan………(62)

Piracy and Maritime Commerce in China during Mid-Qing Era (1780-1820)
TOYOOKA Yasufumi

   This article examines how commerce on the coasts of southeastern China suffered because of piracy in the mid-Qing era. Chinese fishermen on the Vietnam coast, who had been mobilized in the Tay Son uprising, became involved in piratical activities on the coasts of Guangdong, Fujian and Zhejiang after 1794. Fear of piracy led merchants on these coasts to withdraw from the shipping of goods, and the circulation of goods on the Chinese coast decreased sharply. In 1796, the revenue of custom duties in Fujian was half of that in 1794. Reports from coastal regions in the 1790s and 1800s indicate that these areas were severely affected by the recession caused by piracy.
   Merchants sought to negotiate with some pirate groups in order to reduce transaction costs that had increased because of the escalation of piracy, and agreed to pay "protection fees". Influential merchants in each port became the agents of pirates and collected fees from other merchant ships or fishing boats. In spite of that, piratical activities continued until 1810, when the Qing authorities suppressed pirates. This indicates that payment of a protection fee did not guarantee security.
   Piracy caused extensive lasting damage to the maritime control of the Qing authorities. Many merchant ships stopped using official ports, in order to evade paying taxes to the weakened Qing customs department. Therefore, the revenue of custom duties in Fujian did not recover even after 1810. Furthermore, an increase in the proportion of unofficial transactions on the coasts of southeastern China made the smuggling of contraband goods easier. Thus, piracy was the primary factor that led to the development of opium smuggling after the 1820s.

Colonialism without Colonies in the Habsburg Empire:
   Focusing on the Experiences of the Novara Expedition, 1857-1859
OI Tomonori

   This article deals with the question of colonialism in the Habsburg Empire, which possessed no overseas colonies. An analysis of the expedition of the Novara , an Austrian frigate which conducted a circumnavigation of the globe in 1857-1859, enables us to explore the nature of colonialism in the Austrian Empire, particularly its colonial aspirations towards the Asian-Pacific islands.
   We critically analyze first the discourse concerning the Nicobar Islands in the Bengal Bay, found in the narrative of this expedition. These islands were, in those days, the most likely target of any colonial expansion policy on the part of Vienna. Our analysis shows that the ideology of colonialism exemplified in a sense of a “civilizing mission” can be identified in the popular national reading matter. In other words, although Austria itself had no overseas colonies, the thought, ideology and sentiment of colonialism was embraced by the Austrian masses.
   Secondly, we again use our analysis of the narratives of the Novara expedition to examine the nature of “colonialism without colonies” as practice and structure within the Habsburg Empire, and point out the close connection of both with the Western colonial regime as a whole. Paying attention to the role of western sciences in the global colonial system, we argue that the Habsburg Empire, although it had no overseas colony, was involved in the Western colonial system, through the exercise of its “scientific knowledge” and the dispatch of “scientific expeditions”.
   The concept of “colonialism without colonies” provides a new perspective for colonial studies, contributing to a deeper understanding of the history of colonialism.

No.890 March 2012

Japan’s Policy toward Manchuria and Mongolia Following the Xinhai Revolution -1912-1914
                                 ……………KITANO Gō(1)
Missionary Criticism of Colonial Politics:
  Wesleyan Methodist Missionaries in the Nineteenth-Century Cape Eastern Borderland
                                 ……………ŌSAWA Hiroaki(18)

Current Topics
On the“Hinomaru-Kimigayo” Lawsuits:
  From a Legal Point of View………………………………NARUSHIMA Takashi(38)
The Preservation of Historical Materials and Local Government:
  A Case Study from Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture,
  after the Great East Japan Earthquake……………………TAKAHASHI Yōichi(44)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
ICHI Hiroki, A Study on the Wooden Writing Tablets in the Asuka-Fujiwara Period
                            ……………KAWASAKI Akira(52)
SHIN Chang-u, Police and People in Korea under Colonialism 1894-1919
                            ……………SUDA Tsutomu(55)
YOSHII Ken-ichi, The Road to Liutiao-hu Incident……………UCHIDA Naotaka(58)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(62)

Japanʼs Policy toward Manchuria and Mongolia
   Following the Xinhai Revolution - 1912-1914

   Japanʼs foreign policy subsequent to the Chinese Xinhai Revolution of 1911 has been understood within the context of confrontation between two factions, i.e. the faction advocating an aggressive approach to China, centered in the army, and the other one pursuing a moderate approach, centered in the Foreign Ministry. It has been argued that the final outcome of this confrontation was the emergence of an assertive policy toward China adopted by the OKUMA Cabinet, culminating in the submission of the Twenty-One Demands in 1915. In this article, we analyze the ideas of UTSUNOMIYA Taro, who represented the aggressive approach assumed by the army, and re-examine, through this analysis, the course of development of Japanʼs policy toward Manchuria and Mongolia, dating from the YAMAMOTO Cabinet to the OKUMA Cabinet.
   An examination of the contents of UTSUNOMIYAʼs (hitherto unpublished) memorandum reveals that, contrary to the prevalent image, the army was rather in agreement with the Foreign Ministry on main principles, and together they contributed to the making of Manchurian and Mongolian policies under the YAMAMOTO Cabinet. The “Agreement for Five Railways in Manchuria and Mongolia”, which was concluded with the aim of expanding Japanʼs sphere of influence as far as Eastern Inner Mongolia was a product of these principles. Again, concerning Manchuria, the army and the Foreign Ministry were agreed on the principle of expanding Japanese rights of residence there, and this point was raised in the course of the loan negotiations with Fengtien Province.
   It was as a result of the confrontation which occurred within the Five-Nation Consortium over interests in Manchuria and Mongolia that Japan later reviewed its own attitude toward these regions and began seeking for the establishment of a status of a more comprehensive nature. At this stage, the contents of Japanʼs demands were almost similar to those provisions it presented in the Twenty-One Demands concerning Manchuria and Mongolia.

Missionary Criticism of Colonial Politics:
   Wesleyan Methodist Missionaries in the Nineteenth-Century
   Cape Eastern Borderland
OSAWA Hiroaki

   This article explores Christian missionariesʼ critical responses to colonial politics, focusing on the case of the Wesleyan Methodist mission in the Cape colonyʼs eastern borderland. In doing so, it aims to shed a fresh light on a hitherto neglected aspect of Christianityʼs entanglement with the British Empire.
   Since the commencement of their activities in the Eastern Cape in the early nineteenth century, the Wesleyan missionaries, in close co-operation with local British settlers, had constantly advocated colonial expansion. However, when the Cape government, dominated by these Eastern Cape British settlers, adopted a series of oppressive policies against the indigenous population in the late 1870s, the missionaries severely criticised them. Behind it lay their concern about the dissemination of racial prejudice in the settler society, the growing influence of non-white converts within the church, and a stern rebuke from the English Wesleyan Church.
   Nonetheless, criticising colonial politics did not necessarily mean criticising colonial rule itself in the late nineteenth century. Fettered by patriotic sentiments and racial pride, the Wesleyan missionaries continued to endorse colonialism. The apparent discrepancy between the words and deeds of the missionaries eventually propelled a section of non-white Wesleyans into the formation of the African Initiated Churches, which would later become a seedbed of anti-colonial movements.

No.889 February 2012

Flood Control and Local Society during the Sengoku Period:
  Focusing on the Case of Kai Province……………………NISHIKAWA Kōhei(1)
The Movement of Severely Disabled People in Japan the 1960s:
  Focusing on the Political Campaign against the Health Service Policy
  at the National Rehabilitation Center for Persons
  with Physical Disabilities………………………………………SUZUKI Masako(18)

Current Topics
On the Renewal of Exhibitions at Ōsaka Human Rights Museum:
  Reflections of a Curator………………………………YOSHIMURA Tomohiro(35)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
IMAO Fumiaki, The Emergence of “Kofun” (Burial Mound) Culture
  and Social Changes in Ancient Japan……………………ONOZATO Ryōichi(42)
IKE Susumu, Local Society and Power in the Sengoku Period……MURAI Ryōsuke(45)
TOMIYA Itaru, The Archival Administration in the Han Empire……FUJITA Katsuhisa(48)
KIDO Takeshi, The One Hundred Years’ War……………………SATŌ Takeshi(52)
MORINAGA Takako, The Merchants of Irkutsk and the Kyakhta Trade……NODA Jin(55)

Exhibition Reviews
Josef KOUDELKA, Invasion 68: Prague……………………MORISHITA Yoshiyuki(58)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(62)

Flood Control and Local Society during the Sengoku Period:
   Focusing on the Case of Kai Province

   The history of land development and flood control in 16th century eastern Japan has been mainly studied in an attempt to elucidate the structure of the rule of feudal lords during the Sengoku Period. Hitherto, a view from local society has been missing.
   This article examines the question of flood control works during the Sengoku Period, paying attention to the relationship between the local feudal lords and the villages, and to the question of order in local society. In Kai Province, the function of villages and that of the network between villages belonging to the same manor were crucial in the process of flood control. Although feudal lords mobilized people belonging to various classes and statuses in construction work projects for flood control, the original initiative for these projects derived from local society, and the lords conducted such projects in response to requests from local society itself.
   The relation between local society and feudal lords in flood control works demonstrates that villages in eastern Japan did not just constitute the lowest rung in the ladder of social control by feudal lords, but also that villages played an active role in the maintenance of local social order.

The Movement of Severely Disabled People in Japan in the 1960s:
   Focusing on the Political Campaign against the Health Service Policy
   at the National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Physical Disabilities

   In the early 1960s, Japanese governmental policy entered a period where its primary concern was promoting high economic growth, and in line with this, the National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Physical Disabilities decided to assume a policy of excluding severely disabled people. Under this policy, the severely disabled were neither to be admitted into the Centerʼs rehabilitation courses nor provided with any medical operations. The severely disabled people rose up and carried out a vigorous campaign against this discriminatory policy from 1962 to 1967. The purpose of this article is to examine the nature of this campaign and its significance in the history of the movement of disabled people in Japan.
   In the course of their campaign, the severely disabled demanded the revision of the management rule which constituted the basis of this discriminatory policy. They also demanded that medical operations for the severely disabled should be resumed. As a result, the revision of the management rule was achieved in 1965, although the medical operations were ultimately suspended in 1967.
   The most remarkable features of this campaign were as follows. Firstly it was a movement based on the initiative of the severely disabled people themselves. Secondly it represented one of the new social movements which emerged in the 1960s and developed in coordination with the leftist movement. Thirdly, it criticized the conventional idea concerning rehabilitation which stressed making disabled people socially “useful”, and presented a new idea that the welfare was a “right” of a citizen.
   This campaign constituted a prelude to the vigorous anti-government struggles of the 1970s. It transformed the concept of rehabilitation as well, criticizing the conventional governmental policy which focused solely on vocational training.

No.888 January 2012

  Poverty and Subsistence in History: Focusing on the Case of the City (Ⅲ)
Polluted Water and Polluted Bodies: “Sanitary Reforms”
  in Colonial Calcutta…………………………………………WAKIMURA Kōhei(1)
Trying to “Unlock” a Racial City: The Making of a Public Transit System
  and the Origin of “The Atlanta Paradox,” 1968-1971………MIYATA Ichirō(13)
Strategy of Survival in the Slums in Metro Manila:
  Between Competition and Selection………………………………KIBA Saya(24)

Views and Reviews
On the Formation Process of “World History” as a High School Subject:
  Remarks on the Articles by IBARAKI Satoshi and KISAKI Hiromi……KOYAMA Yukinobu(40)

Current Topics
The Responsibilities of Academic Historians in Building a New Approach
  to the Teaching of History in High Schools …………………YUI Daizaburō(44)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
MOMOSAKI Yuichiro, Space and Courtesy in Medieval Kyoto………HISAMIZU Toshikazu(49)
YAKABI Osamu, An Intellectual in Modern Okinawa:
  The Life of SHIMABUKURO Zenpatsu……………………KONDŌ Kenichirō(52)
TANAKA Hiroshi, Political Integration and Local Society in Modern China……SODA Saburō(55)
ŌGURO Shunji, Voices and Letters………………………………KANŌ Osamu(59)

Polluted Water and Polluted Bodies: “Sanitary Reforms” in Colonial Calcutta

   This article aims to examine one aspect of the results of the “sanitary reforms” introduced in Calcutta during the second half of the 19th century, focusing on the case of the system for the disposal of human wastes.
   Increasing population and rapid urbanization brought about water pollution and the deterioration of sanitary conditions, which led, in turn, to high mortality rates from cholera in this period. Hence the colonial government tried to introduce a modern system of water supply and sewage. During the late 1870s, public health came under the jurisdiction of the municipal corporation in which the native middle class, for example the bhadralok, participated in policymaking in accordance with the “self-government” policy of colonial government. It was exactly at this point that, since the physical infrastructure for the disposal of sewage and human waste was markedly insufficient, the halalcore system was introduced, in which mehters (i.e. scavengers), most of whom belonged to the caste called Bhangis, were employed by the municipal corporation as manual labourers who handle and dispose of night-soil.
   In this article we examine the question of social hierarchy within the indigenous society through a historical analysis of the social and political environment surrounding the halalcore system, which was created and even intensified in the late colonial period.

Trying to “Unlock” a Racial City:
   The Making of a Public Transit System and the Origin of
   “The Atlanta Paradox,” 1968-1971

   Overcoming poverty was one of the biggest challenges for American cities after the Civil Rights Movement, for the question of poverty was closely intertwined with the question of race as well. This task, however, was not successfully achieved, and the failure of the task, in its turn, opened the way to the onslaught of “neo-liberalism” in later years. This article attempts to examine the process which led to this failure, focusing on the case of the introduction of a public transit system in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. In the case of Atlanta, African Americans, especially poor ones, played a significant role in bringing a public transit system into their city. Ironically, however, their efforts engendered strong negative sentiments among the whites, which led to the emergence of a “color-blind” discourse that hindered the expansion of public services, and ultimately has kept the question of poverty unsolved in the City of Atlanta until now.
   Initially, when MARTA (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority), presented its rapid rail plan for referendum in 1968, the majority of the blacks were opposed to the idea. The major reason for their objection was that the 1968 plan did not contain measures to eliminate the obstacles that prevented the underprivileged from having access to the job market and shopping spots. Rather, its aim was to ensure the return of white suburbanites to downtown Atlanta. In the case of the 1971 plan, however, the blacks, including the grassroots organizations of domestic workers and tenant associations, supported it, since this plan, unlike the previous one, reflected the aspirations of the poor blacks and was aimed at guaranteeing freedom of movement for the poor. It was their support that enabled MARTA to start its railway and bus system in Atlanta, and MARTA, regarding the blacks as a big political bloc, promised to provide them with a cheap flat fare, a railway route to the blighted neighborhoods, and job opportunities. The suburban middle class whites, however, were exasperated by these developments and began to attack the idea of public transit as a mark of “social planning” and excessive governmental control. It was in the course of this process that they invented a “color-blind” discourse which enables them to talk in favor of preserving the unjust status quo (unjust, both racially and economically), without referring to “race” itself in an explicit way.

Strategy of Survival in the Slums in Metro Manila:
   Between Competition and Selection

   When people with very limited resources want to make their voices heard, they organize. In the Philippines, numerous “outsiders,” such as political parties, politicians, political blocs, the left, NGOs, and religious groups, seem to invest consistently substantial resources, time and energy into trying to help “organize” the urban poor.
   This study focuses on the following points: 1) how do the poor choose their “best” outsider/s, and 2) how do the poor survive in a globalizing world through participating in grassroots politics through selection?
   Based on the results of fieldwork carried out in Metro Manila, this study argues that poor people in the slums identify themselves as “an independent actor with full powers of decision-making” who can be differentiated from the “passive and silent masses.” As a result of the bitter experiences of “being used” and “being looked down on” for many years, the inhabitants of the slums are deeply opposed to the notion that “the poor are ignorant.” Their wish to escape this stereotype underlies their desire to assert that they are different from “the other poor” and allege “I am wise enough to choose correctly.” By extension, their political behaviors and actions are not only a sort of statement with regard to politics itself, but a statement characterizing their relationship with outside—and often inherently political—actors as well.