The Society edits the Journal of Historical Studies (REKISHIGAKU KENKYU) monthly, which is published by Aoki-Shoten (Aoki Publishing CO.). The Journal contains articles, research notes, review essays, book reviews etc. Some issues are published as Special Issue, each of which contains articles regarding the specific theme, such as "Lawsuit in Comparison" or "History Textbook and the Textbook Trial."

No.887 December 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Poverty and Subsistence in History: Focusing on the Case of the City (Ⅱ)
Articles
Recent Developments in the Historical Study of Poverty and Welfare in Europe:
  Different Methods and Perspectives…………………………TANAKA Takuji(1)
War Charities in Britain, 1914-1918: Fraud Scandals on the “Home Front”
……………KANAZAWA Shūsaku(10)

Views and Reviews
On “Self-honorific” Expressions in Hideyoshi Papers and the Katanagari
  (the Disarmanent of Peasants) Decree: A Critical Reply
  on the Comments by MIKI Seiichirō…………………YAMAMOTO Hirofumi(23)

Relay Talks: On the Eve of the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (4)
A Note on the Teaching of History and the Question of “Kigen-setsu”
  (the Forged “National Foundation Day”)………………………SATŌ Nobuo(30)

Critical Reviews on the Reports Presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Society
Plenary Session……………………………HOSHINO Haruhiko, ABE Tsunehisa(32)
Ancient History Section…………………KAMIKAWA Michio, ENOMOTO Wataru(34)
Medieval History Section…………………………………………SAKATA Satoshi(37)
Early Modern History Section……………………………………SHIMURA Hiroshi(40)
Modern History Section………………………NAKAJIMA Hisato, OKADA Taihei(42)
Contemporary History Section……………………………WAKAMATSU Daisuke(45)
Joint Section……………KOSAKA Shunsuke, KURODA Yūga, OGASAWARA Hiroyuki,
                         SATŌ Masaki, NAKAMARU Hideki(48)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(55)

Announcement: Protest against Ōsaka Prefecture's Ordinance Concerning
  “Hinomaru” and “Kimigayo” and Its Further Attempt of Thought Control
  over Teachers (Joint Statement)………………………………………………(56)

Index. Nos.875–887 (January–December 2011)…………………………………(59)

<Summary>

Recent Developments in the Historical Study of Poverty
   and Welfare in Europe: Different Methods and Perspectives
TANAKA Takuji

   Corresponding to the process of restructuring welfare states since the 1970s, three different trends have emerged in the field of historical studies of poverty and welfare in Europe. The first is a trend which has been influenced by the method of social history, and interested in studying the “economy of makeshifts” of the poor masses. Here, the poor are conceived not as objects of state management but rather as autonomous actors who make strategic choices concerning the use of various welfare systems and institutions, both public and private. The second trend has been inspired by the works of Michel Foucault. Here, dichotomies such as governing/governed and discipline/autonomy are no longer considered to be relevant. Rather, the central theme is the how “power” itself exerts influence on the morality, labor, and family of the poor and hence promotes their “autonomy”. The third trend is that of historical studies of the “mixed economy of welfare”, which has developed mainly in the U.S. and the UK, subsequent to neo-liberalist economic reforms in these countries. It aims at re-valuating the role of the private sector (i.e. religious and charitable organizations, mutual aid associations, labor unions etc.) in the history of welfare, rather than that of the public sector.
   In order to further studies of poverty and welfare, the most immediate tasks are firstly to conduct case studies of the complicated social process of interaction between “autonomy” and “discipline”, and secondly to build a common framework for conducting international comparisons.


War Charities in Britain, 1914-1918: Fraud Scandals on the “Home Front”
KANAZAWA Shusaku

   During the First World War, the British people experienced unprecedented hardship on both the battle lines and the home front. Casualties skyrocketed amongst soldiers and sailors. Moreover those who fell into the hands of the enemy and were detained as captives suffered horrible conditions. The people behind the front line, especially wives and children of soldiers and sailors, also had to endure distress. While the state began to provide them with allowances and pensions, it was the “war charity” organizations that played a major role in relief works for the destitute on the “home front”, as well as for the soldiers, sailors, captives, refugees and the other victims of war.
   This article focuses on the rash of “fraud scandals” which pervaded the field of war charity. Although it was based upon the strong British tradition of philanthropy, this unregulated and chaotic sudden upsurge of “war charity” in Britain caused concern on the part of the authorities. Consequently, a ground-breaking statute aimed at regulating war charity organizations was enacted in 1916, not for replacing them by state welfare, but rather for encouraging the development of their voluntary efforts in a more orderly way.


No.886 November 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Poverty and Subsistence in History: Focusing on the Case of the City (Ⅰ)
Preface………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
The Birth of the City in Ancient Japan and the Question of Poverty……NITŌ Atsushi(2)
Poverty and Subsistence in the City of Tokyo during the Interwar Period:
  Focusing on the Actual Condition of the Poor
  and the Nature of Social Welfare…………………………………ŌSUGI Yuka(14)
Locating the Question of “Subsistence” in the Context of Historical Studies:
  Attempting a Dialogue between Japanese Society
  in the 1960s - 1970s and the Present……………………ŌKADO Masakatsu(29)
Neo-liberal Tokyo: A Methodological Note on the Possibility of
  Historical Studies on Cities and Citizens…………………MINAGAWA Masaki(42)
Living in Poverty: Everyday Life and Social Relationships in 19th Century French Cities
                           ……………NAGAI Nobuhito(53)
“Poverty-sensitve” Neo-liberalism: The Case of Mexico………UKEDA Hiroyuki(64)

Announcement: Urgent Appeal against the Adoption of Reactionary History Textbooks
  in Junior High Schools (Joint Statement)……………………………………(75)


<Summary>

The Birth of the City in Ancient Japan and the Question of Poverty
NITO Atsushi

   Hitherto, in the field of studies on ancient cities, the dominant interpretation was that a royal castle city was not a city in the proper sense. If we examine the nature of royal castle cities paying attention to the question of “the division of labor”, however, we find that there existed a division of labor in the broad sense, i.e. the division between material labor and mental labor, and therefore royal castle cities can be defined as political cities.
   As for the historical development of the royal castle city, we can divide it into several periods, based on criteria connected with the division of labor in the narrow sense, such as the development of commerce and industry.
   Broadly speaking, the history of the royal castle city in ancient Japan can be divided into two stages. The first stage covers the Fujiwara-kyō period and the early Heijyō-kyō period. The late Heijyō-kyō period, which was characterized by the emergence of urban problems such as inflation and poverty, constituted a turning point. The second stage covers the Nagaoka-kyō period and Heian-kyō period.
   The first stage can be defined as the “stage of political city” during which the division of labor in the broad sense was achieved, through the policy of collective settlement of government officials (whose relationship with local society was still very close) and the building of state apparatus.
   The second stage can be defined as the “stage of urban monarchy”, which was characterized by the consolidation of the political system to a certain degree, the development of commerce and industry along with the specialization and division of labor in the narrow sense, and the emergence of a new distribution system. While the social and economic functions of the city matured, it also meant that monarchy was faced with increasingly complicated administrative problems. The question of the urban poor emerges at this point, as something closely connected with the question of the social division of labor, and hence with the very nature of the city itself.


Poverty and Subsistence in the City of Tokyo during the Interwar Period:
   Focusing on the Actual Condition of the Poor
   and the Nature of Social Welfare
OSUGI Yuka

   In Tokyo today, the problems of “poverty” and “subsistence” are the most serious throughout Japan. In order to explore the historical roots of these issues, this article examines the situation of Tokyo during the interwar period.
   Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there was a social divide even among the poor, i.e. a divide between those who had a fixed residence and those who were homeless. Moreover, destitute people who had a fixed residence but were unable to help themselves were sometimes classified as “homeless” for reasons of administrative convenience, and subsequently these people suffered the same kind of social exclusion as people without a home. Secondly, in Tokyo, where the social function of the household (ie) was weaker than elsewhere, it was often women who became the recipients of public social aid. At the same time, it was also observed that women, rather than receiving public support, tended to resort to such means as adoption and remarriage, in order to survive. Thirdly, since the poor could rely neither on the bond of kinship nor that of neighborhood in Tokyo, they depended on police and the local commissioner (hōmen-iin) system for survival. Welfare programs for the sake of the poor also existed, but within Tokyo, these also exhibited strong bureaucratic tendencies. The discrepancy of views between those who provided aid and those who received it concerning the concept of “poverty” was a serious question as well, which was never solved.


Locating the Question of “Subsistence” in the Context of Historical Studies:
   Attempting a Dialogue between Japanese Society in the 1960s-1970s
   and the Present
OKADO Masakatsu

   The challenges of “neo-liberalism” of the late 20th century were also manifested in the field of historical studies in Japan, and the relationship between neo-liberalism and historiography was a favorite topic taken up by a number of conferences in the first decade of the 2000s. At the same time, this period witnessed the emergence of new arguments concerning the question of poverty. Inspired by these developments, this article firstly analyzes the nature of historical consciousness in Japan at the beginning of the 21st century, and then examines the contents of newly presented arguments concerning the question of poverty and their relevance to the present state of historical studies.
   In the latter half of the article, it proceeds to present a concrete historical narrative concerning “night schools” (junior high schools operating in the evenings) in Osaka in the 1960s and 1970s, in an attempt to locate the question of “subsistence” within a historical context. It examines the role of night schools in the life of people by paying attention not only to the legal and administrative aspects but also to such issues as the relationship between pupils and teachers, the significance of movement demanding the opening of more night schools, and the role of local municipalities.
   Based on this analysis, the article raises questions such as: what constitutes “subsistence” (the importance of unity between labor and life is stressed), the significance of the concept of “dignity”, and the question of agency in history as well.


Neo-liberal Tokyo: A Methodological Note on the Possibility
   of Historical Studies on Cities and Citizens
MINAGAWA Masaki

   This article aims to explore the possibility of urban studies in historical perspective, through the analysis of the activities and mentality of citizens (shimin) in Japanese society since the 1960ʼs to the present.
   In the context of urban politics, shimin are usually conceived of as actors who are expected to play a crucial role in solving the question of poverty through the redistribution of wealth.The term “shimin” itself, a Japanese equivalent for “citoyen” or “citizen”, has been given a progressive connotation in the field of social sciences and historical studies in post war Japan. Indeed, in the 1960s, shimin were actively engaged in the efforts to solve a number of urban problems (such as housing, social welfare and environmental pollution), and thus provided one of the main basis for urban progressivism. MINOBE Ryōkichi, a metropolitan governor well-known for his progressive tendencies, cooperated with the shimin while he was in office, seeking their support.
   However, ironically in a sense, as the conditions of living in cities improved as a result of progressive urban policies, the shimin changed in character. Instead of being active participants in progressive urban politics, they increasingly turned into mere “taxpayers”. Nowadays they seem to constitute the main source of support for neo-liberal urban policies. This article attempts to examine this process of transformation.
   It is interesting to note that theoretical models in the field of contemporary social sciences, such as “rational choice”, seem to have influenced social realities to a degree and to have had a role in producing the “neo-liberal” mentality. It is important to examine the mechanism of this interaction between social theories and social realities.
   Finally, this article deals with the question of social justice, focusing on the analysis of arguments concerning “redistribution” and “recognition”.


Living in Poverty: Everyday Life and Social Relationships
   in 19th Century French Cities
NAGAI Nobuhito

   The 19th century in Europe was a century of urbanization. In France, the urban population increased rapidly: in some cities the number of inhabitants quintupled in a hundred years. This growth was, to a great extent, due to immigration, essentially from rural areas. The living conditions in city remained almost unchanged until the mid-century, however, and dwellers had a lot of difficulty in finding regular employment and adequate housing. This article examines how they struggled to survive in such conditions, avoiding poverty or an even worse plight.
   In general, city workers could rarely earn enough to save money. In a time of adversity, therefore, they were compelled to have recourse to the pawn shop or the loan shark. Although the custom of mutual aid among neighbors existed, its effect was limited, because of frequent moving. The ultimate recourse was the support from the administrative authorities or charity organizations, to which people seemed to turn only reluctantly. In sum, 19th century French cities failed in offering a “safety net” secure enough to prevent their inhabitants from falling into poverty.
   At the turn of the century, the situation entered a new stage, as xenophobic populism raged all over France, especially in cities. The students of urban history should examine the concrete social realities which were surrounding these phenomena, and try to locate them within this context.


“Poverty-sensitve” Neo-liberalism: The Case of Mexico
UKEDA Hiroyuki

   This article deals with the question of poverty in Mexico, a country which has been regarded as an exemplary neo-liberal reformer in Latin America. In Mexico, the foreign debt crisis and the subsequent economic policies led to an aggravation of poverty, and hence to a crisis of legitimacy on the part of regime. Consequently, the Mexican government began to incorporate into its neo-liberal policy package a set of counter-poverty measures such as the Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT) program, while keeping an eye on the cost-effectiveness of such measures.
   However, it is not certain whether this revised version of neo-liberalism has been successful in improving the living condition of the poor, since there are so many factors uncontrollable even by the experts of poverty alleviation, such as the initial conditions of society (historical background), the state of technological development, and the behavior of the poor. This is vividly demonstrated by the case of indigenous immigrants, who have moved into cities and are trying to confront adversity in an informal manner different from the way expected by economists and aid organizations.
   In this age of neo-liberalism, students of the humanities should understand and criticize the logic of neo-liberalism, examine the contradictions and problems caused by this model, and point out that there are many rules and practices for survival invented by ordinary people in their actual life, which are not always consistent with resource allocation through market mechanisms or in accordance with expertsʼ planning.

No.885 October 2011

Extra Edition

The Reports Presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Society
  Re-examining the Relationship between State and Local Society
  in a Time of Change

Plenary Session
Re-examining the Relationship between State and Local Society in a Time of Change:
  Focusing on the Experiences of Women on the Dawn of Modernity 
               ……………HASEGAWA Mayuho, YOKOYAMA Yuriko (2)
Ancient History Section
Interaction and the Creation of Order in the Ancient World (II)
               ……………NAKABAYASHI Takayuki, MINAGAWA Masaki (26)
Medieval History Section
Power and Village in Medieval Japan
               ……………SAKAMOTO Ryōta, HASEGAWA Yasuko (46)
Early Modern History Section
How Society Reproduced Itself in Early Modern Japan:
  Domains, Local Society, and Financial Capital
               ……………ITŌ Akihiro, IMAMURA Naoki (67)
Modern History Section
On the Legacy of Colonialism: The Continuation of War and Division
               ……………SHIN Changwoo, ASADA Shinji (89)
Contemporary History Section
Facing the Difficulties of Decolonization:
  Occupation and Liberation in the 20th Century
               ……………TOBE Hideaki, HAYAO Takanori (115)
Joint Section
Territorial Integration as a Reciprocal Process:
  The “Others” Integrated and the Reorganization of Ruling Ideology
 ……TANAKA Hajime, SAKURAI Yasuto, AMAGUCHI Akihiko, HIRATA Kazushige,IWAI Jun (139)


No.884 October 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  The Role of Historical Science in the Face of Great Earthquakes
  and Nuclear Disaster
Preface…………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
The Great Earthquake in Eastern Japan and the Way We Look at History
                          ……………HIRAKAWA Arata(2)
Earthquakes, Nuclear Disaster and the Possibility of Historical and Environmental Studies:
  A Proposal from a Historian Working on 9th Century Japanese Society
                          ……………HOTATE Michihisa(8)
The Great Earthquake in Eastern Japan and Studies on the History of Pre-Modern Japan
                          ……………YATA Toshifumi(12)
Towards a Social History of Disasters: The History of Relief in Desasters
                          ……………KITAHARA Itoko(16)
The Great Earthquake in Eastern Japan and Historical Science: What Can Historians Do ?
                          ……………OKUMURA Hiroshi(21)
Reports of the Networks of Historians Working on
  the Preservation of Historical Materials
Rescuing Historical Heritage in Miyagi after the Great Earthquake on 11 March
                          ……………SATŌ Daisuke(27)
On the Establishment of the Ibaraki Network for the Preservation of Historical Materials
                          ……………SHIRAI Tetsuya(30)
On the Present Situation of the Fukushima Network for the Preservation of Historical Materials
                          ……………ABE Kōichi(32)
Articles
Nuclear Power Plants and Local Society:
  The Historical Premise of the Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Fukushima
                          ……………NAKAJIMA Hisato(34)
The Manhattan Project at Present…………………………………HIRATA Kōji(40)
Nuclear Power Generation and the Reproduction of Discrimination:
  The Nuclear Power Plant at Prairie Island, Minnesota,
  and the Indigenous Community……………………………ISHIYAMA Noriko(48)
On the Production and Transmission of Records Concerning Disasters
                          ……………MIYAKE Akimasa(54)
Reflections on the Meltdown of Japanese Mass Media
  after the Catastrophe at Fukushima………………………YASUMURA Naoki(59)
Related Publications……………………………………………………………(66)

<Summary>

The Role of Historical Science in the Face of Great Earthquakes
   and Nuclear Disaster (Special Issue)

   The situation in Japan has been critical since the Great Earthquake and the Tsunami, which struck the eastern part of the country on 11 March 2011, and the concomitant accident at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima. This special issue aims to explore the possible roles of historical science and historians in such a situation, focusing on the following four points: (1) the importance of the history of the relationship between man and nature in general, and the “history of disasters” in particular, (2) the significance of rescuing and preserving historical documents and materials, (3) the need for a critical history of the development of nuclear energy, and (4) the possibility of recording, documenting, and analyzing the ongoing crisis as the object of contemporary history.
   This issue consists of ten articles. HIRAKAWA Arata, “The Great Earthquake in Eastern Japan and the Way We Look at History” stresses the importance of preserving (especially photographing) historical materials before disasters. HIRAKAWA argues that the history of disasters need not focus on loss and suffering. By focusing on the idea of “resiliency,” this history becomes a study in the recovery of hope by both individuals and society at large. HOTATE Michihisa, “Earthquakes, Nuclear Disaster and the Possibility of Historical and Environmental Studies” points out the scarcity of natural history on 9th century Japan. Inspired by the studies on the history of environment in Europe, he proposes that Japanese historians have a social responsibility to develop “historical and environmental studies” within Japan. Deploring the lack of historical studies on the issue of nuclear power generation as well, he stresses the necessity of integrating the results of natural history and environmental history into historiography as a whole. YATA Toshifumi, “The Great Earthquake in Eastern Japan and Studies on the History of Pre-Modern Japan,” points out that the Jogan Earthquake of 869 was equal in scale to the earthquake of 2011, and argues that it is necessary to re-examine the nature of 9th century Japanese society with this in mind. He also stresses the necessity of cooperation not only with archeology but also with geology, pointing out the significance of sedimentology in determining the nature and scale of past earthquakes. The study of earthquakes is essential for the restoration of historical topography of the region as well. KITAHARA Itoko, “Towards a Social History of Disasters” argues that a disaster exposes underlying mechanisms and processes of society which are invisible in ordinary times, and stresses the importance of “a social history of disasters” focusing on the life of ordinary people. An analysis of the experiences of the great earthquakes of 1855, 1923, and 2011 exposes not only the problems of Japanese society at that time, but also reveals how new trends were beginning to sprout forth. OKUMURA Hiroshi, “The Great Earthquake in Eastern Japan and Historical Science: What Can Historians Do ?” discusses what historians can actually do in the field of the preservation of historical materials, based on the concrete experiences of various networks of Japanese historians engaged in these activities. Arguing that historical materials constitute the “historical and cultural heritage of local society” as a whole, he suggests that the activities for preserving historical materials are inseparable from the rebuilding of the everyday life of local population.
   NAKAJIMA Hisato, “Nuclear Power Plants and Local Society” examines process of how nuclear power plants came to be located in coastal Fukushima. Both the Japanese government and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) were aware of the unspoken risks of radioactive contamination and therefore located nuclear power plants in depopulated areas remote from Tokyo. However, local governments welcomed these projects, anticipating positive effects on the local economy. Later, when people became aware of the dangers of the plants and the limited economic returns they brought, an opposition movement emerged. As a conciliatory measure, in 1974, a system for the “Allotment of Special Revenue for Electrical Power” was introduced to provide ongoing financial benefits. However, the accident on 11 March has led to the total destruction of local communities. HIRATA Koji, “The Manhattan Project at Present” points out that this well-known US war-time project was actually the origin of three things, i.e. nuclear weapons, nuclear power generation and particle physics. Examining the subsequent development of these three products of the Manhattan Project and showing how each of them is now at a standstill, he reveals the peculiar nature of nuclear technologies. ISHIYAMA Noriko, “Nuclear Power Generation and the Reproduction of Discrimination” deals with the experiences of the Prairie Island Indian Community, Minnesota, US, and examines how a small island in the Mississippi River became both the home for the local indigenous people and (since the 1970s) the site for a nuclear power plant. She points out that the nuclear power plant reproduces the mechanisms of discrimination, through which the weak are increasingly marginalized, excluded, and made “invisible”.
   MIYAKE Akimasa, “On the Production and Transmission of Records Concerning Disasters” begins with a personal narrative of the events on and since 11 March. Then he proceeds to analyze four documents produced by historians and writers during the Great Earthquake in September 1923. Showing how memories and records are transformed with the passing of time and their implications change, he discusses the significance of the production and transmission of records in a time of crisis. YASUMURA Naoki, “Reflections on the Meltdown of Japanese Mass Media after the Catastrophe at Fukushima” points out how, after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japanese mass media has continued to spread uncritically the false arguments presented by TEPCO that the sole cause of the accident was a freak giant tsunami. Analyzing various discourses presented by the media after 11 March, he shows how a collusive relationship among politics, business, bureaucracy, academic circles and mass media prevents us from knowing the nature and scale of what really happened at Fukushima and the effects on our health. He argues that, faced with this “meltdown” of the freedom of speech, by elucidating where the responsibility for this catastrophe lies in a long-term perspective, historians can provide a starting point for a national debate on its causes and consequences.
   This issue contains also three reports written by people actually engaged in the preservation of historical materials as the members of various networks of historians. (SATO Daisuke, “Rescuing Historical Heritage in Miyagi after the Great Earthquake on 11 March”; SHIRAI Tetsuya, “On the Establishment of the Ibaraki Network for the Preservation of Historical Materials”; ABE Koichi, “On the Present Situation of the Fukushima Network for the Preservation of Historical Materials”)




No.883 September 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Armies in Metamorphosis: Empire, State, Local Society and the Armed Masses (Ⅳ)
Articles
The “Mutiny” in the French Army in the Spring of 1917: Listening to
  the Voices of the “Citizen-Soldiers” of the Third Republic……MATSUNUMA Miho(1)
The “Ethnic Germans” and Waffen-SS (the Armed SS)
  in World War II…………………………………………………SHIBA Kensuke(13)

Article
The Regional Management of Communal Dining (Gonggong shitang) in Rural China
  during the Era of “Great Leap Forward” Policy:
  The Case of Hei Long Jiang Province…………………YOKOYAMA Masako(28)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
NAGAYAMA Shūichi, The “Hayato” in Ancient Japan…………………ITŌ Jun(46)
MORITA Yasukazu (ed.), Unity and Disunity in the Religious Reformation Movement
  in Europe……………………………………………………MOCHIZUKI Hideto(49)

The Society’s Report
Report on the 2011 General Assembly……………………………The Committee(53)

Forum
On the Database System for the Minutes of the Imperial Diet
  (Compiled by the National Diet Library, Japan) ………………NAITŌ Kazunari(58)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(60)


<Summary>

The “Mutiny” in the French Army in the Spring of 1917:
   Listening to the Voices of the “Citizen-Soldiers” of the Third Republic
MATSUNUMA Miho

   In the spring of 1917, in the trenches on the deadlocked Western Front during World War I, a number of cases of disobedience took place among the ranks of the French army, when soldiers refused en masse to obey instructions to attack. Without doubt, what made possible this “mutiny” were particular historical circumstances, in which the soldiers felt the imminent end of the war. Due to the lack of sufficient information, however, it is a difficult task to re-construct who actually took part in this “mutiny” and what were their motives. This article is an attempt to shed a light on these questions.
   What the insurgent soldiers demanded was that the principle of “equality” in rights and duties, the very ideals of the the French Revolution which constituted the basis of the legitimacy of the Third Republic also, should be implemented in the process of war waging as well. Adherence to the Republican values is observed not only in the discourse but also in the pratique of the insurgent soldiers, i.e. their mode of action, the manner in which they used various symbols. It is possible to interpret this “mutiny”, in this context, as the deeds of “citizen-soldiers” who were acting in accordance with the political and social framework of the existing French Republic.
   However, there were other voices as well. Sometimes, the total reversal of the exsting power structure in the army and the complete defiance of military discipline were observed in the course of the “mutiny”. Some insurgents went as far as to question the very idea of the “French state” and the “French nation”.


The “Ethnic Germans” and Waffen-SS (the Armed SS) in World War II
SHIBA Kensuke

   This article deals with the question of the so-called “ethnic Germans” (Volksdeutsche) in Romania and attempts to examine their relationship with the Romanian state and then with Germany (at the time of the Third Reich) in historical and political context.
   World War I changed drastically the political map of Southern and Eastern Europe. In Romania, German communities existed as a result of the immigration of Germans throughout the Medieval and Modern Periods. These communities constituted approximately 4 percent (over eight hundred thousand people) of the whole Romanian population, and these consisted of various groups such as Transilvanian Sachsen (Saxon), Banat Schwaben (Swabia), Bessarabians, Dobrudscha Germans. After World War I, as a result of the “Romanization” policies pursued by the Romanian government against the German minorities, these “ethnic Germans” increasingly began to be influenced by the National Socialist Movement in Germany. Finally, after the advent of the Third Reich, Romania became an ally state of Nazi Germany, and these “ethnic Germans” played an important role as a source of manpower for the first mass recruitment for the Nazi Waffen-SS (the Armed SS) outside Germany. They eventually provided the biggest source for compulsory conscription for the Waffen-SS as well.
   This article analyses the reasons why the “ethnic Germans” in Romania joined the Waffen-SS. It also examines the origin and development of the “Prinz Eugen” (the SS 7. Division), the first “ethnic German” division, which committed massacres against civilians in the anti-Partisan war. Making use of the Nuremberg Trials materials as well, this article attempts to shed light on various aspects of the “ethno-management” policy pursued by National Socialism towards the “ethnic Germans” outside Germany.


The Regional Management of Communal Dining (Gonggong shitang)
   in Rural China during the Era of “Great Leap Forward” Policy:
   The Case of Hei Long Jiang Province
YOKOYAMA Masako

   This article focuses on the question of the communal dining (Gonggong shitang) system which was introduced into villages of the People's Republic of China as a part of its agricultural and rural policy in the era of the “Great Leap Forward” (1958-1960). This rural policy, which consisted of the collectivization of agriculture, the establishment of people's communes, then the introduction of communal dining system based on the idea of “collectivization of life”, eventually led to food shortages, causing a decrease in population for the first time since the founding of the People's Republic.
   Up to now, although the ideology and discourse surrounding the communal dining have been fairly well known, we knew very little about how this system was actually implemented. All we had were some very general remarks concerning the situation on national level. In an attempt to reconstruct the actual state of management of the communal dining on local level, this article takes up the case of Hei Long Jiang Province in north eastern China, paying special attention to the matter of regional disparities. Various factors which have been hitherto ignored such as the local natural environment, the form of labor, are also taken into consideration, and their effects on the management of communal dining are examined. This enables us to gain new insight into the question of regional disparities in the management of communal dining and hence in the mortality rate due to food shortages.
   The communal dining in Hei Long Jiang Province was managed in a way which (although it was not always in accordance with the ideology and intentions of the central government) matched very well the characteristics of local society. The relatively low mortality rate in Hei Long Jiang Province was due to the existence of substantial food storage in homes, which was made possible by the way in which communal dining was managed in the area. Causes of food shortage other than communal dining system are also inferred.

No.882 August 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Armies in Metamorphosis: Empire, State, Local Society and the Armed Masses (Ⅲ)
Articles
The Narrative of “Kara-iri” (the “Conquest of China”)
  in the Late Edo Period…………………………………………NAKANO Hitoshi(1)
The Army and Logistics in Japan from the End of the Edo Period
  to the Early Meiji Period……………………………………………HŌYA Tōru(14)
The “Medical Landscape” of Nagasaki at the End of the Edo Period
  as Depicted by a Russian Naval Surgeon: Syphilis as the
  “Ruination of the Nation” and the Image of “Ailing Japan”……MIYAZAKI Chiho(26)

Current Topics
The Dawn Has Yet to Come: Reflections on the Historical Continuity
  of the Japanese Government's Policy towards Okinawa………ŌTA Masahide(38)

Relay Talks: On the Eve of the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (3)
“The Eastern Asian World” Revisited, or the Poetical Imagination
  of the Oppressed……………………………………………………TŌMA Seita(54)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
KUSANO Kenshi, The Shinshu Sects of Buddhism:
  The History of Their Activities in Local Society……………KINRYŪ Shizuka(58)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(60)


<Summary>

The Narrative of “Kara-iri”(the “Conquest of China”) in the Late Edo Period
NAKANO Hitoshi

   The memory of “Kara-iri” (“conquest of China” literally, a Japanese designation for the invasion of Korea by TOYOTOMI Hideyoshi) used to be taken up as a favorite topic for gunki (war tales) literature in the early Edo period. In the latter half of the Edo period, however, it began to be dealt with in a different context. As a memory of Japanʼs first large-scale external invasion, the narrative of “Kara-iri” began to play an important role in the making of the discourse concerning the Japanese “national character” i.e. Japanʼs “national personality”, its nature and distinctive qualities. The memories (and sometime the myths) of outwards expansion, such as the “conquest of the three Korean states” (Sankan seibatsu) by the legendary Empress Jingu, came to constitute important factors in the making of “national character”. Thus, attempts to re-locate “Kara-iri”, not as a mere topic of war tales, but as an important historical fact which provided the foundation for a strident promotion of a new consciousness of nationhood started.
   This article examines the manner in which “Kara-iri” was narrated in the latter half of the Edo period, paying attention to the elements of difference from earlier narratives. It analyzes works such as MOTOORI Nobinagaʼs Gyojū Gaigen, BAN Nobutomoʼs Chūgai Keii-Den Sōkō and RAI Sanyōʼs Nihon Gaishi (Unofficial History of Japan), as well as Seikan Iryaku, Seikan Zasshi and other works produced by the late Mito School, and examines the nature of their discourse, and shows how these discourses provided a link to discourses in the Modern Period.


The Army and Logistics in Japan from the End of the Edo Period
   to the Early Meiji Period
HOYA Toru

   In armies in the Edo period, combatants were recruited exclusively from the bushi (warrior) or quasi-bushi classes, while peasants fulfilled, as non-combatants, the role of laborers who transported military provisions and munitions. Thus, the Shogunateʼs armed forces depended heavily on the people of the peasant class in the domain of military transportation. The concept of warrior predominance as combatants persisted after the Meiji Restoration, and the armed forces of the early Meiji period did not have sufficient transport corps within their ranks. The means of military transportation during the Meiji period consisted essentially of men and horses. Due to the delay in the improvement of horse power and in the development of transport vehicles, there was a tendency to depend heavily on man power. During the Seinan War in 1877, the army recruited laborers through local authorities and incorporated them into the armed forces as civilian war workers. More than 20 million laborers were recruited in total, constituting more than 30% of total war expenditures. As a result, the government decided to revise its Conscription Law in 1879, conscripting transport soldiers and thus creating adequate transport corps within the official structure of the armed forces. At the same time, the Requisition Law was promulgated in 1882, which made it possible for the Meiji state to requisition all sorts of military supplies from its subjects, including both men and horses, based on the idea of the “right of requisitioning”, inherited from the Tokugawa Shogunate.


The “Medical Landscape” of Nagasaki at the End of the Edo Period
   as Depicted by a Russian Naval Surgeon:
   Syphilis as the “Ruination of the Nation” and the Image of “Ailing Japan”
MIYAZAKI Chiho

   Syphilis and tuberculosis came to be regarded as “national diseases” in modern Japan, with the advent of Western medical knowledge, in accordance with which, Japan was diagnosed as an “ailing nation”.
   Immediately after the opening of seaports during the Ansei Period (1854-1859), a Russian naval surgeon, D. V. MERTSALOV, described Nagasaki as a “port town suffering from syphilis and tuberculosis.” This description was based on the political discourse that Japan, as an “ailing nation”, should be “saved” thorough the enlightening force of “civilization”, the embodiment of which were Western medical science and, in particular, the medical police (syphilis inspection) system. In Japan a syphilis inspection system emerged side by side with a discourse that syphilis is the “ruination of the nation”, a disease which would have a lingering effect on the generations to come.
   Such discourse was adopted and re-produced by the Japanese military physicians, when the national army was founded in the Meiji period, and led to the emergence of two juxtaposed images, i.e. the image of “prostitutes”, who were regarded as the source of syphilis infection which should be medically managed on the one hand, and the image of “healthy soldiers”, who were regarded as the pillar of nation on the other hand.
   Later, the idea of saving “ailing” others through the enlightening force of “civilization” influenced the way in which Japan looked at its colonies. The influence of the same idea is observed in the present-day regulations concerning the “management of the health of the motherʼs body” as well.

No.881 July 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Armies in Metamorphosis: Empire, State, Local Society and the Armed Masses (II)
Articles
Turkic Soldiers under the Tang Dynasty………………………YAMASHITA Shōji(1)
Mercenaries Crossing between Two Civilizations: Christian Mercenaries
  in the Medieval West-Mediterranean World……………………KURODA Yūga(12)
Breaking through “Boundaries”: An Analysis of the Activities of
  a Georgian Warrior Who Served the Safavid Dynasty………MAEDA Hirotake(22)
The Position of the Cossacks in the Army of the Russian Empire
  as a “Settler State”: With Special Reference to the Establishment of
  the Orenburg Cossack Legion in the 18th century………TOYOKAWA Kōichi(34)

Current Topics
Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement: Its Effects on
  the Agriculture and Food Security of Japan………………IWABUCHI Takashi(49)

Relay Talks: On the Eve of the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (2)
The Beginning of the Post-War Activities…………………………ARAI Shin-ichi(57)

Recent Publications………………………………………………………………(60)

Society's Announcements: Our Duty after the 11th March
  (Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly)………………………………(61)


<Summary>

Turkic Soldiers under the Tang Dynasty
YAMASHITA Shoji

   The conquest of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate in 630 by the Tang dynasty led to the incorporation of large number of Turkic population into the dynasty's territory. The Tiělè tribes in the north of the Gobi Desert also came under the domination of the Tang court in 647 and moved into the north frontier of the Tang from the latter half of the 7th century until the early 8th century.
   These Turkic nomads who came under the rule of the Tang dynasty continued to provide it with horse-mounted soldiers, both during the period of military offensives (the reigns of Emperors Taizong and Gaozong) when they took part in campaigns mainly as field battle forces and during the period of frontier defense (the reign of Emperor Xuanzong) when they served as garrisons stationed in the frontier. It is noteworthy that throughout these periods they maintained their own community organization. The policy of utilizing the nomads as a military force while allowing them to maintain their own social structure persisted, essentially throughout the Tang period.
   This means that the nomadic population which played a significant military role under the Tang dynasty maintained its own social structure to the end of the dynasty and was never completely incorporated into the Tang order. Thus, the Tang was a dynasty which was supported militarily by the nomadic populations, who, nevertheless, managed to stand outside its order.
 
 
Mercenaries Crossing between Two Civilizations:
   Christian Mercenaries in the Medieval West-Mediterranean World
KURODA Yuga
 
   The aim of this article is to analyse the activities of Christian mercenaries who served in the “Muslim West” (Maghrib and Andalus) as the experiences of those who “crossed borders” and examine their social significance. From the 12th century (at the latest) until the end of the Medieval period, Christian mercenaries in the Muslim West continued to be a significant asset for the Muslim rulers. As stated by Ibn Khaldūn, they proved themselves useful as skilled heavy cavalry or infantry, and it was considered ideal to use them in combination with Muslim and Berber troops, who were more agile but fragile. These Christian mercenaries were constantly provided from the Iberian Peninsula, because Iberian Christians in those days used to regard the “Muslim West” as a perfect place where they could obtain both “gold and honour”, demonstrating their military skills and maintaining their faith. Thus, as long as there was coincidence of interest between the Christian mercenaries and the Muslim rulers, religious differences were temporarily overlooked.
   Most of the mercenaries maintained their Christian faith during the service, and their stay was a temporary one until the fulfillment of their mission and ambitions. Even in service, they were maintaining their attachment to their home, and, if they died before returning home, they wanted to be buried in a church or monastery situated in their homeland. Thus, we might argue that the experiences of the Christian mercenaries, who were the mediators between the medieval Western European civilization and the “Muslim West”, were also symbols of the limits of cultural adaptability between the two worlds.
 
 
Breaking through “Boundaries”: An Analysis of the Activities
   of a Georgian Warrior Who Served the Safavid Dynasty
MAEDA Hirotake
 
   This article examines the activities of Giorgi SAAKADZE (?~1629), a Georgian military commander who served the Safavid dynasty, paying special attention to the question of “spatial and mental transfer”. It analyzes the career of Saakadze in comparison with that of Malik AMBAR (also known as “Chap”) who served the Nizam Shahi dynasty in Deccan around the same period, taking into account R. M. EATON's argument on two types of “king's slaves”, namely, the “emperor’s slaves” (in the case of the Mughal dynasty) and the "foreign slave corps” of Ethiopian provenance (in the case of Nizam Shahi dynasty).
   The career of SAAKADZE, who crossed the boundaries and adopted (at least on the surface) new imperial identity, was typical of the newly arising Caucasian elites, as was observed by a Persian chronicler. To a certain extent, it was comparable with the career of Malik AMBAR, for both experienced certain shift of spatial and mental affiliations. However difference is also apparent in the following two points. First, the new Safavid elites of Caucasian provenance (Shah’s slaves) represented a hybrid mixture of the above-mentioned two different types of “king’s slaves”, establishing their sphere of influence in competition with the existing imperial elites (Turkic and Iranian elites). Second, the fact that his homeland (Georgia) was adjacent to the Safavid Empire and that he thus was able to “travel” between the two areas easily gave rise to the phenomenon of “double loyalty”, namely loyalty to the Empire and loyalty to his own country (or to the political order prevailing in that vassal state). At the same time, these two loyalties were not necessarily mutually contradictory and it seems that his self-awareness and pride as a warrior functioned as a sort of balancer for filling the gaps and the contradictions.
   The experiences of people like SAAKADZE should be examined in the context of a regional system as a whole, within which different processes such as submission, adjustment, bridging, and border-crossing were at play. Also more attention should be paid to the complicated nature of the military elites of Caucasian origin and to their amazing ability to transcend both religious and cultural boundaries.
 
 
The Position of the Cossacks in the Army of the Russian Empire
   as a “Settler State: With Special Reference to the Establishment
   of the Orenburg Cossack Legion in the 18th Century
TOYOKAWA Koichi
 
   In spite of the military reforms undertaken by Peter I in order to unite and standardize different types of military forces and to establish an integrated, highly-efficient standing army, this aim was never completely fulfilled, and some irregular forces continued to play a significant role in the Russian Empire. The Cossacks are the case in point, and, of all the Cossacks, the case of the Orenburg Cossacks was most interesting, since these were a sort of “official Cossacks” who were newly established by the government in the the 18th century, and no longer possessed the tradition of “freedom and autonomy”. They functioned as members of the Russian imperial army, not as regular forces but rather as a sort of irregular force that was differentiated from the regular army. Along with the other irregular forces consisting of peoples such as the Kalmyks, and the Bashkirs, Orenburg Cossacks played a significant role in the Russian army.
   The expansion of the Russian state through conquest and subjugation also led to the expansion of frontiers to defend. In order to fulfill this mission, it was deemed necessary to encourage the settlement of peasants into the newly acquired territories and to implant military forces into the same areas. It was in this context that the Cossacks played a major role. It was deemed necessary, at the same time, to “domesticate” the Cossacks, so that they would never rise in rebellion against the state. This was the aim of the “officialization" of the Cossacks policy, in accordance with which several Cossack legions (such as the Volga Cossacks, Astrakhan Cossacks, and the Orenburg Cossacks) were created.

No.880 June 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  Armies in Metamorphosis: Empire, State, Local Society and the Armed Masses (I)
Preface…………………………………………………………the Editorial Board(1)
Articles
The Themata in 7th Century Asia Minor and the Rebirth of the Byzantine State
                           ……………KOBAYASHI Isao(2)
The Military Mobilization of Local Villages by Sengoku Daimyō……KURODA Motoki(12)
A Catholic Contribution to the Ideology of “French National Army”:
  Focusing on the Role of the Military Chaplains (1870-1913)……SEIGAN Kōbō(22)
Personal Networks and Local Armed Groups in the Taiping Movement in 19th China
                           ……………KIKUCHI Hideaki(34)
Canadian Maritime Defence and the British Empire
  from the Late 19th to Early 20th Centuries…………HOSOKAWA Michihisa(46)
The Asian-Pacific War and the Anti-Japanese Movement
  of Chinese in the United States…………………………KIKUCHI Kazutaka(57)
Related Publications……………………………………………………………(68)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
SAITŌ Shin-ichi, Roads and Castles in Medieval Eastern Japan……MATSUOKA Susumu(69)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(73)

Announcements: Information Concerning the Great Earthquake in Eastern Japan
  and the Rescue of Historical Documents……………………………………(74)


<Summary>

The Themata in 7th Century Asia Minor and the Rebirth of the Byzantine Stat
KOBAYASHI Isao

   This article examines the nature of the themata (the thema system, which is generally conceived as a combination between military and administrative functions), its effect on the local society in Asia Minor (which constituted the core territory of the Byzantine Empire from the 7th century), and on the Empire as a whole.
   Recent research on the genesis of the themata has demonstrated that the standard interpretation developed by G. Ostrogorsky, according to which themata were institutionalized in the early 7th century under the reign of Heraclius, is no longer valid. Themata developed in Asia Minor from the mid 7th century, as a result of the influx of garrisons which had been hitherto stationed in the other regions of the Empire, but were compelled to evacuate and move, under the pressure of the Arab expansion.
Moreover, in the 7th century, no major change took place in the military and administrative systems of the Empire. It was only in the 9th century that themata began to be institutionalized as a local administrative system.
   In the 7th century, Asia Minor suffered considerable damage due to the constant attacks by the Arabs. A significant change occurred in the composition of the population as well. At the same time, however, the development of new sort of large-scale land ownership was observed, especially in the eastern and central parts of Asia Minor. These landowners, some of whom were the high-ranking officers of the themata, were closely connected with the Imperial central government, and played a key role in maintaining the subsistence of local society and defending Asia Minor as well.
   We might argue that these developments in Asia Minor prepared the way to the “rebirth” of the Byzantine Empire after the 8th century.



The Military Mobilization of Local Villages by Sengoku Daimyo
KURODA Motoki

   From the late Muromachi period until the “Warring States” (Sengoku) period (15th to 16th centuries), the military mobilization of rural villages by both local lords and then later larger regional lords (sengoku daimyo) was a common phenomenon. However, this mobilization was only possible when it was in concord, in the eyes of the local villagers, with the defense of their own community and livelihood.
   This situation changed, however, in the final phase of the Sengoku period, when several warring lords began to accumulate large-scale states, which transcended traditional regional borders, and warfare became something generally fought outside the borders of the state. Villages inside the core territory of a sengoku daimyo were released from the fear of being turned into a battlefield, warfare ceased to be an everyday affair, and there was no more military mobilization of the villages. The daimyo began to pay more attention to the maintaining economic and social stability within the villages located in the core territory of their state.
   However, when the military situation worsened and the very existence of the state was threatened, the sengoku daimyo tried to militarily mobilize the villages in the core territory of their state, and the villagers were temporarily turned into soldiers, although their social status remained that of peasants. In this context, the daimyo resorted to the concept of “okuni” (homeland), since this made it possible to argue that defense of the state was tantamount to the defense of local society.
   The abovementioned change in the style of military mobilization of villages corresponds to a significant development in Japanese history, i.e. the transition from a stage in which warfare was an everyday affair to a new stage in which a “regional peace” was built and maintained by daimyo states.


A Catholic Contribution to the Ideology of“French National Army”:
   Focusing on the Role of the Military Chaplains (1870-1913)
SEIGAN Kobo

   The republican ideology of the “French National Army,” which came into being at the time of the French Revolution, is fairly well known. Based on the concept of popular sovereignty, it argued that the members of the republic had the obligation to defend their own republic.
   Though dealing with essentially the same subject, this article attempts to examine the question from a different perspective, i.e. the Catholic ideology of “national army.” This was an ideology that advocated devotion to God, to the homeland and to the army. However, as is clear from the case of the “Sacred Union,” which was realized in France during World War I, this Catholic ideology of national army was able to coexist and cooperate with its republican counterpart. This article examines the development of the Catholic ideology of national army, through an analysis of the activities and ideas of military chaplains from the time of the Franco-Prussian War to the outbreak of World War I.
   The military chaplains saw the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War as the “will of God.” At same time, they hoped for the rebirth of French society and preached absolute obedience to authority. Although they were harassed by the rise of anticlerical tendencies since the 1880s, they continued their missionary activities among the soldiers.
   Meanwhile, on the level of local society, people maintained the memories of the Franco-Prussian War by reflecting on the military chaplains who shared their suffering with them.
   These were the factors that eventually led to the realization of the “Sacred Union,” i.e. the mass mobilization of citizens and clerics, in World War I.


Personal Networks and Local Armed Groups in the Taiping Movement
   in c19th China
KIKUCHI Hideaki

   This article examines the question of local militarization in the area dominated by the Taiping Movement. The early Taiping originally had a centralized system that could mobilize and command their soldiers effectively. However, the Taiping people resorted to personal groupings made up of men and their relatives from the same provinces, as a source of reciprocal assistance, rather than groupings based on their own religious association. After the Tianjiin incident (天京事変) in 1856, local armed groups personally associated with the Taiping generals emerged, and they conducted activities independent of both the Taiping leadership and the Qing imperial army.
   The Taiping army came to be exhausted by the war of attrition that had continued for several years, and many of its members tried to survive by using various networks. As a result, the Taiping dynasty became an aggregation of personal troops that belonged to the kings who could protect the soldiers and their families, and these kings, in their turn, ruled their territories in order to support their subordinates. HONG Xiuquan (洪秀全) tried to reduce the power of these kings, but this policy led to disorder in the chain of command and subsequently weakened the power of the Taipingʼs central government.
   In the end, the Taiping movement, in spite of its strong religious canon, failed in its attempt to found a new dynasty and to integrate the people, and its army was transformed into to a number of local troops, as a result of the development of personal relationships. We can find the same tendency in the “voluntary armies”, such as Xiang-jun (湘軍) and the Huai-jun (淮軍) that suppressed the Taiping and other rebellions, and the legacy of these volunteer armies was later taken up by the Beiyang army (北洋軍) and the so-called military cliques in the early twentieth century. The elimination of despotic order, that had ruled China for 2,000 years in a rigid and centralized way, was a remarkable achievement in modern China. The experiences of local armed groups, which go back to the days of Taiping Movement, might be located in this context.


Canadian Maritime Defence and the British Empire from the Late 19th
   to Early 20th Centuries
HOSOKAWA Michihisa

   This article deals with the development of Canadian maritime defence from the late 19th to early 20th centuries, not only in the light of Canadian attitudes towards the British imperial policy, but also in consideration of factors such as Canadaʼs relation not only with the British Empire but also with the United States, and its ethnic and regional diversity.
   As is well known, it was the British naval crisis of 1908 that triggered Canadian interest in naval defence, and which subsequently led to the establishment of the Canadian Navy in 1910. Maritime issues, however, had been of great concern in Canada, ever since the advent of the Treaty of Washington in 1871. Although this treaty realized Anglo-American rapprochement, the Canadians were still worried about the American threat, especially in fisheries. As Britain prohibited self-governing colonies from building their own navies, Canada tried to defend the US-Canadian border waters by reinforcing the Fisheries Protection Service, which was later to constitute the core of the Canadian Navy.
   With the decline of the Royal Navy, and under the pressure of growing expenditure, Britain began to ask its self-governing colonies known as “dominions” for more “imperial” contribution, and finally changed its naval policy and allowed them to build their own navies. In general, unlike Australia and New Zealand, Canada's contribution was meagre, because any commitment to the British Empire would arouse conflicts between English Canadian imperialists and French Canadian nationalistes, as seen, for instance, in the debates over the Naval Service Act which stipulated the establishment of the Canadian Navy.
   Throughout these periods, imperial naval defence continued to be a delicate issue for the conglomerate British Empire. It eventually led to its decentralization, namely, the birth of the British Commonwealth of Nations.


The Asian-Pacific War and the Anti-Japanese Movement
   of Chinese in the United States
KIKUCHI Kazutaka

   This article examines the anti-Japanese movement of the Chinese residents in the United States, especially in San Francisco and New York, during the Asian-Pacific War, 1937-1945.
   With the onset of the Japanese military offensives in North China on July 7, 1937, a sense of unity prevailed among the Chinese residents all over the United States, and they established a number of organizations for collecting donations to their homeland. SOON Mei-ling (宋美齢)ʼs New Life Movement also participated in this campaign, calling for donations and a boycott of the Japanese goods. Since these donations were sent through the National Bank of China (中国銀行) to CHIANG Kai-shek (蔣介石), people soon came to suspect that CHIANG might be appropriating part of the donations and diverted them to other purposes. As a result, a group led by Zhigongtang (致公堂), an influential Chinese Freemason in New York, became increasingly critical about the autocratic tendency of CHIANG and his Chinese National Party (KMT).
   Meanwhile, Chinese residents in San Francisco and the West Coast started a campaign for the embargo on the export of scrap iron and oil to Japan. Many Chinese joined the US Army to fight against Japan. These activities led to the promotion of Chinese status inside the United States and the repeal of the old Chinese Expulsion Acts in 1943.
   As the war neared its end, a great debate took place between the Third Force represented by Zhigongtang and pro-KMT forces, concerning the assessment of CHIANG's war time efforts. Obviously, the Chinese residents in the United States were generally disappointed with CHIANG and the KMT, and this led, indirectly, to the promotion of the influence of the Chinese Communist Party.


No.879 May 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  The 21th International Congress of Historical Sciences, Amsterdam 2010 (II)
International Commission for the History of the French Revolution:
  The French Revolution in Transnational Perspective……TACHIKAWA Kōichi(1)
International Commission for the History of the World War II:
  Occupied Societies from 1931 to 1949
International Commission for the History of International Relations:
  Migrations and Cultural Transfers………………………………HABA Kumiko(8)

Articles
Civil Suites and the Commune in 14th Century Lucca……………NAKAYA Sō(15)

Current Topics
On the Announcement of the Results of the Excavation of
  The Kengoshizuka Kofun…………………………………MARUYAMA Osamu(34)

Relay Talks: On the Eve of the 80th Anniversary of Our Society (1)
The Development of Historical Sciences in Post War Japan
  and My Life as a Historian……………………………………INUMARU Giichi(38)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
TAKATSUNA Hirofumi, The Japanese Residents in Shanghai,
  an “International City”………………………………………MAEDA Terundo(42)
KAWAMURA Shinzō (ed.), Beyond Borders:
  The History of the Jesuit Mission in Global Context………ASAMI Masakazu(45)

Exhibition Reviews
The Exhibition on the Iwami Silver Mine……………………………SEKI Shūichi(49)

Preparatory Papers for the General Meeting of the Society in May 2011……(52)

Society’s Announcements: The General Meeting of the Historical Science
  Society of Japan for the Year 2011……………………………………………(63)

<Summary>

Civil Suites and the Commune in 14th Century Lucca
NAKAYA So

   This article aims to examine the nature of the Commune (the city government) in the 14th Italy, concentrating on the question of civil justice. Previous studies dealing mainly with the question of criminal justice, have tended to portray the Commune as a powerful actor which held sway over various social forces. In contrast, this article reveals that the city government was created and modified by the people.
   Court records show that people with land disputes often filed their suites to the communal tribunals. A closer examination of civil suites reveals, however, that the litigant parties were not expecting judicial institutions to resolve the disputes completely by issuing final judgment concerning land ownership. Rather, what they expected from the courts was the issue of summary judicial orders, which, even if they were cancelable, permitted the claimants to possess land. This means that the communal courts were used, not as the final authority which grants indisputable rights, but merely as an institution which affords a possibility of de facto possession of land.
   The courts were made use of in this way, because of peopleʼs sense of rights, in accordance with which, it was important not only to have title deeds, but also to actually occupy the lands in question. Viewed in this light, the strategic use of summary judicial orders can be regarded as a crucial social practice, through which the nature of communal courts (and that of the Commune) was transformed, from something established by law (institution) to something which operates functionally in society (mechanism).

No.878 April 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE:
  The 21th International Congress of Historical Sciences, Amsterdam 2010 (I)
Introduction…………………………………………………………KIBATA Yōichi(1)
Major Themes
The Fall of Empires…………………………………………………ADACHI Hiroaki(3)
Special Sessions
The Modernization of China, India and Japan: A Comparative Study
 ……TOMOBE Ken-ichi, NAGASHIMA Takeshi, YOSHIZAWA Seiichirō, MATSUURA Masataka(9)
World Images in Historical Perspective……………………………SATŌ Masayuki(24)
Round Tables
Is There a Global Approach to History?……………………OKAMOTO Michihiro(30)
The Public Sphere: The Uses of a Concept………………………MITANI Hiroshi(36)
Female Iconic Representations of Collective Identity……………IKEDA Shinobu(42)
Women and Learned Culture……………………………………TAKAHASHI Yūko(47)

Society’s Announcements: The 2011 General Meeting of the Historical
  Science Society of Japan……………………………………………‥‥……(53)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
UEDA Hiroyuki, Monetary Policies under Qing Rule……………KISHIMOTO Mio(54)
IIJIMA Wataru, KUBO Tōru & MURATA Yūjirō (eds.),
  Twentieth-Century China (4 Vols.)…………………………ISHIJIMA Noriyuki(57)

Exibition Reviews
The Museum of the Noborito Peace Education Institute, Meiji University
                           ……………UDAGAWA Kōta(61)

No.877 March 2011

Articles
An Attempt to Restore the “Agricultural Land Allotment Act” of
  the 25th Year of the Kaiyuan Period, Tang Dynasty, China
                         ……………MATSUDA Yukihiko(1)
The Role of “War Situation Information” in the Nanboku-chō Civil War
  in Medieval Japan………………………………………………KUDŌ Katsuhiro(18)

Views and Reviews
On ITŌ Yukio,“Japanese Emperors in the Modern Period:
  Had They 'Magical'Powers ?”: A Critical Reply………………YASUDA Hiroshi(33)
Grasping the Nature of American Society through the Analysis of
  the Quota System at Colleges: A Response to the Review by
  SATŌ Tadayuki on The Half-Opened “Golden Door”……………KITA Miyuki(41)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
John F. MORRIS, The Division of Public and Private Spheres
  in Edo Period Samurai Society……………………………TAKANO Nobuharu(44)
TAKANO Akio,The Emergence of Modern Cities and Koreans in Japan
                         ……………TONOMURA Masaru(47)
KURATA Tōru, Hong Kong after Its Reintegration into China……SHIODE Hirokazu(50)
FURUTA Motoo, The Birth of Doi Moi………………………KURIHARA Hirohide(53)
SAKURAI Mariko & MOROO Akiko (eds.),
  Dynamism of the Ancient Mediterranean World…………NAKANO Yoshiaki(56)

Exibition Reviews
“We Crossed the Sea Only with a Bundle (Bottari)”:
  Daily Life in the Korean Diaspora in Japan …………………HIGUCHI Yūichi(59)


<Summary>

An Attempt to Restore the “Agricultural Land Allotment Act” of
   the 25th Year of the Kaiyuan Period, Tang Dynasty, China
MATSUDA Yukihiko

   The discovery of the Tian Sheng Ling (the “Northern Song Dynasty Act”) constituted a breakthrough in the studies concerning the collection and restoration of the lost Tang Ling (the “Tang Dynasty Act”). This is because the Tian Sheng Ling cites virtually the entire text of the “Agricultural Land Allotment Act” of the 25th year of the Kaiyuan Period, Tang Dynasty (737) as well as the Song Ling (the “Song Dynasty Act”).
   Hitherto, there have been two different approaches to the question of land allotment system under the Tang Dynasty, i.e. one that puts emphasis on the “inner logic” of the statutes of the Act themselves, so to speak, and the other which emphasizes the importance of taking historical circumstances into account. This article aims to not only restore and reconstruct the full text of the original Tang Land Allotment Act, based on the text of Song Ling, but also to unite these two existing approaches and hopefully to transcend them.
   The original Tang Agricultural Land Allotment Act was composed of five clause groups namely, I. denseki, II. kyuden, III. shuju, IV. kugeden and shikibunden and V. tonden. This composition is characterized by an organic linkage between the basic regulations stipulating the fundamental framework for the implementation of kyuden or shuju, and the supplementary regulations stipulating the exceptional cases, the enforcement of the Act, and other sundry matters, thus showing an extremely logical arrangement. While the issue of historicity is important in examining the clause composition of the Act, it is also important not to neglect the inner logical coherence of the text.


The Role of “War Situation Information” in the Nanboku-cho Civil War
   in Medieval Japan
KUDO Katsuhiro

   A fact itself can not influence the behavior of a person. It has its effect only when it is translated into “information”. People construct their world view (i.e. the way in which they grasp the situation), relying not upon the facts themselves but rather upon pieces of information which are believed to reflect the facts. This article is an attempt to analyze the development of the Nanboku-cho civil war in medieval Japan, based on this idea of the “role of information”. Special attention is paid to the role of “war situation information” in the course of the civil war. Takauji ASHIKAGA and Emperor Godaigo, who were the key actors in the civil war, sometimes intentionally circulated fallacious information on the war situation, in order to make their followers believe that the situation was in their favor. A sort of information warfare was being waged, so to speak. The recipients of information, the bushi in both camps, were often misled and confused by information circulated by Takauji and Godaigo, but they were engaged in their own information-gathering activities as well, and sometimes detected fallacy. Generally speaking, however, they were acting within the framework of information provided either by the Southern or the Northern dynasty, and it was difficult for them to free themselves completely from the intentions of Takauji and Godaigo. This was one of the factors which led to the protraction of the civil war.



No.876 February 2011

Articles
The Okinawa Kyōiku (The Journal of Okinawan Education) and
  the Emergence of “Okinawan Consciousness”: The Ideas and Activities of
  OYADOMARI Chōtaku in the 1910s…………………………TERUYA Shinji(1)
Church Policy of the City Council of Munster in the Reformation Period:
  An Analysis of Their Negotiations with the Political Groups
  in and outside the City, 1525-1534…………………NAGAMOTO Tetsuya(20)

Current Topics
The Collapse of Japanese Universities and the Question of Younger Academics:
  Analyses and Perspectives…………………………………SAKIYAMA Naoki(37)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
YASUTOMI Ayumu & FUKAO Yōko (eds.), The Emergence of “Manchuria”
                           ……………ENATSU Yoshiki(47)
HASEGAWA Yoshiyuki, The Roman Empire and Augustine………GOTŌ Atsuko(50)
KATSUTA Shunsuke, Captain Rock, the Midnight Legislator……KANAZAWA Shūsaku(54)

Exhibition Reviews
Nushu: Women's Script in China………………………………MATSUI Naoyuki(58)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………(62)


<Summary>

The Okinawa Kyōiku (The Journal of Okinawan Education) and
   the Emergence of “Okinawan Consciousness” :
   The Ideas and Activities of OYADOMARI Chōtaku in the 1910s
TERUYA Shinji

   This article analyzes the activities of OYADOMARI Chōtaku (1875-1966) as the editor of the Okinawa Kyōiku (The Journal of Okinawan Education). This journal, which was published by the Okinawan Education Association in the years 1906-c.1944, constitutes one of the most import materials for the study of modern Okinawan history. In the course of the analysis, special attention is paid to the question of “Okinawan consciousness”, the question of what the “modern era” meant to the Okinawan people, and the question of whether an alternative course of development for education in Okinawa might have been viable.
   While the history of education in Okinawa in the modern era has been hitherto described as a process of assimilation (kōminka), this article attempts to present a different picture, inspired by the concept of “colonial modernity”. It also attempts to present a new picture of “Okinawan consciousness”. Avoiding an essentialist approach, it rather tries to grasp this consciousness as a dynamic process, a process of ‘politicization of ethnicity’.
   OYADOMARI, who was the first Okinawan to be appointed the principal of an elementary school, later became the editor of the Okinawa Kyōiku in the 1910s and expressed his ideas on education in Okinawa. According to him, a modern Okinawan citizen was expected to have a strong consciousness of being “Okinawan”. In practice, he expected Okinawan citizens to learn Okinawan history, and to also master standard Japanese in order to compete with the Japanese. However, since he was forced to resign his job, he could not realize these ideas.


Church Policy of the City Council of Münster in the Reformation Period:
   An Analysis of their Negotiations with the Political Groups
   in and outside the City, 1525-1534
NAGAMOTO Tetsuya

   In the context of history of the Reformation in the German cities, city councils have been generally regarded as a hindrance to the Reformation. In reality, however, city councils did not always hinder, but they sometimes also authorized the Reformation, supported it in cooperation with the citizens, and were even actively engaged in it in some cases. This article attempts to present a comprehensive picture of the varying attitudes shown by one city council toward the Reformation, and to explain this variety in a coherent way by focusing on three factors: the power balance between different political groups, the interests and beliefs of individuals who composed the council, and the role of the city council. The case under examination is the church policy of the City Council of Münster on the occasions of the Revolt of 1525, the Reformation in 1532-33, and the split of the inhabitants into three confessions (Catholic, Lutheran and Anabaptists) in 1533-34.
   The city council made its decisions concerning religious matters based on a strong self-awareness of its role as “the authorities” of the city. It was keenly interested in avoiding splits and discord among the inhabitants, in keeping peace and harmony in the city, and in saving the freedom, privileges and profits of its citizens.

No.875 January 2011

SPECIAL ISSUE: Language as Politics (Ⅲ) :
  Deciphering the Interplay between Language Communities, State, and “Empire”

Articles
The Mongol Empire’s Language Policy towards the World of Chinese Language:
  Focusing on the Question of the “Literal Translation Style” and
  its Impact on Chinese……………………………………FUNADA Yoshiyuki(1)
The Language Movement, Language Policy, and the “Historiography of
  the Language Movement” in Post-Liberation South Korea……MITSUI Takashi(13)

Notes and Suggestions
The Financing of the Imperial Court and the Role of the Kyōto Deputy (Kyōto Daikan)
  in the Late Edo Period…………………………………………SATŌ Yūsuke(25)

Current Topics
On the Problem of History Textbooks in Yokohama………TAWADA Masayasu(37)

Book Reviews (Unless otherwise noted, the works are written in Japanese)
NESAKI Mitsuo, A Study of the Socio-Political History of Falconry
  in the Edo Shogunate……………………………YAMAZAKI Hisato(46)
RI Kaien, The Korean Communities in “Manchuria” after the Defeat of Japan
                         ……………CHUNG Ah Young(49)
SEHARA Yoshio, Studies on the History of Swiss Independence……MINAGAWA Taku(51)
WATANABE Kazuyuki, Historians and Historiography in Modern France
                         ……………YAMAZAKI Kōichi(55)

Exibition Reviews
OKA Masaharu Memorial Nagasaki Peace Museum……………LEE So-Ryeong(58)

Recent Publications……………………………………………………………………(61)


<Summary>
The Mongol Empireʼs Language Policy towards the World of
   Chinese Language: Focusing on the Question of
   the “Literal Translation Style” and its Impact on Chinese
FUNADA Yoshiyuki

   This article examines the Mongol Empireʼs language policy, focusing on the question of the so-called “literal translation style” (Zhiyiti)-i.e. a style of Chinese language metaphrased from Mongolian. The emergence of this style was epoch-making in that state power created, on its own initiative, a particular style of translation, and required that officials use it in translating Mongolian official documents, including edicts, into Chinese. The Zhiyiti was a type of “contact language,” based on Chinese vocabulary and Mongolian syntactic structures.
   The starting point of this analysis is the fact that there are some common linguistic elements between the language of official documents written in Zhiyiti and that of the Laoqida (Nogeoldae), one of the oldest Chinese language textbooks originally published during the Mongol period. This article proves, firstly, that the Laoqida was not metaphrased from Mongolian. Then, it proceeds to analyze why linguistic elements of Zhiyiti are found even in the materials which were written without using the Zhiyiti style. Although Zhiyiti was a linguistic style chiefly meant for the purpose of translation, the documents produced in Zhiyiti were read out aloud on various occasions and people listened to the sounds of the Zhiyiti. It was through this process that the sounds of Zhiyiti came to affect the colloquial or spoken language.
   It is noteworthy that state policy contributed, in this way, to the transformation of a language, even if in a limited degree. This is an interesting case, which might stimulate the further development of sociolinguistic history.


The Language Movement, Language Policy, and the
    “Historiography of the Language Movement”
   in Post-Liberation South Korea
MITSUI Takashi

   The language movement and language policy in South Korea after its liberation from Japanese colonial rule have been generally studied as a question of language nationalism in the context of the nation-building process. An underlying assumption here has been that there was a “complete break” between these developments and the colonial era. It is unquestionable that the defeat of Japanese colonialism was a watershed in Korean history. If we focus on the question of Korean language standardization, which constitutes the core of the language movement and language policy, however, we can discern elements of continuity with the colonial era in a number of respects. In this article, we examine briefly the question of standardization of the Korean language during the colonial era. Then we proceed to analyze the situation surrounding the resurgence for Korean language education under the U.S. military rule, and the attempts to simplify Hanʼgŭl on the part of the Rhee Syngman administration, focusing on the relationship between state power and language standardization. Overall, special attention is paid to the question of continuity with the colonial era.
   In the course of our analysis, it becomes clear firstly, that both in the colonial and post-colonial era, the essential structure of the situation surrounding the question of language standardization remained the same. The spectrum of different attitudes and consciousness presented towards this question was essentially the same. It becomes clear, secondly, how the memories of language movement and language policy during the colonial era were mobilized and utilized in the course of language standardization process after liberation.
   Concerning the latter point, it is also noteworthy that the present historiography of the language movement has been essentially the history of the activities of specific organizations. This article takes up two cases, one under the U.S. military rule and the other under the Rhee Syngman administration, and examines the historical context within which this sort of narrative was created. It becomes clear that the historiography of the language movement has sometimes functioned to conceal the history of subtle collaboration between these organizations and the Japanese colonial authorities. As a case in point, the article analyzes the Korean Language Society Incident in 1942.
   The nature of language movement and language policy in post-liberation Korea can never be properly understood without studying their counterparts in the colonial era.


The Financing of the Imperial Court and the Role of
   the Kyoto Deputy (Kyoto Daikan) in the Late Edo Period
SATO Yusuke

   In recognition of the necessity to a certain extent of the Japanese imperial court (both political and religious), the TOKUGAWA Bakufu supported the court financially. It was the Bakufuʼs financial support and guarantee that enabled the imperial court to survive. Although the study of this financial factor is indispensable for understanding the relationship between the imperial court and the Bakufu, hitherto, this question has never been adequately examined.
   Previously, the writer of this present article examined the actual contents of the financial guarantee and support provided by the Bakufu during the Kansei and Tenpo Eras(1789~1844). It was pointed out that the financial support by the Bakufu was provided mainly in accordance with the sadame-daka system, which guaranteed a fixed income for the imperial court and enabled it to live a decent life. However, the concrete mechanism behind this system, in particular the source of revenue for the sadame-daka, remained uninvestigated.
   This article clarifies that there were two main sources of revenue underpinning the sadame-daka: that is, the land taxes collected from the imperial estates, which were managed by the Kyoto Deputy (Kyoto Daikan), and kyotodaikan azukari sho-watashigin (presumably the “whole sum of money which was under the control of Kyoto Deputy”) which was similarly managed by the Kyoto Deputy. In a word, the Kyoto Deputy played a key role in securing the fiscal resources for the imperial court.